Project Management


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Project Management

  1. 1. Index2 Definition & Meaning Four Phases Of Project Management A Framework For Project Mgt Tools & Techniques For Project Mgt Network Problem CPM & PERT Components Of CPM/ PERT Network 1. Critical Path Analysis (CPM) & CPM steps 2. Project Evaluation Review Technique (PERT) Difference Between CPM & PERT * Project Management *
  2. 2. Definition & Meaning3 Project management offers alternative tools and techniques to address the planning and control issues pertaining to large scale activities performed in a non-repetitive manner. Project activities are likely to be unique and may involve high levels of subcontracting, breaking down the system into several sub systems and managing these and their interfaces. * Project Management *
  3. 3. Four Phases Of Project4 Management • Conceptual design, scope, objectives, project Conceptual phase appraisal, budgeting • Work breakdown structure, organization breakdown structure, cost breakdown structure, network Planning phase representation, setting dead lines, milestones, resources planning • Resource mgt, performance Implementation & appraisal/control, materials and contract control phase mgt, managing risks in project • Post project appraisal feedback * Project Management *
  4. 4. A Framework For Project Mgt5 How well? Project What? Monitoring & Work Breakdown Control, post Structure project appraisal WBS OBS CBS Network Organization NRP Representation Breakdown PMC & Planning Structure When? Cost Breakdown Who? Structure How much? * Project Management *
  5. 5. contd….6 Work Breakdown Structure - is an organised methodology to split an overall project into non- overlapping components and identifying deliverables for each component. Organization Breakdown Structure – identifies an appropriate organisational structure to execute the tasks listed under each work package. Cost Breakdown Structure – is a methodology to link the individual elements in a WBS to a dimension of cost. Network Representation & Planning Project Monitoring & Control, post project appraisal * Project Management *
  6. 6. Tools & Techniques For Project Mgt7 B) Analysis of project networks A) Developing a network 1. Project completion time & representation of a project critical path 1. Activity precedence 2. Early start & late start 2. Constructing the network schedules 3. Slack for an activity C) Addressing time and resource constraints in projects D) Handling uncertainty in project completion 1. Resource leveling 1. Use of PERT 2. Developing alternative schedule 2. Probability of completion 3. Time-cost trade offs in projects * Project Management *
  7. 7. Network Problem CPM & PERT8Any project involves planning, scheduling andcontrolling a number of interrelated activities withuse of limited resources namelymen, machines, materials, money & time.The projects may be extremely large and complexsuch as construction of a housing, a highway, ashopping complex, introduction of new products andresearch and development projects etc. * Project Management *
  8. 8. Contd…..9It is required that managers must have a dynamic planning andscheduling system to produce the best possible results andalso to react immediately to the changing conditions and makenecessary changes in the plan and schedule.A convenient analytical and visual technique of PERT and CPMprove extremely valuable in assisting the managers inmanaging the projects.PERT stands for Project Evaluation and Review Techniquedeveloped during 1950’s.CPM stands for Critical Path Method which was developed byDuPont Company. * Project Management *
  9. 9. Components Of CPM/PERT Network10CPM / PERT networks contain two major components -1. Activities : An activity represents an action and consumption of resources (time, money, energy) required to complete a portion of a project. Activity is represented by an arrow . Activities performed before given events are known as preceding activities, & activities performed after a given event are known as succeeding activities2. Events : An event (or node) will always occur at the beginning and end of an activity. The event has no resources and is represented by a circle . * Project Management *
  10. 10. 1. Critical Path Analysis11 The critical path for any network is the longest path through the entire network. Since all activities must be completed to complete the entire project, the length of the critical path is also the shortest time allowable for completion of the project. Thus if the project is to be completed in that shortest time, all activities on the critical path must be started as soon as possible. These activities are called critical activities. If the project has to be completed ahead of the schedule, then the time required for at least one of the critical activity must be reduced. Further, any delay in completing the critical activities will increase the project duration. * Project Management *
  11. 11. CPM undergoes following stepsBreakdown the projects into various activities & arrange them in logical sequence by constructing arrow diagrams. Number all the events & activities. Note the time for each activity and indicate on arrow diagram.Calculate the earliest start time, earliest finish time, latest start time & latest finish time . Identify the critical activities. Calculate the total project duration. To reduce the duration crash the critical activities of the network. Optimise the cost. Update the network & smoothen the resources. * Project Management *
  12. 12. 2. Project Evaluation Review Technique, (PERT)13 In the critical path method, the time estimates are assumed to be known with certainty. In certain projects like research and development, new product introductions, it is difficult to estimate the time of various activities. Hence PERT is used in such projects with a probabilistic method using three time estimates for an activity, rather than a single estimate. They are –  Optimistic Time (TO)  Most Likely Time (TM)  Pessimistic Time (TP) * Project Management *
  13. 13. Difference Between CPM & PERT 14 CPM PERT1. CPM has single time 1. PERT has three time estimates for estimate. activities and uses probability theory to2. Useful for repetitive find the chance of reaching the and non-complex scheduled time. projects where time 2. Useful for non-repetitive and complex estimates can be projects with uncertain time estimates. made. 3. Probabilistic in nature.3. Deterministic in nature. 4. Used often in R&D projects.4. Used often in 5. PERT is used for analysis of project construction projects. scheduling problems. * Project Management *
  14. 14. Bibliography & Webliography16 Tilak maharashtra http://www.aut vidyapeeth study /Presentation/s material anulal-189545- network- B. Mahadevan problem-pert- cpm- entertainment- ppt- powerpoint/ * Project Management *