THE PROSODY OF  KELANTAN MALAY:  The Case of  Initial Geminate Consonants Hilmi Hamzah Supervisors: Associate Professor Ja...
 
THE STORY OF MY FIRST-YEAR PhD LIFE & THE FOUR STAGES
1st STAGE: GETTING LOST
THE WORLD OF PROSODY <ul><li>“ A  suprasegmental  organisation of  segmental  sounds into higher-level constituents.” (Sha...
PROSODIC HIERARCHY (Pierrehumbert & Beckman, 1998)
<ul><li>L2 Speech Learning   - Speech Learning Model (Flege et al., 1995)  - Perceptual Assimilation Model (Best, 1993)‏ <...
2nd STAGE: GETTING FOUND
<ul><li>Intervocalic  position (e.g. Malayalam, Sienese Italian)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Initial  position (e.g. Swiss German, ...
 
<ul><li>/kabo/ 'blurry vision'  vs.  /kkabo/ 'a beetle' </li></ul><ul><li>/gad Ʒ i/ 'salary'  vs.  /ggad Ʒ i/ 'a saw tool'...
WHAT ARE GEMINATE CONSONANTS? <ul><li>Long Consonants : two phones in a same syllable </li></ul><ul><li>Double Consonants ...
PREVIOUS STUDIES <ul><li>Hankamer et al. (1989) on  Turkish & Bengali :  closure duration  is the main acoustic feature </...
<ul><li>Kraehenmann (2001) on  Swiss German :  closure duration  is the primary acoustic feature </li></ul><ul><li>Muller ...
KELANTAN MALAY <ul><li>Derived from the 'loss' of  prefixes ,  prepositions ,  trisyllabic  &  reduplicated  words from St...
AIMS OF THE STUDY <ul><li>To offer  instrumental insights  into the  prosody  of Kelantan Malay (KM)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>To...
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY <ul><li>To explore the possible  prosodic transfers  between KM and L2 learning ‏ </li></ul><ul>...
RESEARCH QUESTIONS <ul><li>What are the  segmental  and  suprasegmental  features involved in the  production  and  percep...
3rd STAGE: GETTING EXCITED
FIRST PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENT <ul><li>To investigate the  production  of initial geminate consonants as spoken by  6 native...
MATERIALS <ul><li>10 phonemes = 19 minimal pairs = 38 tokens </li></ul><ul><li>Disyllabic: C(C)VCV / C(C)VCVC </li></ul><u...
TOKENS
PARTICIPANTS & PROCEDURES <ul><li>6 native speakers of KM (3 males & 3 females)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>6 recording sessions at...
PROCEDURES – cont'd <ul><li>(C)  Focus condition   - 20 tokens (20 unique sentences)  -   3 questions elicited 3 replies w...
PROCEDURES – cont'd <ul><li>Example:  / mmaɣi / =  cupboard   Sentence : / diɔ l ət ɔɁ  bad Ʒ u  dalɛ   mmaɣi /  “ he put ...
DATA ANALYSIS <ul><li>Utterances from the  carrier sentence  have been analyzed  </li></ul><ul><li>Annotation  was conduct...
 
RESULTS <ul><li>The effect of  participant  (6 levels) is highly significant ( F (5,1248)=269.23,  p <.001)‏ </li></ul><ul...
DURATIONAL RATIOS
DURATIONAL RATIOS
EFFECT OF GENDER <ul><li>The effect is  significant  for all consonants  ( t -ratio=2.53 to 8.22,  p <.014) ,  except /ŋŋ/...
GENDER – Singleton Consonant
GENDER – Geminate Consonant
EFFECT OF GENDER
EFFECT OF VOWEL HEIGHT <ul><li>The effect is  highly significant  for all  singleton consonants  ( t- ratio=2.87 to 11.25,...
VOWEL HEIGHT – Singleton Consonant
VOWEL HEIGHT – Geminate Consonant
EFFECT OF VOWEL HEIGHT
EFFECT OF MANNER OF ARTICULATION <ul><li>The effect is  significant  for the durational ratios of all consonant pairs ( F ...
EFFECT OF MANNER OF ARTICULATION
DISCUSSION <ul><li>All initial geminate consonants are  clearly distinguished  from singleton consonants in terms of  clos...
4th STAGE: GETTING CONFIRMED
FIELDWORK TRIP <ul><li>Fieldwork trip in Kelantan, Malaysia  -  90 days  (1st October 2010 – 31st December 2010)  -  10 lo...
PRODUCTION EXPERIMENT <ul><li>Citation, Carrier Sentence, Focus Condition </li></ul><ul><li>10 participants  (5 males & 5 ...
PRODUCTION EXPERIMENT <ul><li>Map Task Activities  - based on the Human Communication Research Centre (HCRC) Map Task (And...
PERCEPTION EXPERIMENT <ul><li>2 sets of force-choice identification test   </li></ul><ul><li>228 synthesized stimuli  - ba...
PERCEPTION EXPERIMENT <ul><li>2 sets of AX discrimination test  (same/ different)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>314 modified stimuli ...
FUTURE ANALYSES <ul><li>To compare the results of  spontaneous data  with  controlled data  using the combination  of othe...
PROGRESS TO-DATE <ul><li>A request of  amendment  (ethics application)  </li></ul><ul><li>A paper for the  13th AICSST 201...
 
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Confirmation Talk

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Confirmation Talk on 23rd July 2010

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Confirmation Talk

  1. 1. THE PROSODY OF KELANTAN MALAY: The Case of Initial Geminate Consonants Hilmi Hamzah Supervisors: Associate Professor Janet Fletcher Professor John Hajek THE PROSODY OF KELANTAN MALAY: The Case of Initial Geminate Consonants CONFIRMATION TALK
  2. 3. THE STORY OF MY FIRST-YEAR PhD LIFE & THE FOUR STAGES
  3. 4. 1st STAGE: GETTING LOST
  4. 5. THE WORLD OF PROSODY <ul><li>“ A suprasegmental organisation of segmental sounds into higher-level constituents.” (Shattuck-Hufnagel & Turk, 1996)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>“ A set of higher-level organisation structures that account for variations in pitch , loudness , duration , spectral tilt , segment reduction and their associated parameters .” (Clark, Yallop & Fletcher, 2007) </li></ul>
  5. 6. PROSODIC HIERARCHY (Pierrehumbert & Beckman, 1998)
  6. 7. <ul><li>L2 Speech Learning - Speech Learning Model (Flege et al., 1995) - Perceptual Assimilation Model (Best, 1993)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>L2 Intonation - Japanese & Korean English (Ueyama & Jun, 1998) - Indian English (Wiltshire & Harnsberger, 2006) ‏ </li></ul><ul><li>11 SUMMARIES </li></ul>SECOND LANGUAGE (L2) PROSODY
  7. 8. 2nd STAGE: GETTING FOUND
  8. 9. <ul><li>Intervocalic position (e.g. Malayalam, Sienese Italian)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Initial position (e.g. Swiss German, Cypriot Greek) </li></ul><ul><li>Abramson's experiments (1986, 1987, 1991, 1998, 1999, 2003, 2004)‏ on Pattani Malay </li></ul><ul><li>Kelantan Malay in Malaysia VS. Pattani Malay in Thailand </li></ul>GEMINATE CONSONANTS
  9. 11. <ul><li>/kabo/ 'blurry vision' vs. /kkabo/ 'a beetle' </li></ul><ul><li>/gad Ʒ i/ 'salary' vs. /ggad Ʒ i/ 'a saw tool' </li></ul><ul><li>/ma Ɣ i/ 'to come' vs. /mma Ɣ i/ 'a cupboard' </li></ul>KELANTAN MALAY SINGLETON CONSONANT vs. GEMINATE CONSONANT
  10. 12. WHAT ARE GEMINATE CONSONANTS? <ul><li>Long Consonants : two phones in a same syllable </li></ul><ul><li>Double Consonants : two phones across syllables (Abercrombie, 1967) </li></ul><ul><li>Distinctive length : distinguishes languages that contrast meanings through gemination (Abramson, 1986)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Geminate consonants : prolonged 1 ½ or 2 times longer (Ladefoged & Maddieson, 1996)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Closure duration is the most salient acoustic correlate </li></ul>
  11. 13. PREVIOUS STUDIES <ul><li>Hankamer et al. (1989) on Turkish & Bengali : closure duration is the main acoustic feature </li></ul><ul><li>Doty et al. (2007) on Finnish : voice onset time (VOT) and relative amplitude play significant roles </li></ul><ul><li>Gordon (2009) on Ingrian : fundamental frequency (F0) is more significant </li></ul>INTERVOCALIC GEMINATE CONSONANTS
  12. 14. <ul><li>Kraehenmann (2001) on Swiss German : closure duration is the primary acoustic feature </li></ul><ul><li>Muller (2003) on Cypriot Greek : VOT duration is a secondary feature </li></ul><ul><li>Abramson (1986, 1987, 1991, 1998, 1999, 2003, 2004) on Pattani Malay : closure duration is associated with other prosodic factors </li></ul>PREVIOUS STUDIES INITIAL GEMINATE CONSONANTS
  13. 15. KELANTAN MALAY <ul><li>Derived from the 'loss' of prefixes , prepositions , trisyllabic & reduplicated words from Standard Malay </li></ul><ul><li>Based on impressionistic approach‏ (e.g. Karim, 1965; Che Kob, 1985)‏ </li></ul>
  14. 16. AIMS OF THE STUDY <ul><li>To offer instrumental insights into the prosody of Kelantan Malay (KM)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>To investigate the acoustic correlates of singleton-geminate contrast </li></ul><ul><li>To employ a series of laboratory phonology experiments </li></ul><ul><li>To yield the first acoustic phonetic analysis of initial geminate consonants in KM </li></ul>
  15. 17. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY <ul><li>To explore the possible prosodic transfers between KM and L2 learning ‏ </li></ul><ul><li>To contribute to research in language education </li></ul><ul><li>To compare the results with other languages </li></ul>
  16. 18. RESEARCH QUESTIONS <ul><li>What are the segmental and suprasegmental features involved in the production and perception of initial geminate consonants in KM? </li></ul><ul><li>What are their acoustic parameters ? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the relationship between initial geminate consonants and the prosody of KM? </li></ul>
  17. 19. 3rd STAGE: GETTING EXCITED
  18. 20. FIRST PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENT <ul><li>To investigate the production of initial geminate consonants as spoken by 6 native speakers of KM </li></ul><ul><li>To record a number of minimal pairs of singleton-geminate contrast in 3 controlled contexts </li></ul><ul><li>To ascertain the acoustic correlates that underlie the distinction between the pairs </li></ul><ul><li>To examine the role of initial geminate consonants in stress placement and intonational prominence </li></ul>OBJECTIVES
  19. 21. MATERIALS <ul><li>10 phonemes = 19 minimal pairs = 38 tokens </li></ul><ul><li>Disyllabic: C(C)VCV / C(C)VCVC </li></ul><ul><li>3 groups: (1) voiceless stops : / p / vs / pp / - / t / vs / tt / - / k / vs / kk / (2) voiced stops : / b / vs / bb / - / d / vs / dd / - / g / vs / gg / (3) sonorants : / m / vs / mm / - / n / vs / nn / - / ŋ / vs / ŋŋ / / l / vs / ll / </li></ul><ul><li>2 distinct vowels after each consonant (high vowel / i / & low vowel / a /), except / ŋ / vs / ŋŋ / (low vowel / a / only)‏ </li></ul>
  20. 22. TOKENS
  21. 23. PARTICIPANTS & PROCEDURES <ul><li>6 native speakers of KM (3 males & 3 females)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>6 recording sessions at the Horwood Language Centre (1 hour and 15 mins per session)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>‏ Tokens randomly presented in Standard Malay orthography through powerpoint slides on a computer </li></ul><ul><li>Recorded in 3 controlled contexts: </li></ul><ul><li>(A) Citation - 228 utterances X 6 speakers = 1368 utterances (B) Carrier Sentence - / diɔ katɔ (target word) tigɔ kali / “ he said (target word) three times” - 228 utterances X 6 speakers = 1368 utterances </li></ul>
  22. 24. PROCEDURES – cont'd <ul><li>(C) Focus condition - 20 tokens (20 unique sentences) - 3 questions elicited 3 replies with 3 focus conditions : [i] a broad focus reply [i] a reply with a narrow focus on non-target words [iii] a reply with a narrow focus on target words </li></ul>
  23. 25. PROCEDURES – cont'd <ul><li>Example: / mmaɣi / = cupboard Sentence : / diɔ l ət ɔɁ bad Ʒ u dalɛ mmaɣi / “ he put a shirt in a cupboard ” Questions : 1. / diɔ waɁ ggapɔ? / “ what did he do? ” 2. / diɔ l ət ɔɁ buku kɔ dalɛ mmaɣi ?/ “ did he put a book in a cupboard? ” 3. / diɔ l ət ɔɁ bad Ʒ u dalɛ beɁ kɔ ?/ “ did he put a shirt in a bag ? ” </li></ul><ul><li>300 utterances X 6 speakers = 1800 utterances </li></ul><ul><li>Total number of utterances for all 3 contexts = 4536 </li></ul>
  24. 26. DATA ANALYSIS <ul><li>Utterances from the carrier sentence have been analyzed </li></ul><ul><li>Annotation was conducted using Praat (Boersma, 2001)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Segments & duration values were extracted and analyzed statistically using EMU-R (Harrington, 2010)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Average closure duration was measured in milliseconds (the beginning of the consonantal closure --> the onset of voicing )‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Duration values were submitted to t -tests and ANOVA </li></ul>
  25. 28. RESULTS <ul><li>The effect of participant (6 levels) is highly significant ( F (5,1248)=269.23, p <.001)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>The effect of phoneme (10 levels) is highly significant ( F (18,1248)=75.59, p <.001)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>The effect of singleton-geminate contrast (2 levels) is highly significant ( F (1,1248)=11838.57, p <.001)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Singleton-geminate contrast is highly significant in all 10 consonant pairs ( t- ratio=-27.3 to -13.1, p <.001)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Range of durational ratios: 2.03 (/k/-/kk/) to 2.82 (/l/-/ll/) </li></ul>
  26. 29. DURATIONAL RATIOS
  27. 30. DURATIONAL RATIOS
  28. 31. EFFECT OF GENDER <ul><li>The effect is significant for all consonants ( t -ratio=2.53 to 8.22, p <.014) , except /ŋŋ/( t- ratio=1.35, p= .187)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Male speakers produce all consonants with longer average duration </li></ul>
  29. 32. GENDER – Singleton Consonant
  30. 33. GENDER – Geminate Consonant
  31. 34. EFFECT OF GENDER
  32. 35. EFFECT OF VOWEL HEIGHT <ul><li>The effect is highly significant for all singleton consonants ( t- ratio=2.87 to 11.25, p <.006), except /p/ ( t -ratio=0.61, p= .542) and /n/ ( t -ratio=1.07, p= .289)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>It is not significant for all geminate consonants ( t -ratio=0.006 to 1.65, p >.05) except /kk/ ( t -ratio=2.62, p= .001)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Longer duration when followed by high vowel /i/ </li></ul>
  33. 36. VOWEL HEIGHT – Singleton Consonant
  34. 37. VOWEL HEIGHT – Geminate Consonant
  35. 38. EFFECT OF VOWEL HEIGHT
  36. 39. EFFECT OF MANNER OF ARTICULATION <ul><li>The effect is significant for the durational ratios of all consonant pairs ( F (2,1290)=3.187, p <.041)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>The effect is highly significant across both singleton and geminate consonants ( p <.001)‏ </li></ul>
  37. 40. EFFECT OF MANNER OF ARTICULATION
  38. 41. DISCUSSION <ul><li>All initial geminate consonants are clearly distinguished from singleton consonants in terms of closure duration </li></ul><ul><li>The significant effect of gender is unexpected , but both gender groups show a clear durational contrast </li></ul><ul><li>Durational ratios of the initial contrast in KM are somewhat higher than medial contrast in other languages </li></ul><ul><li>The preliminary results provide experimental confirmation for initial geminate consonants in KM </li></ul>
  39. 42. 4th STAGE: GETTING CONFIRMED
  40. 43. FIELDWORK TRIP <ul><li>Fieldwork trip in Kelantan, Malaysia - 90 days (1st October 2010 – 31st December 2010) - 10 local districts - 48 participants - 83 hours of experiment duration - 1,126 kilometres of travel distance around the state - 4 major experiments </li></ul>
  41. 44. PRODUCTION EXPERIMENT <ul><li>Citation, Carrier Sentence, Focus Condition </li></ul><ul><li>10 participants (5 males & 5 females) </li></ul><ul><li>Stricter control on the participants' background </li></ul>(a) CONTROLLED DATA
  42. 45. PRODUCTION EXPERIMENT <ul><li>Map Task Activities - based on the Human Communication Research Centre (HCRC) Map Task (Anderson et al., 1991)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>To elicit the production of initial geminate sonorants </li></ul><ul><li>4 map-pairs - 12 landmarks for each pair </li></ul><ul><li>8 participants (2 male pairs & 2 females pairs)‏ </li></ul>(b) SPONTANEOUS DATA
  43. 46. PERCEPTION EXPERIMENT <ul><li>2 sets of force-choice identification test </li></ul><ul><li>228 synthesized stimuli - based on 6 minimal pairs , using 3 parameters : closure duration, F0 & amplitude </li></ul>(a) IDENTIFICATION TEST
  44. 47. PERCEPTION EXPERIMENT <ul><li>2 sets of AX discrimination test (same/ different)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>314 modified stimuli - based on one minimal pair </li></ul><ul><li>30 participants (15 males & 15 females) for both identification and discrimination tests </li></ul>(a) DISCRIMINATION TEST
  45. 48. FUTURE ANALYSES <ul><li>To compare the results of spontaneous data with controlled data using the combination of other acoustic parameters </li></ul><ul><li>To explore the possible events of stress placement, intonational prominence & degemination </li></ul><ul><li>To test the results of perception experiments against those of production experiments </li></ul>
  46. 49. PROGRESS TO-DATE <ul><li>A request of amendment (ethics application) </li></ul><ul><li>A paper for the 13th AICSST 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>A PhD fieldwork funding scheme </li></ul><ul><li>The development of new experimental materials </li></ul><ul><li>The links with future participants </li></ul><ul><li>The direction and timeline of the research project </li></ul>
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