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Academic Report Writing - Complete Lesson

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  • 1. ADVANCED ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC COMMUNICATION Lecturer: En. Hilmi Hamzah
  • 2.  
  • 3. LET’S GET STARTED!
  • 4. COURSEWORK MARKS
    • Proposal Presentation (10%)
    • Research Instruments (10%)
    • Consultations (Individual) (10%)
    • 1 st Draft of Report (15%)
    • Report Presentation (Ind.) (15%)
    • Final Report (10%)
    • Final Exam (30%)
    • TOTAL (100%)
  • 5. 1 ST WEEKEND
    • 1 st session
    • Introduction
    • Research planning
    • Research proposal
    • Data collection
    • 2 nd session
    • Proposal Presentation
    • Consultation 1
    • (Research instrument)
    • Data processing
    • Data presentation
    • Writing Research Report
    • (First 3 chapters)
  • 6. BEFORE 2 ND WEEKEND
    • COLLECTION OF DATA
    • Components:
    • Introduction
    • Literature Review
    • Methodology
    • Submission of 1 st draft via
    • e-mail ( [email_address] )
  • 7. 2 nd WEEKEND
    • 3 rd session
    • Consultation 2
    • (Return 1 st draft – First 3 chapters)
    • Report writing
    • (Final 2 chapters)
    • 4 th session
    • Consultation 3
    • (Check 1 st draft – Final 2 chapters)
    • Oral Presentation & Listening
  • 8. BEFORE 3 RD WEEKEND
    • Submission of Final Draft
    • via e-mail
    • ( [email_address] )
  • 9. 3 RD WEEKEND
    • 5 TH session
    • Students’ Oral Presentations
    • Submission of Final Report
    • Discussion on Sample Exam Paper
  • 10.  
  • 11. NOW GET INTO YOUR GROUP!
  • 12. INTRODUCTION
    • What is research report writing?
    • Emotional
    • VS.
    • Factual
  • 13. Writing a Research Report ISSUES/ PROBLEMS Conducting A Research
  • 14.
    • HOW DO I CONDUCT A RESEARCH?
    • Follow these
    • 5 steps!
  • 15. HOW DO I CONDUCT A RESEARCH?
    • Identify the Issue or Problem
    • What do I want to know?
    • Who are involved?
    • Where?
    • Why?
  • 16. HOW DO I CONDUCT A RESEARCH?
    • 2. Determine the Purpose
    • What exactly do I want to do here?
    • What is my statement of purpose?
    • To evaluate? To investigate?
    • To compare? To describe?
  • 17. HOW DO I CONDUCT A RESEARCH?
    • 3. Draw a Plan or a Strategy
    • Who, where and what are going to be involved in the research?
    • How do I collect the data?
    • What are the deadlines?
  • 18. HOW DO I CONDUCT A RESEARCH?
    • 4. Search and Collect the Data
    • Do I need primary data?
    • Do I need secondary data?
    • What are the instruments to be used to collect the data?
  • 19. HOW DO I CONDUCT A RESEARCH?
    • 5. Analyze Data
    • How do I process, record, analyze and interpret the data?
    • How do I make connections among the data?
    • How do I draw conclusions from the data?
  • 20.  
  • 21. RESEARCH PROPOSAL
  • 22. WHAT IS A RESEARCH PROPOSAL?
    • A Plan of Action
    • Why?
    • To seek funding
    • To seek commitment
  • 23. 2 TYPES OF PROPOSAL
    • INTERNAL
    • VS.
    • EXTERNAL
    • SOLICITED
    • VS.
    • UNSOLICITED
  • 24. 10 COMPONENTS OF A PROPOSAL
    • Title
    • Background Information
    • Statement of Problem
    • Research Objectives
    • Research Questions
  • 25. 10 COMPONENTS OF A PROPOSAL (Cont’d)
    • 6. Significance of the Study
    • 7. Scope
    • 8. Methodology
    • 9. Work Schedule
    • 10. Call to Action
  • 26.  
  • 27. DATA COLLECTION
  • 28. WHAT IS DATA COLLECTION?
    • A process of collecting data (primary & secondary) from different sources
    • PRIMARY DATA – obtained through questionnaires, interviews, observations & experiments
    • SECONDARY DATA – obtained through reading others’ works
  • 29. COLLECTING SECONDARY DATA
    • Conducted at the beginning of a research to get a better picture of what you are going to investigate
    • Gathered from various written resources (offline/online)
    • Used in various sections of research report esp. Literature Review
    • Must be properly cited
  • 30. COLLECTING PRIMARY DATA
    • FOUR INSTRUMENTS:
    • 1.QUESTIONNAIRES
    • 2.INTERVIEW
    • 3.OBSERVATION
    • 4.EXPERIMENTS
  • 31.  
  • 32. 1.QUESTIONNAIRES
    • A systematic compilation of questions distributed to respondents from which information is needed
    • Administered through survey, mail, telephone & internet
  • 33. 2 TYPES OF QUESTIONS
    • 1. Open-ended Questions
    • 2. Close-ended Questions
    • Yes/No
    • Scale
    • Listing/Choice
    • Ranking
    • Category
  • 34. 2.INTERVIEW
    • A two-communication which permits an exchange of ideas and information
    • 3 types of interviews:
    • 1. Structured
    • 2. Semi-structured
    • 3. Unstructured
  • 35. 3.OBSERVATION
    • To get firsthand information
    • To strengthen existing data
  • 36. 4.EXPERIMENTS
    • To test various techniques, assumptions or products (esp. in engineering & agriculture)
  • 37. SAMPLING & POPULATION
    • SAMPLING – a group of respondents who provide information that may be generalised to general population
    • POPULATION – a target group to which the results of a research are applicable
  • 38. 2 TYPES OF SAMPLING
    • RANDOM
    • Respondents are selected randomly without criteria
    • 3 Categories :
    • Simple
    • Stratified
    • Cluster
    • NON-RANDOM
    • Respondents are selected based on certain criteria
    • 3 Categories :
    • Systematic
    • Convenience
    • Purposive
  • 39. DATA PROCESSING & DATA PRESENTATION
  • 40.  
  • 41. WHAT IS DATA PROCESSING?
    • To convert raw data into meaningful statements that could help answer research questions
    • Raw data are systematically organised so that their meanings can be understood
    • Procedures for quantitative and
    • qualitative data are different
  • 42. 3 STAGES (QUANTITATIVE DATA)
    • ORGANISING, RECORDING AND CATEGORISING AND/OR CODING
    • PRESENTING
    • ANALYSING
  • 43. 1.ORGANISING, RECORDING & CATEGORISING AND/OR CODING
    • Organise manually or using computer
    • Record using ‘keyword’
    • Categorise to see the ‘picture’
    • Coding helps processing the data statistically (using SPSS )
  • 44. 2.PRESENTING
    • Turn data into comprehensible ‘pictures’ through
    • 1. Table
    • 2. Graph
    • 3. Chart
  • 45. 3.ANALYSING
    • Analyse manually or using computer
    • Involves the interpretation of frequencies based on data presentation
  • 46.  
  • 47. 3 STAGES (QUALITATIVE DATA)
    • ORGANISING, CATEGORISING AND/OR CODING, AND RECORDING
    • PRESENTING
    • ANALYSING
  • 48. 1.ORGANISING, CATEGORISING AND/OR CODING,
    • Organise by using transcriptions
    • Categorise by listing the responses
    • Coding by using flexible codes
  • 49. 2.PRESENTING
    • Usually presented in original forms
    • Can also be presented using tables
  • 50. 3.ANALYSING
    • Involves finding commonalities, regularities or emerging patterns among the responses
  • 51.  
  • 52. WRITING RESEARCH REPORT
  • 53. 3 SECTIONS
    • PRELIMINARY
    • MAIN
    • SUPPLEMENTARY
  • 54. 1.PRELIMINARY
    • Title Page
    • Abstract
    • Acknowledgement
    • Table of Content
    • List of Figures/ Tables
    • List of Abbreviation & Symbols
  • 55. 2.MAIN
    • Introduction
    • Literature Review
    • Methodology
    • Findings & Discussions
    • Conclusion & Recommendation
  • 56. 3.SUPPLEMENTARY
    • References
    • Appendices
  • 57.  
  • 58. 1.INTRODUCTION
  • 59. 7 ELEMENTS
    • Background of the Study
    • Statement of Problem
    • Purpose of the Study
    • Research Objectives
    • Research Questions
    • Significance of the Study
    • Scope of the Study
  • 60. 1.Background of the Study
    • Three steps:
    • To state general statements of facts related to the field of study
    • To state specific statements about issues studied by other researchers
    • To state statements that indicate the need for more investigation
  • 61. 2.Statement of Problem
    • To define the issue or problem investigated in the study
    • To refer to problem statement in the proposal
  • 62. 3.Purpose of the Study
    • To include a broad discussion on the reasons why the study was carried out and intentions of the study
  • 63. 4.Research Objectives
    • To show the extent and the expected outcome of the study
    • To begin with a leading statement followed by the objectives written in point forms
  • 64. 5.Research Questions
    • To guide the discussion about the topic
    • To stimulate readers’ interests
    • To turn the objectives of the study into research questions
  • 65. 6.Significance of the Study
    • To justify the reason for conducting the study
    • To emphasize the potential benefits that it would bring
  • 66. 7.Scope of the Study
    • To indicate the direction of the study
    • To map out the boundaries of the study
    • To outline the method of investigation
    • To give a preview of the written report
  • 67.  
  • 68. 2.LITERATURE REVIEW
  • 69. WHAT IS LITERATURE REVIEW?
    • It is an account of what has been published on a research area
    • It describes, summarizes, evaluates and clarifies the studies reviewed
    • It outlines a framework and a theoretical base of a research
  • 70. WHY?
    • To guide you through others’ works
    • To prepare for your own research
    • To provide a context for your research
    • To justify the research
    • To illustrate how the subject has been studied before
    • To outline gaps in previous research
  • 71. HOW DO I DO IT?
    • Identify relevant articles and books
    • Read and appraise the text critically
    • Organise the literature around your research questions
    • Synthesize relevant information to current study
  • 72. 5 GENERAL STEPS
    • 1. Prepare annotated bibliography
    • 2. Maintain a reference list
    • 3. Organise materials and make notes
    • 4. Write individual sections according to themes
    • 5. Integrate all sections
  • 73.  
  • 74. HOW DO I CITE IN A REPORT?
    • THREE WAYS:
    • 1. SUMMARIZING
    • 2. DIRECT QUOTATION
    • 3. PARAPHRASING
  • 75. 1. SUMMARIZING
    • It is a shortened piece of writing by restating main points in your own words
    • General ideas are highlighted
    • Details & examples are excluded
  • 76. 2. DIRECT QUOTATION
    • Authors’ exact words are copied directly from original sources
    • It is preferred when citing powerful phrases or interpreting literary works like poems or plays
    • Sources must be properly cited
  • 77. 3. PARAPHRASING
    • Authors’ words are rephrased / reworded in your own words
    • Paraphrased text is usually shorter than original text
    • Paraphrased materials must be properly cited
  • 78.  
  • 79. 3.METHODOLOGY
  • 80. FIVE PARTS
    • 1. Introduction (Short description of purpose, location, respondents & instruments)
    • 2. Research Instruments
    • 3. Respondents of the Study
    • 4. Research Procedure
    • 5. Data Analysis
  • 81.  
  • 82.  
  • 83. 4.FINDINGS & DISCUSSION
  • 84. WHAT ARE FINDINGS?
    • Discoveries based on facts , not emotions
    • Presented in the form of statistics (percentages, frequency counts & averages) or illustrations (tables, graphs, diagrams, etc.)
  • 85. ISN’T A PICTURE WORTH A THOUSAND WORDS?
  • 86. PICTURE
  • 87. HOW TO WRITE IN THE REPORT?
    • Type A
    • Findings
    • Research Question 1
    • Research Question 2
    • Research Question 3
    • Discussion
    • Research Question 1
    • Research Question 2
    • Research Question 3
    • Type B
    • Research Question 1: Findings & Discussion
    • Research Question 2:
    • Findings & Discussion
    • Research Question 3:
    • Findings & Discussion
  • 88. TAKE A LOOK AT AN EXAMPLE OF FINDING (page 177)
  • 89. 12 TIPS ON WRITING FINDINGS
    • 1. Introduce the topic
    • 2. Point to significant findings
    • 3. Use graphics to support findings
    • 4. Explain statistics selectively and concisely
    • 5. Support statistics with qualitative data (if any)
  • 90. 12 TIPS ON WRITING FINDINGS (cont’d)
    • 6. Spell out the word ‘percent’ in the text (don’t be confused with ‘percentage’ )
    • 7. Spell out the number that begins a sentence, and use figure in the middle of a sentence
    • 8. Follow correct organisation
  • 91. 12 TIPS ON WRITING FINDINGS (cont’d)
    • 9. Use concise, grammatically correct statements
    • 10. Use correct tenses
    • 11. Use language expression correctly (page 180-1)
    • 12. Focus on 4Cs - Clarity, Coherence, Conciseness and Correctness
  • 92. 4 STRATEGIES IN WRITING DISCUSSION
    • Explain
    • Compare
    • Evaluate
    • Infer
  • 93. 1. Explain Findings
    • Give reasons for findings
    • Explain circumstances during data collection
    • Explain limitations
  • 94. 2. Compare Findings
    • Relate the different findings to highlight their significance
    • Compare similar findings from related studies
  • 95. 3. Evaluate Findings
    • Assess findings as:
    • unexpected or
    • insignificant or
    • unsatisfactory
  • 96. 4. Infer from Findings
    • Make sense of findings
    • Develop ideas and viewpoints
    • Be creative and speculate
  • 97. 2 pictures - interpret
  • 98. 5.CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION
  • 99. 5 ELEMENTS IN A CONCLUSION
    • Overview
    • Restatement
    • Review
    • Implications
    • Limitations
  • 100. 1.Overview of the study
    • Summarize what the research is all about (do not introduce new ideas)
    • Explain briefly why & how you conduct the study
  • 101. 2. Restatement of the objectives
    • Rephrase the objectives
    • Start with the most significant one
  • 102. 3. Review of the findings
    • Draw conclusions for each major issues
    • Use discourse markers to connect the findings
    • Start with the most important one
  • 103. 4. Implications of the findings
    • Deduce some ideas based on findings (do not exaggerate)
    • Implicate some ideas that can support further actions
  • 104. 5. Limitations of research (optional)
    • State the weaknesses (do not apologize)
    • E.g. Small sample size, limited time, improper instrument, etc.
  • 105. Conclusion can be written in paragraph/ point form (page 192-3)
  • 106. WHAT IS A RECOMMENDATION?
    • It suggests actions to be taken based on findings
    • It is related to conclusions
    • It is NOT based on biases or beliefs that are not supported by data
  • 107. 2 TYPES OF RECOMMENDATION
    • To recommend actions to be taken based on findings
    • To recommend actions to other researchers for further research
  • 108. Recommendation can be written in paragraph/ point form (page 196)
  • 109. LANGUAGE INPUT: Modal Auxiliary Verbs
    • Use appropriate modals when making recommendations:
    • 1. May/Could/Might – mild suggestion
    • 2. Should/Ought to – strong suggestion
    • 3. Must/Have to – extreme suggestion
  • 110. picture
  • 111. ORAL PRESENTATION
  • 112. SALES! 50%! SALES! 70%! SALES!! 120%!
  • 113. I HATE PUBLIC SPEAKING!
  • 114. WHAT IS AN ORAL PRESENTATION?
    • A type of communication that involves speaking & listening
    • Can be formal/ informal
    • Essential for professionals
    • A requirement for students
  • 115. 3 PURPOSES OF ORAL PRESENTATION
    • Informative
    • Demonstrative
    • Persuasive
  • 116. 4 TYPES OF ORAL PRESENTATION
    • Impromptu
    • Manuscript
    • Memorised
    • Extemporaneous
  • 117. picture
  • 118. 7 TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE ORAL PRESENTATIONS
  • 119. 1. Planning Your Oral Presentation Well
    • What is the purpose?
    • Who is the audience?
    • What is the topic?
    • Where?
  • 120. 2. Knowing Your Content Well
    • What is the content?
    • Have I included all the relevant information?
  • 121. 3. Analysing Your Audience
    • What is the background of audience?
    • Are they educated?
    • What is the reason for attending?
    • How many of them?
  • 122. 4. Knowing the Presentation Room
    • What is the size of the room?
    • How is the seating arrangement?
    • What are the facilities provided?
  • 123. 5. Knowing the Time Allotted
    • How long do I have to present?
  • 124. 6. Writing the Outline of Your Delivery
    • What are the main ideas?
    • (Prepare short notes, either linear or non-linear - do not outline them word by word)
  • 125. 7. Deciding on the Appropriate Style of Delivery
    • Do I have to be casual?
    • Is there a large audience that requires a formal presentation?
  • 126. picture
  • 127. ORGANISING YOUR ORAL PRESENTATION
    • Introduction
    • Body
    • Conclusion
  • 128. 1.Introduction
    • Start with attention grabbers (Question, humour, quotation, statistics, stories, etc)
    • Use correct language expressions (examples - page 209)
  • 129. 2.Body
    • For report presentation, follow the pattern in the report
    • Support with details and evidence
    • Ensure clarity by keeping message simple
    • Ensure cohesion by using linking words (examples – page 216)
  • 130. 3.Conclusion
    • End it by using:
    • >> a summary of key points
    • >> a recommendation
    • >> an “umphh” final thought
    • Use correct expressions
    • (examples – page 221)
  • 131. Prepare the outline (linear/non-linear) for the introduction , body & conclusion of your presentation. (refer to Tables 7.1 – 7.8)
  • 132. picture
  • 133. WHY VISUAL AIDS?
    • To believe (seeing is believing)
    • To enhance understanding
    • To enable better retention
    • To ensure continuity
    • To build presenter’s credibility
    • To have more fun!
  • 134. 19 TIPS IN USING VISUAL AIDS
  • 135. 19 TIPS IN USING VISUAL AIDS
    • Arrange accordingly to the content
    • Points form (using key words) is advisable – don’t punctuate!
    • Coordinate points in parallel forms (content, grammar, numbering)
    • Subordinate major & minor headings appropriately
  • 136. 19 TIPS IN USING VISUAL AIDS (cont’d)
    • Avoid irrelevant words
    • Words must be clearly readable
    • Avoid too much info on a single slide (remember to KISS !)
    • Avoid too many colours
  • 137. 19 TIPS IN USING VISUAL AIDS (cont’d)
    • Use animation sparingly
    • Introduce a visual before showing it
    • Stand to the side of your computer
    • Face audience as much as possible
  • 138. 19 TIPS IN USING VISUAL AIDS (cont’d)
    • Use a pointer to direct audience focus (not your finger)
    • Visuals should tally with what you say
    • Avoid reading your notes
    • Use appropriate language expressions (examples – page 230)
  • 139. 19 TIPS IN USING VISUAL AIDS (cont’d)
    • Use visual aids as support only (you are the spotlight!)
    • If you have handouts, tell your audience in advance
    • Practise, practise, practise!
  • 140. PREPARE THE SLIDES!
  • 141. Which is more important? WHAT you say or HOW you say?
  • 142. 25 TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE DELIVERY
  • 143. Picture – non verbal communication
  • 144. 25 TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE DELIVERY
    • Visualise a successful presentation
    • Emulate excellent speakers
    • Channel your nervousness accordingly
    • Do not apologise
    • Be well-versed with technology
  • 145. 25 TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE DELIVERY (cont’d)
    • Always have Plan B
    • Dress appropriately
    • Stand still (don’t slouch!)
    • Show your confidence
    • Talk to audience (not your notes)
  • 146. 25 TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE DELIVERY (cont’d)
    • Refer to notes sparingly
    • Pronounce words correctly
    • Use linkers for content traffic
    • Use spoken English (not text-book English)
    • Be interactive
  • 147. 25 TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE DELIVERY (cont’d)
    • Maintain eye contact
    • Be enthusiastic
    • Vary your volume, tone & pace
    • Minimise crutches
    • Use gestures naturally
  • 148. 25 TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE DELIVERY (cont’d)
    • Place your hands appropriately
    • Use facial expression effectively
    • Move around
    • End your presentation in time
    • Rehearse, rehearse, rehearse!
  • 149. pic
  • 150. 7 WAYS TO HANDLE Q & A SESSION
  • 151. 7 WAYS TO HANDLE Q & A SESSION
    • Invite questions
    • Repeat questions from audience
    • Look at the questioner
    • Answer in short
  • 152. 7 WAYS TO HANDLE Q & A SESSION (cont’d)
    • Be straightforward
    • Be honest (just admit that you don’t have the answer!)
    • Don’t forget to thank the questioner
  • 153. ARE YOU A GOOD LISTENER?
  • 154. 7 STRATEGIES FOR GOOD AUDIENCE
  • 155. 7 STRATEGIES FOR GOOD AUDIENCE
    • Listen actively & selfishly (don’t just hear)
    • Focus on the message, not style
    • Listen for major ideas (look for cues)
    • Listen to body language (they do speak!)
  • 156. 7 STRATEGIES FOR GOOD AUDIENCE (cont’d)
    • Be objective (don’t easily get angry)
    • Avoid jumping to conclusion (don’t pre-judge)
    • Discipline your thoughts!
  • 157. REMEMBER, A GOOD SPEAKER IS A GOOD LISTENER
  • 158. You tube