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    Academic Report Writing - Complete Lesson Academic Report Writing - Complete Lesson Presentation Transcript

    • ADVANCED ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC COMMUNICATION Lecturer: En. Hilmi Hamzah
    •  
    • LET’S GET STARTED!
    • COURSEWORK MARKS
      • Proposal Presentation (10%)
      • Research Instruments (10%)
      • Consultations (Individual) (10%)
      • 1 st Draft of Report (15%)
      • Report Presentation (Ind.) (15%)
      • Final Report (10%)
      • Final Exam (30%)
      • TOTAL (100%)
    • 1 ST WEEKEND
      • 1 st session
      • Introduction
      • Research planning
      • Research proposal
      • Data collection
      • 2 nd session
      • Proposal Presentation
      • Consultation 1
      • (Research instrument)
      • Data processing
      • Data presentation
      • Writing Research Report
      • (First 3 chapters)
    • BEFORE 2 ND WEEKEND
      • COLLECTION OF DATA
      • Components:
      • Introduction
      • Literature Review
      • Methodology
      • Submission of 1 st draft via
      • e-mail ( [email_address] )
    • 2 nd WEEKEND
      • 3 rd session
      • Consultation 2
      • (Return 1 st draft – First 3 chapters)
      • Report writing
      • (Final 2 chapters)
      • 4 th session
      • Consultation 3
      • (Check 1 st draft – Final 2 chapters)
      • Oral Presentation & Listening
    • BEFORE 3 RD WEEKEND
      • Submission of Final Draft
      • via e-mail
      • ( [email_address] )
    • 3 RD WEEKEND
      • 5 TH session
      • Students’ Oral Presentations
      • Submission of Final Report
      • Discussion on Sample Exam Paper
    •  
    • NOW GET INTO YOUR GROUP!
    • INTRODUCTION
      • What is research report writing?
      • Emotional
      • VS.
      • Factual
    • Writing a Research Report ISSUES/ PROBLEMS Conducting A Research
      • HOW DO I CONDUCT A RESEARCH?
      • Follow these
      • 5 steps!
    • HOW DO I CONDUCT A RESEARCH?
      • Identify the Issue or Problem
      • What do I want to know?
      • Who are involved?
      • Where?
      • Why?
    • HOW DO I CONDUCT A RESEARCH?
      • 2. Determine the Purpose
      • What exactly do I want to do here?
      • What is my statement of purpose?
      • To evaluate? To investigate?
      • To compare? To describe?
    • HOW DO I CONDUCT A RESEARCH?
      • 3. Draw a Plan or a Strategy
      • Who, where and what are going to be involved in the research?
      • How do I collect the data?
      • What are the deadlines?
    • HOW DO I CONDUCT A RESEARCH?
      • 4. Search and Collect the Data
      • Do I need primary data?
      • Do I need secondary data?
      • What are the instruments to be used to collect the data?
    • HOW DO I CONDUCT A RESEARCH?
      • 5. Analyze Data
      • How do I process, record, analyze and interpret the data?
      • How do I make connections among the data?
      • How do I draw conclusions from the data?
    •  
    • RESEARCH PROPOSAL
    • WHAT IS A RESEARCH PROPOSAL?
      • A Plan of Action
      • Why?
      • To seek funding
      • To seek commitment
    • 2 TYPES OF PROPOSAL
      • INTERNAL
      • VS.
      • EXTERNAL
      • SOLICITED
      • VS.
      • UNSOLICITED
    • 10 COMPONENTS OF A PROPOSAL
      • Title
      • Background Information
      • Statement of Problem
      • Research Objectives
      • Research Questions
    • 10 COMPONENTS OF A PROPOSAL (Cont’d)
      • 6. Significance of the Study
      • 7. Scope
      • 8. Methodology
      • 9. Work Schedule
      • 10. Call to Action
    •  
    • DATA COLLECTION
    • WHAT IS DATA COLLECTION?
      • A process of collecting data (primary & secondary) from different sources
      • PRIMARY DATA – obtained through questionnaires, interviews, observations & experiments
      • SECONDARY DATA – obtained through reading others’ works
    • COLLECTING SECONDARY DATA
      • Conducted at the beginning of a research to get a better picture of what you are going to investigate
      • Gathered from various written resources (offline/online)
      • Used in various sections of research report esp. Literature Review
      • Must be properly cited
    • COLLECTING PRIMARY DATA
      • FOUR INSTRUMENTS:
      • 1.QUESTIONNAIRES
      • 2.INTERVIEW
      • 3.OBSERVATION
      • 4.EXPERIMENTS
    •  
    • 1.QUESTIONNAIRES
      • A systematic compilation of questions distributed to respondents from which information is needed
      • Administered through survey, mail, telephone & internet
    • 2 TYPES OF QUESTIONS
      • 1. Open-ended Questions
      • 2. Close-ended Questions
      • Yes/No
      • Scale
      • Listing/Choice
      • Ranking
      • Category
    • 2.INTERVIEW
      • A two-communication which permits an exchange of ideas and information
      • 3 types of interviews:
      • 1. Structured
      • 2. Semi-structured
      • 3. Unstructured
    • 3.OBSERVATION
      • To get firsthand information
      • To strengthen existing data
    • 4.EXPERIMENTS
      • To test various techniques, assumptions or products (esp. in engineering & agriculture)
    • SAMPLING & POPULATION
      • SAMPLING – a group of respondents who provide information that may be generalised to general population
      • POPULATION – a target group to which the results of a research are applicable
    • 2 TYPES OF SAMPLING
      • RANDOM
      • Respondents are selected randomly without criteria
      • 3 Categories :
      • Simple
      • Stratified
      • Cluster
      • NON-RANDOM
      • Respondents are selected based on certain criteria
      • 3 Categories :
      • Systematic
      • Convenience
      • Purposive
    • DATA PROCESSING & DATA PRESENTATION
    •  
    • WHAT IS DATA PROCESSING?
      • To convert raw data into meaningful statements that could help answer research questions
      • Raw data are systematically organised so that their meanings can be understood
      • Procedures for quantitative and
      • qualitative data are different
    • 3 STAGES (QUANTITATIVE DATA)
      • ORGANISING, RECORDING AND CATEGORISING AND/OR CODING
      • PRESENTING
      • ANALYSING
    • 1.ORGANISING, RECORDING & CATEGORISING AND/OR CODING
      • Organise manually or using computer
      • Record using ‘keyword’
      • Categorise to see the ‘picture’
      • Coding helps processing the data statistically (using SPSS )
    • 2.PRESENTING
      • Turn data into comprehensible ‘pictures’ through
      • 1. Table
      • 2. Graph
      • 3. Chart
    • 3.ANALYSING
      • Analyse manually or using computer
      • Involves the interpretation of frequencies based on data presentation
    •  
    • 3 STAGES (QUALITATIVE DATA)
      • ORGANISING, CATEGORISING AND/OR CODING, AND RECORDING
      • PRESENTING
      • ANALYSING
    • 1.ORGANISING, CATEGORISING AND/OR CODING,
      • Organise by using transcriptions
      • Categorise by listing the responses
      • Coding by using flexible codes
    • 2.PRESENTING
      • Usually presented in original forms
      • Can also be presented using tables
    • 3.ANALYSING
      • Involves finding commonalities, regularities or emerging patterns among the responses
    •  
    • WRITING RESEARCH REPORT
    • 3 SECTIONS
      • PRELIMINARY
      • MAIN
      • SUPPLEMENTARY
    • 1.PRELIMINARY
      • Title Page
      • Abstract
      • Acknowledgement
      • Table of Content
      • List of Figures/ Tables
      • List of Abbreviation & Symbols
    • 2.MAIN
      • Introduction
      • Literature Review
      • Methodology
      • Findings & Discussions
      • Conclusion & Recommendation
    • 3.SUPPLEMENTARY
      • References
      • Appendices
    •  
    • 1.INTRODUCTION
    • 7 ELEMENTS
      • Background of the Study
      • Statement of Problem
      • Purpose of the Study
      • Research Objectives
      • Research Questions
      • Significance of the Study
      • Scope of the Study
    • 1.Background of the Study
      • Three steps:
      • To state general statements of facts related to the field of study
      • To state specific statements about issues studied by other researchers
      • To state statements that indicate the need for more investigation
    • 2.Statement of Problem
      • To define the issue or problem investigated in the study
      • To refer to problem statement in the proposal
    • 3.Purpose of the Study
      • To include a broad discussion on the reasons why the study was carried out and intentions of the study
    • 4.Research Objectives
      • To show the extent and the expected outcome of the study
      • To begin with a leading statement followed by the objectives written in point forms
    • 5.Research Questions
      • To guide the discussion about the topic
      • To stimulate readers’ interests
      • To turn the objectives of the study into research questions
    • 6.Significance of the Study
      • To justify the reason for conducting the study
      • To emphasize the potential benefits that it would bring
    • 7.Scope of the Study
      • To indicate the direction of the study
      • To map out the boundaries of the study
      • To outline the method of investigation
      • To give a preview of the written report
    •  
    • 2.LITERATURE REVIEW
    • WHAT IS LITERATURE REVIEW?
      • It is an account of what has been published on a research area
      • It describes, summarizes, evaluates and clarifies the studies reviewed
      • It outlines a framework and a theoretical base of a research
    • WHY?
      • To guide you through others’ works
      • To prepare for your own research
      • To provide a context for your research
      • To justify the research
      • To illustrate how the subject has been studied before
      • To outline gaps in previous research
    • HOW DO I DO IT?
      • Identify relevant articles and books
      • Read and appraise the text critically
      • Organise the literature around your research questions
      • Synthesize relevant information to current study
    • 5 GENERAL STEPS
      • 1. Prepare annotated bibliography
      • 2. Maintain a reference list
      • 3. Organise materials and make notes
      • 4. Write individual sections according to themes
      • 5. Integrate all sections
    •  
    • HOW DO I CITE IN A REPORT?
      • THREE WAYS:
      • 1. SUMMARIZING
      • 2. DIRECT QUOTATION
      • 3. PARAPHRASING
    • 1. SUMMARIZING
      • It is a shortened piece of writing by restating main points in your own words
      • General ideas are highlighted
      • Details & examples are excluded
    • 2. DIRECT QUOTATION
      • Authors’ exact words are copied directly from original sources
      • It is preferred when citing powerful phrases or interpreting literary works like poems or plays
      • Sources must be properly cited
    • 3. PARAPHRASING
      • Authors’ words are rephrased / reworded in your own words
      • Paraphrased text is usually shorter than original text
      • Paraphrased materials must be properly cited
    •  
    • 3.METHODOLOGY
    • FIVE PARTS
      • 1. Introduction (Short description of purpose, location, respondents & instruments)
      • 2. Research Instruments
      • 3. Respondents of the Study
      • 4. Research Procedure
      • 5. Data Analysis
    •  
    •  
    • 4.FINDINGS & DISCUSSION
    • WHAT ARE FINDINGS?
      • Discoveries based on facts , not emotions
      • Presented in the form of statistics (percentages, frequency counts & averages) or illustrations (tables, graphs, diagrams, etc.)
    • ISN’T A PICTURE WORTH A THOUSAND WORDS?
    • PICTURE
    • HOW TO WRITE IN THE REPORT?
      • Type A
      • Findings
      • Research Question 1
      • Research Question 2
      • Research Question 3
      • Discussion
      • Research Question 1
      • Research Question 2
      • Research Question 3
      • Type B
      • Research Question 1: Findings & Discussion
      • Research Question 2:
      • Findings & Discussion
      • Research Question 3:
      • Findings & Discussion
    • TAKE A LOOK AT AN EXAMPLE OF FINDING (page 177)
    • 12 TIPS ON WRITING FINDINGS
      • 1. Introduce the topic
      • 2. Point to significant findings
      • 3. Use graphics to support findings
      • 4. Explain statistics selectively and concisely
      • 5. Support statistics with qualitative data (if any)
    • 12 TIPS ON WRITING FINDINGS (cont’d)
      • 6. Spell out the word ‘percent’ in the text (don’t be confused with ‘percentage’ )
      • 7. Spell out the number that begins a sentence, and use figure in the middle of a sentence
      • 8. Follow correct organisation
    • 12 TIPS ON WRITING FINDINGS (cont’d)
      • 9. Use concise, grammatically correct statements
      • 10. Use correct tenses
      • 11. Use language expression correctly (page 180-1)
      • 12. Focus on 4Cs - Clarity, Coherence, Conciseness and Correctness
    • 4 STRATEGIES IN WRITING DISCUSSION
      • Explain
      • Compare
      • Evaluate
      • Infer
    • 1. Explain Findings
      • Give reasons for findings
      • Explain circumstances during data collection
      • Explain limitations
    • 2. Compare Findings
      • Relate the different findings to highlight their significance
      • Compare similar findings from related studies
    • 3. Evaluate Findings
      • Assess findings as:
      • unexpected or
      • insignificant or
      • unsatisfactory
    • 4. Infer from Findings
      • Make sense of findings
      • Develop ideas and viewpoints
      • Be creative and speculate
    • 2 pictures - interpret
    • 5.CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION
    • 5 ELEMENTS IN A CONCLUSION
      • Overview
      • Restatement
      • Review
      • Implications
      • Limitations
    • 1.Overview of the study
      • Summarize what the research is all about (do not introduce new ideas)
      • Explain briefly why & how you conduct the study
    • 2. Restatement of the objectives
      • Rephrase the objectives
      • Start with the most significant one
    • 3. Review of the findings
      • Draw conclusions for each major issues
      • Use discourse markers to connect the findings
      • Start with the most important one
    • 4. Implications of the findings
      • Deduce some ideas based on findings (do not exaggerate)
      • Implicate some ideas that can support further actions
    • 5. Limitations of research (optional)
      • State the weaknesses (do not apologize)
      • E.g. Small sample size, limited time, improper instrument, etc.
    • Conclusion can be written in paragraph/ point form (page 192-3)
    • WHAT IS A RECOMMENDATION?
      • It suggests actions to be taken based on findings
      • It is related to conclusions
      • It is NOT based on biases or beliefs that are not supported by data
    • 2 TYPES OF RECOMMENDATION
      • To recommend actions to be taken based on findings
      • To recommend actions to other researchers for further research
    • Recommendation can be written in paragraph/ point form (page 196)
    • LANGUAGE INPUT: Modal Auxiliary Verbs
      • Use appropriate modals when making recommendations:
      • 1. May/Could/Might – mild suggestion
      • 2. Should/Ought to – strong suggestion
      • 3. Must/Have to – extreme suggestion
    • picture
    • ORAL PRESENTATION
    • SALES! 50%! SALES! 70%! SALES!! 120%!
    • I HATE PUBLIC SPEAKING!
    • WHAT IS AN ORAL PRESENTATION?
      • A type of communication that involves speaking & listening
      • Can be formal/ informal
      • Essential for professionals
      • A requirement for students
    • 3 PURPOSES OF ORAL PRESENTATION
      • Informative
      • Demonstrative
      • Persuasive
    • 4 TYPES OF ORAL PRESENTATION
      • Impromptu
      • Manuscript
      • Memorised
      • Extemporaneous
    • picture
    • 7 TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE ORAL PRESENTATIONS
    • 1. Planning Your Oral Presentation Well
      • What is the purpose?
      • Who is the audience?
      • What is the topic?
      • Where?
    • 2. Knowing Your Content Well
      • What is the content?
      • Have I included all the relevant information?
    • 3. Analysing Your Audience
      • What is the background of audience?
      • Are they educated?
      • What is the reason for attending?
      • How many of them?
    • 4. Knowing the Presentation Room
      • What is the size of the room?
      • How is the seating arrangement?
      • What are the facilities provided?
    • 5. Knowing the Time Allotted
      • How long do I have to present?
    • 6. Writing the Outline of Your Delivery
      • What are the main ideas?
      • (Prepare short notes, either linear or non-linear - do not outline them word by word)
    • 7. Deciding on the Appropriate Style of Delivery
      • Do I have to be casual?
      • Is there a large audience that requires a formal presentation?
    • picture
    • ORGANISING YOUR ORAL PRESENTATION
      • Introduction
      • Body
      • Conclusion
    • 1.Introduction
      • Start with attention grabbers (Question, humour, quotation, statistics, stories, etc)
      • Use correct language expressions (examples - page 209)
    • 2.Body
      • For report presentation, follow the pattern in the report
      • Support with details and evidence
      • Ensure clarity by keeping message simple
      • Ensure cohesion by using linking words (examples – page 216)
    • 3.Conclusion
      • End it by using:
      • >> a summary of key points
      • >> a recommendation
      • >> an “umphh” final thought
      • Use correct expressions
      • (examples – page 221)
    • Prepare the outline (linear/non-linear) for the introduction , body & conclusion of your presentation. (refer to Tables 7.1 – 7.8)
    • picture
    • WHY VISUAL AIDS?
      • To believe (seeing is believing)
      • To enhance understanding
      • To enable better retention
      • To ensure continuity
      • To build presenter’s credibility
      • To have more fun!
    • 19 TIPS IN USING VISUAL AIDS
    • 19 TIPS IN USING VISUAL AIDS
      • Arrange accordingly to the content
      • Points form (using key words) is advisable – don’t punctuate!
      • Coordinate points in parallel forms (content, grammar, numbering)
      • Subordinate major & minor headings appropriately
    • 19 TIPS IN USING VISUAL AIDS (cont’d)
      • Avoid irrelevant words
      • Words must be clearly readable
      • Avoid too much info on a single slide (remember to KISS !)
      • Avoid too many colours
    • 19 TIPS IN USING VISUAL AIDS (cont’d)
      • Use animation sparingly
      • Introduce a visual before showing it
      • Stand to the side of your computer
      • Face audience as much as possible
    • 19 TIPS IN USING VISUAL AIDS (cont’d)
      • Use a pointer to direct audience focus (not your finger)
      • Visuals should tally with what you say
      • Avoid reading your notes
      • Use appropriate language expressions (examples – page 230)
    • 19 TIPS IN USING VISUAL AIDS (cont’d)
      • Use visual aids as support only (you are the spotlight!)
      • If you have handouts, tell your audience in advance
      • Practise, practise, practise!
    • PREPARE THE SLIDES!
    • Which is more important? WHAT you say or HOW you say?
    • 25 TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE DELIVERY
    • Picture – non verbal communication
    • 25 TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE DELIVERY
      • Visualise a successful presentation
      • Emulate excellent speakers
      • Channel your nervousness accordingly
      • Do not apologise
      • Be well-versed with technology
    • 25 TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE DELIVERY (cont’d)
      • Always have Plan B
      • Dress appropriately
      • Stand still (don’t slouch!)
      • Show your confidence
      • Talk to audience (not your notes)
    • 25 TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE DELIVERY (cont’d)
      • Refer to notes sparingly
      • Pronounce words correctly
      • Use linkers for content traffic
      • Use spoken English (not text-book English)
      • Be interactive
    • 25 TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE DELIVERY (cont’d)
      • Maintain eye contact
      • Be enthusiastic
      • Vary your volume, tone & pace
      • Minimise crutches
      • Use gestures naturally
    • 25 TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE DELIVERY (cont’d)
      • Place your hands appropriately
      • Use facial expression effectively
      • Move around
      • End your presentation in time
      • Rehearse, rehearse, rehearse!
    • pic
    • 7 WAYS TO HANDLE Q & A SESSION
    • 7 WAYS TO HANDLE Q & A SESSION
      • Invite questions
      • Repeat questions from audience
      • Look at the questioner
      • Answer in short
    • 7 WAYS TO HANDLE Q & A SESSION (cont’d)
      • Be straightforward
      • Be honest (just admit that you don’t have the answer!)
      • Don’t forget to thank the questioner
    • ARE YOU A GOOD LISTENER?
    • 7 STRATEGIES FOR GOOD AUDIENCE
    • 7 STRATEGIES FOR GOOD AUDIENCE
      • Listen actively & selfishly (don’t just hear)
      • Focus on the message, not style
      • Listen for major ideas (look for cues)
      • Listen to body language (they do speak!)
    • 7 STRATEGIES FOR GOOD AUDIENCE (cont’d)
      • Be objective (don’t easily get angry)
      • Avoid jumping to conclusion (don’t pre-judge)
      • Discipline your thoughts!
    • REMEMBER, A GOOD SPEAKER IS A GOOD LISTENER
    • You tube