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Academic Report Writing
Academic Report Writing
Academic Report Writing
Academic Report Writing
Academic Report Writing
Academic Report Writing
Academic Report Writing
Academic Report Writing
Academic Report Writing
Academic Report Writing
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Academic Report Writing
Academic Report Writing
Academic Report Writing
Academic Report Writing
Academic Report Writing
Academic Report Writing
Academic Report Writing
Academic Report Writing
Academic Report Writing
Academic Report Writing
Academic Report Writing
Academic Report Writing
Academic Report Writing
Academic Report Writing
Academic Report Writing
Academic Report Writing
Academic Report Writing
Academic Report Writing
Academic Report Writing
Academic Report Writing
Academic Report Writing
Academic Report Writing
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Academic Report Writing
Academic Report Writing
Academic Report Writing
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Academic Report Writing

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  • 1. ADVANCED ENGLISH FOR ACADEMIC COMMUNICATION Lecturer: En. Hilmi Hamzah
  • 2. LET’S GET STARTED!
  • 3. COURSEWORK MARKS <ul><li>Proposal Presentation (10%) </li></ul><ul><li>Research Instruments (10%) </li></ul><ul><li>Consultations (Individual) (10%) </li></ul><ul><li>1 st Draft of Report (15%) </li></ul><ul><li>Report Presentation (Ind.) (15%) </li></ul><ul><li>Final Report (10%) </li></ul><ul><li>Final Exam (30%) </li></ul><ul><li>TOTAL (100%) </li></ul>
  • 4. 1 ST WEEKEND <ul><li>1 st session </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Research planning </li></ul><ul><li>Research proposal </li></ul><ul><li>Data collection </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd session </li></ul><ul><li>Proposal Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Consultation 1 </li></ul><ul><li>(Research instrument) </li></ul><ul><li>Data processing </li></ul><ul><li>Data presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Writing Research Report </li></ul><ul><li>(First 3 chapters) </li></ul>
  • 5. BEFORE 2 ND WEEKEND <ul><li>COLLECTION OF DATA </li></ul><ul><li>Components: </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Literature Review </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Submission of 1 st draft via </li></ul><ul><li>e-mail ( [email_address] ) </li></ul>
  • 6. 2 nd WEEKEND <ul><li>3 rd session </li></ul><ul><li>Consultation 2 </li></ul><ul><li>(Return 1 st draft – First 3 chapters) </li></ul><ul><li>Report writing </li></ul><ul><li>(Final 2 chapters) </li></ul><ul><li>4 th session </li></ul><ul><li>Consultation 3 </li></ul><ul><li>(Check 1 st draft – Final 2 chapters) </li></ul><ul><li>Oral Presentation &amp; Listening </li></ul>
  • 7. BEFORE 3 RD WEEKEND <ul><li>Submission of Final Draft </li></ul><ul><li>via e-mail </li></ul><ul><li>( [email_address] ) </li></ul>
  • 8. 3 RD WEEKEND <ul><li>5 TH session </li></ul><ul><li>Students’ Oral Presentations </li></ul><ul><li>Submission of Final Report </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion on Sample Exam Paper </li></ul>
  • 9. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>What is research report writing? </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional </li></ul><ul><li>VS. </li></ul><ul><li>Factual </li></ul>
  • 10. Writing a Research Report ISSUES/ PROBLEMS Conducting A Research
  • 11. <ul><li>HOW DO I CONDUCT A RESEARCH? </li></ul><ul><li>Follow these </li></ul><ul><li>5 steps! </li></ul>
  • 12. HOW DO I CONDUCT A RESEARCH? <ul><li>Identify the Issue or Problem </li></ul><ul><li>What do I want to know? </li></ul><ul><li>Who are involved? </li></ul><ul><li>Where? </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul>
  • 13. HOW DO I CONDUCT A RESEARCH? <ul><li>2. Determine the Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>What exactly do I want to do here? </li></ul><ul><li>What is my statement of purpose? </li></ul><ul><li>To evaluate? To investigate? </li></ul><ul><li>To compare? To describe? </li></ul>
  • 14. HOW DO I CONDUCT A RESEARCH? <ul><li>3. Draw a Plan or a Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Who, where and what are going to be involved in the research? </li></ul><ul><li>How do I collect the data? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the deadlines? </li></ul>
  • 15. HOW DO I CONDUCT A RESEARCH? <ul><li>4. Search and Collect the Data </li></ul><ul><li>Do I need primary data? </li></ul><ul><li>Do I need secondary data? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the instruments to be used to collect the data? </li></ul>
  • 16. HOW DO I CONDUCT A RESEARCH? <ul><li>5. Analyze Data </li></ul><ul><li>How do I process, record, analyze and interpret the data? </li></ul><ul><li>How do I make connections among the data? </li></ul><ul><li>How do I draw conclusions from the data? </li></ul>
  • 17. RESEARCH PROPOSAL
  • 18. WHAT IS A RESEARCH PROPOSAL? <ul><li>A Plan of Action </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>To seek funding </li></ul><ul><li>To seek commitment </li></ul>
  • 19. 2 TYPES OF PROPOSAL <ul><li>INTERNAL </li></ul><ul><li>VS. </li></ul><ul><li>EXTERNAL </li></ul><ul><li>SOLICITED </li></ul><ul><li>VS. </li></ul><ul><li>UNSOLICITED </li></ul>
  • 20. 10 COMPONENTS OF A PROPOSAL <ul><li>Title </li></ul><ul><li>Background Information </li></ul><ul><li>Statement of Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Research Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Research Questions </li></ul>
  • 21. 10 COMPONENTS OF A PROPOSAL (Cont’d) <ul><li>6. Significance of the Study </li></ul><ul><li>7. Scope </li></ul><ul><li>8. Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>9. Work Schedule </li></ul><ul><li>10. Call to Action </li></ul>
  • 22. DATA COLLECTION
  • 23. WHAT IS DATA COLLECTION? <ul><li>A process of collecting data (primary &amp; secondary) from different sources </li></ul><ul><li>PRIMARY DATA – obtained through questionnaires, interviews, observations &amp; experiments </li></ul><ul><li>SECONDARY DATA – obtained through reading others’ works </li></ul>
  • 24. COLLECTING SECONDARY DATA <ul><li>Conducted at the beginning of a research to get a better picture of what you are going to investigate </li></ul><ul><li>Gathered from various written resources (offline/online) </li></ul><ul><li>Used in various sections of research report esp. Literature Review </li></ul><ul><li>Must be properly cited </li></ul>
  • 25. COLLECTING PRIMARY DATA <ul><li>FOUR INSTRUMENTS: </li></ul><ul><li>1.QUESTIONNAIRES </li></ul><ul><li>2.INTERVIEW </li></ul><ul><li>3.OBSERVATION </li></ul><ul><li>4.EXPERIMENTS </li></ul>
  • 26. 1.QUESTIONNAIRES <ul><li>A systematic compilation of questions distributed to respondents from which information is needed </li></ul><ul><li>Administered through survey, mail, telephone &amp; internet </li></ul>
  • 27. 2 TYPES OF QUESTIONS <ul><li>1. Open-ended Questions </li></ul><ul><li>2. Close-ended Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Yes/No </li></ul><ul><li>Scale </li></ul><ul><li>Listing/Choice </li></ul><ul><li>Ranking </li></ul><ul><li>Category </li></ul>
  • 28. 2.INTERVIEW <ul><li>A two-communication which permits an exchange of ideas and information </li></ul><ul><li>3 types of interviews: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Structured </li></ul><ul><li>2. Semi-structured </li></ul><ul><li>3. Unstructured </li></ul>
  • 29. 3.OBSERVATION <ul><li>To get firsthand information </li></ul><ul><li>To strengthen existing data </li></ul>
  • 30. 4.EXPERIMENTS <ul><li>To test various techniques, assumptions or products (esp. in engineering &amp; agriculture) </li></ul>
  • 31. SAMPLING &amp; POPULATION <ul><li>SAMPLING – a group of respondents who provide information that may be generalised to general population </li></ul><ul><li>POPULATION – a target group to which the results of a research are applicable </li></ul>
  • 32. 2 TYPES OF SAMPLING <ul><li>RANDOM </li></ul><ul><li>Respondents are selected randomly without criteria </li></ul><ul><li>3 Categories : </li></ul><ul><li>Simple </li></ul><ul><li>Stratified </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster </li></ul><ul><li>NON-RANDOM </li></ul><ul><li>Respondents are selected based on certain criteria </li></ul><ul><li>3 Categories : </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic </li></ul><ul><li>Convenience </li></ul><ul><li>Purposive </li></ul>
  • 33. DATA PROCESSING &amp; DATA PRESENTATION
  • 34. WHAT IS DATA PROCESSING? <ul><li>To convert raw data into meaningful statements that could help answer research questions </li></ul><ul><li>Raw data are systematically organised so that their meanings can be understood </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures for quantitative and </li></ul><ul><li>qualitative data are different </li></ul>
  • 35. 3 STAGES (QUANTITATIVE DATA) <ul><li>ORGANISING, RECORDING AND CATEGORISING AND/OR CODING </li></ul><ul><li>PRESENTING </li></ul><ul><li>ANALYSING </li></ul>
  • 36. 1.ORGANISING, RECORDING &amp; CATEGORISING AND/OR CODING <ul><li>Organise manually or using computer </li></ul><ul><li>Record using ‘keyword’ </li></ul><ul><li>Categorise to see the ‘picture’ </li></ul><ul><li>Coding helps processing the data statistically (using SPSS ) </li></ul>
  • 37. 2.PRESENTING <ul><li>Turn data into comprehensible ‘pictures’ through </li></ul><ul><li>1. Table </li></ul><ul><li>2. Graph </li></ul><ul><li>3. Chart </li></ul>
  • 38. 3.ANALYSING <ul><li>Analyse manually or using computer </li></ul><ul><li>Involves the interpretation of frequencies based on data presentation </li></ul>
  • 39. 3 STAGES (QUALITATIVE DATA) <ul><li>ORGANISING, CATEGORISING AND/OR CODING, AND RECORDING </li></ul><ul><li>PRESENTING </li></ul><ul><li>ANALYSING </li></ul>
  • 40. 1.ORGANISING, CATEGORISING AND/OR CODING, <ul><li>Organise by using transcriptions </li></ul><ul><li>Categorise by listing the responses </li></ul><ul><li>Coding by using flexible codes </li></ul>
  • 41. 2.PRESENTING <ul><li>Usually presented in original forms </li></ul><ul><li>Can also be presented using tables </li></ul>
  • 42. 3.ANALYSING <ul><li>Involves finding commonalities, regularities or emerging patterns among the responses </li></ul>
  • 43. WRITING RESEARCH REPORT
  • 44. 3 SECTIONS <ul><li>PRELIMINARY </li></ul><ul><li>MAIN </li></ul><ul><li>SUPPLEMENTARY </li></ul>
  • 45. 1.PRELIMINARY <ul><li>Title Page </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledgement </li></ul><ul><li>Table of Content </li></ul><ul><li>List of Figures/ Tables </li></ul><ul><li>List of Abbreviation &amp; Symbols </li></ul>
  • 46. 2.MAIN <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Literature Review </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Findings &amp; Discussions </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion &amp; Recommendation </li></ul>
  • 47. 3.SUPPLEMENTARY <ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><li>Appendices </li></ul>
  • 48. 1.INTRODUCTION
  • 49. 7 ELEMENTS <ul><li>Background of the Study </li></ul><ul><li>Statement of Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose of the Study </li></ul><ul><li>Research Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Research Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Significance of the Study </li></ul><ul><li>Scope of the Study </li></ul>
  • 50. 1.Background of the Study <ul><li>Three steps: </li></ul><ul><li>To state general statements of facts related to the field of study </li></ul><ul><li>To state specific statements about issues studied by other researchers </li></ul><ul><li>To state statements that indicate the need for more investigation </li></ul>
  • 51. 2.Statement of Problem <ul><li>To define the issue or problem investigated in the study </li></ul><ul><li>To refer to problem statement in the proposal </li></ul>
  • 52. 3.Purpose of the Study <ul><li>To include a broad discussion on the reasons why the study was carried out and intentions of the study </li></ul>
  • 53. 4.Research Objectives <ul><li>To show the extent and the expected outcome of the study </li></ul><ul><li>To begin with a leading statement followed by the objectives written in point forms </li></ul>
  • 54. 5.Research Questions <ul><li>To guide the discussion about the topic </li></ul><ul><li>To stimulate readers’ interests </li></ul><ul><li>To turn the objectives of the study into research questions </li></ul>
  • 55. 6.Significance of the Study <ul><li>To justify the reason for conducting the study </li></ul><ul><li>To emphasize the potential benefits that it would bring </li></ul>
  • 56. 7.Scope of the Study <ul><li>To indicate the direction of the study </li></ul><ul><li>To map out the boundaries of the study </li></ul><ul><li>To outline the method of investigation </li></ul><ul><li>To give a preview of the written report </li></ul>
  • 57. 2.LITERATURE REVIEW
  • 58. WHAT IS LITERATURE REVIEW? <ul><li>It is an account of what has been published on a research area </li></ul><ul><li>It describes, summarizes, evaluates and clarifies the studies reviewed </li></ul><ul><li>It outlines a framework and a theoretical base of a research </li></ul>
  • 59. WHY? <ul><li>To guide you through others’ works </li></ul><ul><li>To prepare for your own research </li></ul><ul><li>To provide a context for your research </li></ul><ul><li>To justify the research </li></ul><ul><li>To illustrate how the subject has been studied before </li></ul><ul><li>To outline gaps in previous research </li></ul>
  • 60. HOW DO I DO IT? <ul><li>Identify relevant articles and books </li></ul><ul><li>Read and appraise the text critically </li></ul><ul><li>Organise the literature around your research questions </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesize relevant information to current study </li></ul>
  • 61. 5 GENERAL STEPS <ul><li>1. Prepare annotated bibliography </li></ul><ul><li>2. Maintain a reference list </li></ul><ul><li>3. Organise materials and make notes </li></ul><ul><li>4. Write individual sections according to themes </li></ul><ul><li>5. Integrate all sections </li></ul>
  • 62. HOW DO I CITE IN A REPORT? <ul><li>THREE WAYS: </li></ul><ul><li>1. SUMMARIZING </li></ul><ul><li>2. DIRECT QUOTATION </li></ul><ul><li>3. PARAPHRASING </li></ul>
  • 63. 1. SUMMARIZING <ul><li>It is a shortened piece of writing by restating main points in your own words </li></ul><ul><li>General ideas are highlighted </li></ul><ul><li>Details &amp; examples are excluded </li></ul>
  • 64. 2. DIRECT QUOTATION <ul><li>Authors’ exact words are copied directly from original sources </li></ul><ul><li>It is preferred when citing powerful phrases or interpreting literary works like poems or plays </li></ul><ul><li>Sources must be properly cited </li></ul>
  • 65. 3. PARAPHRASING <ul><li>Authors’ words are rephrased / reworded in your own words </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphrased text is usually shorter than original text </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphrased materials must be properly cited </li></ul>
  • 66. 3.METHODOLOGY
  • 67. FIVE PARTS <ul><li>1. Introduction (Short description of purpose, location, respondents &amp; instruments) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Research Instruments </li></ul><ul><li>3. Respondents of the Study </li></ul><ul><li>4. Research Procedure </li></ul><ul><li>5. Data Analysis </li></ul>

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