1895 German entrepreneur Siegfried Bing (1838–1905) expands and reopens his Oriental crafts shop in Paris as the Maison de l'Art Nouveau. Bing is a specialist in Eastern arts , and promotes a Japanese aesthetic as a means of uniting art and craft in a manner that imbues even the most utilitarian object with a simple beauty. He is credited—through the foundation of a periodical, Le Japon Artistique , and various exhibitions of ancient artifacts and contemporary works—with the promotion of japonisme in France. The Art Nouveau style borrows from Japanese art its emphasis on linear ornamental motifs such as intertwining vegetal forms. Bing's Maison de l'Art Nouveau features designs by the painters Édouard Vuillard, Maurice Denis, and Paul Ranson (1864–1909), as well as Belgian architect Henry van de Velde (1863–1957). Other masters of this style are Hector Guimard (1867–1942), designer of the elegant cast-iron tendrils that adorn entrances to the Paris Métro (ca. 1900), and René Lalique (1860–1945), jewelry and glassware designer.
Organic forms inspired by nature, frequently accentuated with asymmetrical curves or elaborate flourishes, These reformers believed that quality of life could be considerably improved by elevating applied arts to the level of fine art: one could take pleasure and pride in owning and using well-made, beautiful everyday objects . The necessary handiwork, however, proved to be time-consuming and prohibitively expensive , and designs could only be produced in l imited numbers . Making well-designed objects accessible to a wide public required the assistance of machines , and in the years around 1900, designers began to reevaluate the importance of mass production as they attempted to forge a new and positive alliance of art and industry.
1900 Czech-born artist Alphonse Mucha (1860–1939), known primarily for his posters in the Art Nouveau style, designs the Bosnia-Herzegovina Pavilion at the 1900 World's Fair in Paris. In 1909, he begins a series of murals, The Slav Epic , commissioned for the Lord Mayor's Hall in Prague. The twenty canvases, measuring about 24 x 30 feet, are not completed until 1928.
Symbolist ( July 14 , 1862 – February 6 , 1918 ) was an Austrian Symbolist painter and one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Art Nouveau ( Vienna Secession ) movement. His major works include paintings , murals , sketches and other art objects, many of which are on display in the Vienna Secession gallery . Klimt's primary subject is the female body, and his works are marked by a frank eroticism . His pencil drawings, which are very numerous, have been regarded by many as his greatest legacy
The French avant-garde in the period after 1900 pursues the development of artistic modernism that began during the nineteenth century So important does Paris become in the early decades of the twentieth century with regard to the development of avant-garde aesthetics, that it is possible to speak of a School of Paris comprised of artists from many nations who are drawn to the city. The persecution of Jewish artists in Germany and elsewhere in the years leading up to and including World War II brings many émigrés to Paris . The subsequent German Occupation and French involvement in the conflict drives some away from Paris, to the United States . In the postwar period, the international significance of Paris as a center for art production is somewhat eclipsed by New York. Nonetheless, the French continue to make important contributions to photography , easel painting , and sculpture, as well as to design and architecture . The grands projets , among other works, are important for establishing postmodernism as an international cultural phenomenon during the last two decades of the century.
ca. 1830–70 The Barbizon School of landscape painting flourishes in the region of the French village from which it takes its name. Influenced by seventeenth-century Dutch masters , the Barbizon painters turn away from idealized classical landscapes in favor of direct observation of nature and sketching out-of-doors, en plein air a practice facilitated by the introduction, in 1841, of collapsible metal squeeze tubes of paint). Central figures of this school are Théodore Rousseau (1812–1867) , Jules Dupré (1811–1889), and Charles Daubigny (1817–1878). In 1849, Jean-François Millet (1814–1875) settles in Barbizon, where he paints The Gleaners (1857), The Angelus (1859; both Louvre), and other works that endow peasant life with a monumental dignity.
Focusing on conventional subjects such as portraiture, figure studies, landscapes, cityscapes, and still lifes, artists of the School of Paris employed a diversity of styles and techniques including the bold, dynamic colors of Fauvism , the revolutionary methods of Cubism , the animated qualities of Expressionism, and the private worlds of Symbolism. Italian Amedeo Modigliani Romanian sculptor Constantin Brancusi Many artists fled to New York or returned to their homeland and the frenzied activity experienced by members of the School of Paris concluded.
prominent figure in the School of Paris, the Russian artist Marc Chagall Chagall became a leading artist of the School of Paris during the 1920s and '30s Chagall quickly absorbed the stylistic influences of the avant-garde working in Paris. Chagall's The Betrothed ( 2002.456.8 ) of 1911 elicits charm and luminescence characteristic of his work at this time. In The Marketplace, Vitebsk ( 1984.433.6 ), painted in 1917 after his return to Russia, Chagall's use of unrealistic perspective, sharply defined contours, and figures in various scale show the influence of the French artist Robert Delaunay
Modigliani (1884–1920), who moved to Paris in 1906. Initially working alongside the Romanian sculptor Constantin Brancusi (1876–1957), who had been in Paris since 1904, Modigliani made, from about 1909 to 1915, a series of sculptures, such as Woman's Head (1997.149.10), with elongated features, oval heads, and thinly incised eyes that show the definitive influence of Brancusi as well as of African sculpture . In Reclining Nude ( 1997.149.9 ) from 1917, Modigliani used these stylistic elements, for example the almond-shaped eyes, in his distorted depiction of a nude figure
Adolf Hitler (1889–1945), WWI 1914 - 1918 WWII 1939- 1945 Some of the movement's leading visual artists in the early 20th century were: Germany: Heinrich Campendonk , Emil Nolde , Rolf Nesch , Franz Marc , Ernst Barlach , Wilhelm Lehmbruck , Erich Heckel , Karl Schmidt- Rottluff , Ernst Ludwig Kirchner , Max Beckmann , Conrad Felixmüller , Carl Hofer , August Macke , Elfriede Lohse-Wächtler , Ludwig Meidner , Paula Modersohn -Becker , Gabriele Münter and Max Pechstein . Austria: Egon Schiele and Oskar Kokoschka Russia: Wassily Kandinsky and Alexei Jawlensky Netherlands: Charles Eyck , Willem Hofhuizen , Jaap Min , Jan Sluyters , Vincent Van Gogh , Jan Wiegers and Hendrik Werkman Belgium: Constant Permeke , Gust De Smet , Frits Van den Berghe , James Ensor , Floris Jespers and Albert Droesbeke . France: Georges Rouault , Gen Paul and Chaim Soutine Norway: Edvard Munch Switzerland: Carl Eugen Keel Portugal: Mário Eloy Origin of the term Although it is used as term to reference, there has never been a distinct movement that called itself expressionism besides using of this term by Herwald Walden in his Polymic Magazine &quot; Der Sturm &quot; in 1911. The term is usually linked to paintings and graphic work in Germany at the turn of the century which challenged the academic traditions, particularly through Die Brücke and Der Blaue Reiter . Philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche played a key role in originating modern expressionism by clarifying and serving as a conduit for previously neglected currents in ancient art. In The Birth of Tragedy Nietzsche presented his theory of the ancient dualism between two types of aesthetic experience, namely the Apollonian and the Dionysian ; a dualism between a world of the mind, of order, of regularity and polishedness and a world of intoxication, chaos, ecstasy. The Apollonian represented the rationally conceived ideal, whereas the Dionysian represented artistic conception proper, originating from man's subconscious. The analogy with the world of the Greek gods typifies the relationship between these extremes: two godsons, incompatible and yet inseparable. According to Nietzsche, both elements are present in any work of art. The basic characteristics of expressionism are Dionysian: bold colors, distorted forms, painted in a careless manner, two-dimensional, without perspective, and based on feelings (the child) rather than rational thought (the adult). More generally it refers to art that is expressive of intense emotion. It is arguable that all artists are expressive but there is a long line of art production in which heavy emphasis is placed on communication through emotion. Such art often occurs during time of social upheaval, and through the tradition of graphic art there is a powerful and moving record of chaos in Europe from the 15th century on: the Protestant Reformation , Peasants' War , Spanish Occupation of Netherlands , the rape , pillage and disaster associated with countless periods of chaos and oppression are presented in the documents of the printmaker. Often the work is unimpressive aesthetically, but almost without exception has the capacity to move the viewer to strong emotions with the drama and often horror of the scenes depicted. The term was also coined by Czech art historian Antonín Matějček in 1910 as the opposite of impressionism : &quot;An Expressionist wishes, above all, to express himself....[An Expressionist rejects] immediate perception and builds on more complex psychic structures....Impressions and mental images that pass through mental peoples soul as through a filter which rids them of all substantial accretions to produce their clear essence [...and] are assimilated and condense into more general forms, into types, which he transcribes through simple short-hand formulae and symbols.&quot; (Gordon, 1987)
Czech art historian in 1910 as the opposite of Impressioism:
Germany: Heinrich Campendonk, Emil Nolde, Rolf Nesch, Franz Marc, Ernst Barlach, Wilhelm Lehmbruck, Erich Heckel, Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Max Beckmann , Conrad Felixmüller, Carl Hofer , August Macke , Elfriede Lohse-Wächtler, Ludwig Meidner, Paula Modersohn-Becker, Gabriele Münter and Max Pechstein. Austria: Egon Schiele and Oskar Kokoschka Russia: Wassily Kandinsky and Alexei Jawlensky Netherlands: Charles Eyck, Willem Hofhuizen, Jaap Min, Jan Sluyters,Vincent Van Gogh, Jan Wiegers and Hendrik Werkman Belgium: Constant Permeke, Gust De Smet, Frits Van den Berghe, James Ensor, Floris Jespers and Albert Droesbeke. France: Georges Rouault, Gen Paul and Chaim Soutine Norway: Edvard Munch Switzerland: Carl Eugen Keel Portugal: Mário Eloy Outlines or create sense of angst or despair
The Scream ( Skrik , 1893) is a seminal expressionist painting by Norwegian artist Edvard Munch . Regarded by many as his most important work, it is said by some to symbolize modern man taken by an attack of existential angst , with the skyline inspired by the 1883 fallout of Krakatoa . The landscape in the background is Oslofjord , viewed from the hill of Ekeberg . The Norwegian word skrik is usually translated as &quot;scream&quot;, but is cognate with the English shriek . Occasionally, the painting has been called The Cry
1915 &quot;The Metamorphosis,&quot; a short story by Czech writer Franz Kafka (1883–1924),
At the turn of the century , a number of Viennese avant-garde designers made an abrupt switch from the flowing organic lines of Jugendstil and Art Nouveau to a strict yet vigorous geometry. In 1903, &quot;Vienna Workshops “ — a designers' cooperative under the direction of the noted architect/designer Josef Hoffmann. Founded on the principles of the Arts and Crafts movement , the Wiener Werkstätte strove to provide a wide range of well-designed, often handmade products for a sophisticated audience, and indeed could supply everything from an architectural setting to the smallest decorative accessory . The renown of the company was such that by the early 1920s they had opened shops in Paris, Zurich, and New York. Disillusioned by the failure of Art Nouveau and competing with advances in design and manufacturing in Austria and Germany in the early years of the century, French designers felt the need to reestablish their role as leaders in the luxury trade . The Société des Artistes Décorateurs, founded in 1900, encouraged new standards for French design and production through its annual exhibitions at the Salon d'Automne. In 1912, the French government voted to sponsor an international exhibition of decorative arts, promoting French preeminence in the field. The exhibition, scheduled for 1915, was postponed on account of World War I and did not take place until 1925. It was this fair, the Exposition des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes, that gave its name to the style now commonly known as Art Deco. Art Deco had become an internationally mature style by 1925—one that had flourished following World War I and peaked at the time of the fair. The enormous commercial success of Art Deco ensured that designers and manufacturers throughout Europe would continue to promote the style well into the 1930s. Held in Paris between April and October 1925, the exposition drew over 16 million visitors. The primary requirement for inclusion (over twenty countries were invited to participate) was that all works be thoroughly modern; no copying of historical styles of the past would be permitted. Nevertheless, most of the works exhibited were firmly rooted in the traditions of the past. The stylistic unity of exhibits (which ranged from architecture to perfume bottles) indicates that
Dutch for the style
The by Walter Gropius . Its signature modernist style, integrating Expressionist art with the fields of architecture and design , was enormously influential throughout the world . The school was later led by the architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Its faculty included such artists as Lyonel Feininger, Paul Klee, Wassily Kandinsky, Oskar Schlemmer , Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, Johannes Itten, Josef Albers and Anni Albers. Other artists associated with the Bauhaus include Gunta Stolzl, Lux Feininger, Wilhelm Wagenfeld and George Grosz. The school was closed by the Nazis in 1933, and many of the artists emigrated to the United States in the years leading up to World War II, in search of intellectual freedom.
Surrealism originated in the late 1910s and early '20s as a literary movement that experimented with a new mode of expression called automatic writing, or automatism, which sought to release the unbridled imagination of the subconscious. Officially consecrated in Paris in 1924 with the publication of the Manifesto of Surrealism by the poet and critic André Breton (1896–1966), Surrealism became an international intellectual and political movement . Breton, a trained psychiatrist, along with French poets Louis Aragon (1897–1982), Paul Éluard (1895–1952), and Philippe Soupault (1897–1990), were influenced by the psychological theories and dream studies of Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) and the political ideas of Karl Marx (1818–1883). Using Freudian methods of free association, their poetry and prose drew upon the private world of the mind , traditionally restricted by reason and societal limitations , to produce surprising, unexpected imagery . The cerebral and irrational tenets of Surrealism find their ancestry in the clever and whimsical disregard for tradition fostered by Dadaism a decade earlier.
Poets impressed by the visual artists of the analytic, provocative, and erotic qualities of their work . For example, Duchamp's conceptually complex Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even (The Large Glass) (1915–23; Philadelphia Museum of Art) was admired by Surrealists and is considered a precursor to the movement because of its bizarrely juxtaposed and erotically charged objects . He executed the work on two panes of glass with materials such as lead foil, fuse wire, and dust. It combines chance procedures, plotted perspective studies, and laborious craftsmanship. The notes describe that his &quot;hilarious picture&quot; is intended to depict the erratic encounter between the &quot;Bride,&quot; in the upper panel, and her nine &quot;Bachelors&quot; gathered timidly below in an abundance of mysterious mechanical apparatus. In 1925, Breton substantiated his support for visual expression by reproducing the works of artists such as Picasso in the journal La Révolution Surréaliste and organizing exhibitions that prominently featured painting and drawing.
The visual artists who first worked with Surrealist techniques and imagery were the German Max Ernst (1891–1976), the Frenchman André Masson (1896–1987), the Spaniard Joan Miró (1893–1983), and the American Man Ray (1890–1976). Masson's free-association drawings of 1924 are curving, continuous lines out of which emerge strange and symbolic figures that are products of an uninhibited mind. Breton considered Masson's drawings akin to his automatism in poetry. The Potato ( 1999.363.50 ) of 1928 by Miró uses comparable organic forms and twisted lines to create an imaginative world of fantastic figures.
Austrian Expressionist Disciple of Freud alters the figure's facial features just enough to create a psychological intensity and agitation Explore deeper recesses of the human psyche especially the sexual aspects
One of the preeminent artists of his generation, Mark Rothko is closely identified with the New York School, a circle of painters that emerged during the 1940s as a new collective voice in American art. During a career that spanned five decades, he created a new and impassioned form of abstract painting. Rothko's work is characterized by rigorous attention to formal elements such as color, shape, balance, depth, composition, and scale yet, he refused to consider his paintings solely in these terms. He explained: It is a widely accepted notion among painters that it does not matter what one paints as long as it is well painted. This is the essence of academicism. There is no such thing as good painting about nothing.
Edward Hopper Nighthawks1942
Born in Wyoming and raised in Arizona and California, Jackson Pollock attended art school and worked in New York where he dominated the art scene in the 1940s and 1950s, becoming widely recognized as the leading Abstract Expressionist in America. Best known for the drip paintings that have come to exemplify the innovations and freedom of Abstract Expressionism, Pollock was also a gifted and prolific draughtsman. In fact, drawing played a seminal role throughout his career. He often used his sketches to work through artistic ideas and experiments, from the realistic studies of the 1930s to the personal symbolism of the 1940s and ultimately to the individually characteristic linear expressionism of the 1950s. Pollock's famous &quot;War&quot; is the only drawing he ever titled, and, although inscribed &quot;1947,&quot; it relates to the iconographically complex images he produced earlier, around 1943–44. In this composition, the monstrous destruction of war is conveyed both by the fierceness of the graphic execution and by the imagery, much of which is camouflaged by the many linear motions, darkened and thickened and highlighted with flashes of red and yellow pencil to heighten the dramatic intensity. The drawing's narrative is one of horrific proportions. A human figure and a bull are flung onto a raging pyre of human debris. To the right, the crucifixion of a hooded figure is suggested. Some of the imagery may be traced to Picasso's pair of etchings &quot;The Dream and Lie of Franco,&quot; and to the Spanish artist's epic painting on war, &quot;Guernica,&quot; both from 1937. Yet even as Pollock's work engages with the history of art and offers a statement on the universal horrors of war, it also has a personal dimension, drawing on from the psychological language of Surrealism that fueled his early works.
Jackson Pollack Full Fathom Five - detail
Self portrait Francis bacon
Gilbert and George, 1980
20th c Art
The Twentieth Century Da da daaaaaaaaa!!!
Chronology1933 Hitler becomes the German Chancellor1937 The Japanese invasion of China1939 The outbreak of World War II1942 Nuclear chain reaction produced in Chicago by Enrico Fermi1944 The production of the first digital computer1945 End of World War II1947 India and Pakistan become independent republics1956 Soviet forces crush the uprising in Hungary1957 The Treaty of Rome establishes the European EconomicCommunity1966 The Cultural Revolution begins in China
Leading Characteristics of 20 c. th● Greatest revolution in the history of Western painting● Artists broke away from the traditional and set unprecedented aims − Representing the subconscious − Metaphysical − Speed − Violent emotions● Development of Abstract Art − form, line and colour used independent of a subject● A lot of experimental work● Movements were formed – disbanded and reformed in rapid succession● Much interchange of ideas as artists moved from group to group● Manifestos were often written
Some popular movements included• Modernism • Neo-Plasticism• Fauvism • Expressionism• Symbolism • Surrealism Abstract art• Cubism • Abstract-Expressionism• Futurism • Op Art• Dadism • Pop Art
Art Nouveau1895 – 1920’sArchibald KnoxClaret jug, 1900–1901
School of Paris• 1900- 1940 • Picasso leading figure• Conventional subjects: • Huge wave if international – artists including: portraiture – Giorgio de Chirico – figure studies – Joan Miró – landscapes – Amedeo Modigliani – Cityscapes – Constantin Brancusi – still lifes – Marc Chagall• French Artists at the time included: – Henri Matisse – André Derain – Pierre Bonnard – Jean Dubuffet – Henri Rousseau
Expressionism Late 19th C‘ Expressionism, to my way of thinking, does not consist of the passion mirrored upon a human face or betrayed by a violent gesture. The whole arrangement of my picture is expressive. The place occupied by the figures or objects, the empty spaces around them, the proportions – everything plays a part’ Matisse
"An Expressionist wishes, above all, to express himself....[An Expressionist rejects] immediate perception and builds on more complex psychic structures....Impressions and mental images that pass through mental peoples soul as through a filter which rids them of all substantial accretions to produce their clear essence [...and] are assimilated and condense into more general forms, into types, which he transcribes through simple short-hand formulae and symbols." (Gordon, 1987) Antonin Matijcek
Expressionism• Main artists • Characteristics of their work: – Emil Nolde – representational – Max Beckmann – Distorted figures and objects to express the emotion – Carl Hofer – Employment of black outlines – August Macke – Sharp angular form – Edvard Munch – Clashing colours – Egon Schiele – Paint application expressive – Wassily Kandinsky • Characteristics of their movement – Only acceptable aim of art is to represent emotions and feelings – All elements of a painting pushed to this purpose
Josef AlbersYellow Climate, Homage to the Square
Surrealism Late 1910’sMain Artists Characteristics of their work:• Max Ernst – Realistic objects out of context• André Masson – Fantasy, dreamlike worlds• Joan Miró Characteristics of their movement• Man Ray • Began as literary movement• Giorgio de Chirico with French poets• Pablo Picasso experimenting with automatic• Marcel Duchamp writing (Breton)• Rene Magritte • Influenced by Sigmund Freuds• Salvador Dali Theories and dream studies • Karl Marx political idea • Look at subconscious for inspiration
Marcel DuchampBride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even (The Large Glass) (1915–23
“It is not the function of art to wallowin dirt for dirt’s sake, never its task to paint the state of decomposition, to draw cretins as the symbol ofmotherhood, to picture hunchbacked idiots as representatives of manly strength.”