Introduction“Learning, as a language based activity, isfundamentally and profoundly dependent onvocabulary knowledge. Learners must haveaccess to the meanings of words thatteachers, or their surrogates (e.g., otheradults, books, films, etc.), use to guide theminto contemplating known concepts in novelways (i.e. to learn something new).”(Baker, Simmons, & Kameenui, 1998)
Vocabulary AcquisitionHOW DOES VOCABULARYDEVELOPMENT SUPPORTREADING?
Vocabulary Knowledge is KeyChildren in lower socioeconomic groups hear fewerwords per hour than children in highersocioeconomic groups. (Hart & Risley)Vocabulary is increased by reading. Students thatread less learn fewer words. (Anderson & Nagy,1992)Vocabulary must be taught both in isolation and incontext. Inferring contexts in which words fit,instead of teacher-presented contexts may workbetter for some learners. (Curtis & Longo, 2001)
Why Is Our School In Need?Students in schools with higher poverty rateshave a more limited vocabulary.Our school is a Title I School (85%free/reduced lunch - families making lessthan the federal poverty income for theirfamily size per year)
What problems do learners usuallyexhibit in this area?The student may express frustration withreading.Students with a weak vocabulary mayalso have trouble expressing theirthoughts orally and written.A lack of connections among words invarious texts may also be noted.(Reading Rockets, 2011)
What should teachers know about this area of reading?Vocabulary is crucial to reading. Four types of vocabulary: •Listening Vocabulary •Speaking Vocabulary •Reading Vocabulary •Writing Vocabulary
What should teachers know aboutthis area of reading?“Children learn word meanings indirectly in threeways:” (National Institute for Literacy: ThePartnership for Reading) •engaging daily in oral language •listening to adults read to them •reading on their own“Direct instruction of vocabulary relevant to a giventext leads to better reading comprehension.”(National Institute for Literacy: The Partnership forReading)• specific word instruction• word learning strategies
Why is this an area of concern?Based on research mentioned, astrong vocabulary leads to betterreading comprehension.This is particularly important,considering the demographics ofour school.
Vocabulary AcquisitionSTRATEGIES AND ACTIVITIES
Vocabulary AcquisitionWHAT WAYS DO YOU PROMOTEVOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT INYOUR CLASSROOM?
Strategies and Activities forVocabulary AcquisitionELACCKL5c: Identify real-life connections between wordsand their use (e.g., note places at school that arecolorful).ELACCKL6: Use words and phrases acquired throughconversations, reading and being read to, and respondingto texts.Explore: Word Girl Power Words Game withstudents. With each new word word, teacher will leadstudents in discussion of the word and have studentsdetermine how the words can be used in a sentence.Adaptations: Higher grades can write the words.
Strategies and Activities forVocabulary AcquisitionELACC2L4d: Use knowledge of the meaning of individualwords to predict the meaning of compound words (e.g.,birdhouse, lighthouse, housefly; bookshelf, notebook,bookmark).Students will complete a frayer model to further work onnewly taught vocabulary. The teacher will give eachstudent a word, and the students will work through themodel by providing a definition, characteristics, anexample, and a non-example.http://interactive-notebooks.wikispaces.com/Frayer+model+vocabularyAdaptations: Students can draw instead of writing.
Strategies and Activities forVocabulary AcquisitionELACCKL5c: Identify real-life connections between wordsand their use (e.g., note places at school that arecolorful).ELACCKL6: Use words and phrases acquired throughconversations, reading and being read to, and respondingto texts.The teacher will photocopy the cover of the book thevocabulary is from and display it along with the 3-4complex vocabulary words. Students will help to developmovements to remember the 3-4 complex vocabularywords as they are read. Students will practice movementsand use movements as they hear the words.Adaptations: Students may be reading independently anddetermine words from reading that they would like to haveas vocabulary words. The students will use dictionaries todetermine meanings, create movements, and teach thewords to their classmates.
Strategies and Activities forVocabulary AcquisitionELACC1L4: Determine or clarify the meaning of unknownand multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade1 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array ofstrategies.a. Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning ofa word or phrase.Truth or bolognio: students are provided with dual-sidedsigns, with “Truth” on one side, and “Bolognio” on theother. Teacher will read a sentence, with a correspondingpicture, from the SmartBoard. If the vocabulary word ismisused, the students will hold up “Bolognio;” if the wordis used correctly, the students will hold up “Truth.” Adaptations: Students may write the correctly usedsentences.
Strategies and Activities forVocabulary AcquisitionELA5R3c. Determines the meaning of unfamiliarwords using knowledge of common roots, suffixes,and prefixes.Teacher will teach how to use common roots, suffixes, andprefixes to determine the meaning of unfamiliarwords. Teacher will have students practice breakingwords into parts to determine the meaning.Adaptations: For lower grades, teachers may choose tofocus on one part such as a prefix (un-). Students mayalso build words by being given a root word, a prefix, anda suffix.
ReferencesAnderson, R. C. (1992). Research foundations for wide reading. Paper commissioned by the WorldBank. Urbana, IL: Center for the Study of Reading.Baker, Simmons, & Kameenui. (1997). Vocabulary acquisition: Research bases. In Simmons, D. C. &Kameenui, E. J. (Eds.), What reading research tells us about children with diverse learning needs:Bases and basics. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Curtis, M.E., & Longo, A.M. (2001, November). Teaching vocabulary to adolescents to improvecomprehension. Reading Online, 5(4). Available:http://www.readingonline.org/articles/art_index.asp?HREF=curtis/index.htmlGeorgia Department of Education. (2012). CCSSI ELA Standards. Available:http://www.corestandards.org/assets/CCSSI_ELA%20Standards.pdfHart, B., & Risley, R. T. (1995). Meaningful differences in the everyday experience of young Americanchildren. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.National Institute for Literacy The Partnership for Reading.The research building blocks for teachingchildren to read put reading first kindergarten through grade 3. (3rd ed.).Reading Rockets. (2011). Reading rockets. Retrieved fromhttp://www.readingrockets.org/helping/target/vocabulary/University of Oregon: Center on teaching and learning. (n.d.). Retrieved fromhttp://reading.uoregon.edu/big_ideas/voc/voc_what.php