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Marketing Tourism

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Introduction to tourism marketing - 7p's

Introduction to tourism marketing - 7p's

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  • Transcript

    • 1. Marketing Tourism Hillary Jenkins, Otago Polytechnic
    • 2. Marketing Concept
      • ‘ Marketing is the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitably.’ (Chartered Institute of Marketing, UK)
    • 3. The Traditional Marketing Mix
      • Set of controllable variables blended by organisations for selected market segments
      • The Price
      • Place (distribution)
      • Product
      • Promotion
      Queenstown
    • 4. 4P’s of Marketing
      • Product
      • Design
      • Quality
      • Range
      • Brand name
      • Features
      • Price
      • List price
      • Discounts
      • Commissions
      • Surcharges
      • Extras
      • Place
      • Distribution channels
      • Methods of distribution
      • Coverage
      • Location
      • Promotion
      • Advertising
      • Sales promotion
      • Salesmanship
      • Publicity
      The Marketing Mix
    • 5. Product
      • Tourism products and services are designed for and continuously adapted to match changing needs, expectations and budget of the target market
    • 6. Place
      • Not only the location of the tourist attraction or facility but the location of points of sale that provide customers with access to tourist products
      • eg. I-site, accommodation, cafe
    • 7. Price
      • Used to achieve predetermined sales volume and revenue objectives
      • Price gives a product or service a perceived value in the eyes of the consumer
        • How would you use price to counteract demand exceeding supply?
    • 8. Promotion
      • The most visible of the 4p’s
      • Promotional techniques aim to increase awareness and demand for products
      • http://nz.youtube.com/watch?v=gwTpijLCfrc&feature=related
    • 9. Marketing Services
      • Tourism is a service.
      • Services differ from physical products,
        • This needs to be taken into account when marketing them
    • 10. Characteristics of Services
      • Intangibility
      • Heterogeneity
      • Temporary ownership
      • Perishability
      • Inseparability
    • 11. Intangibility
      • Not the physical portion (tangible) of the product
        • Performance or experience rendered by the service provider to the service consumer
      • Most tourism products are a mixture of tangible and intangible
    • 12. Inseparability
      • Services are usually produced and consumed at the same time
        • Think of a restaurant meal
      • This can make it difficult to separate the provider of the service from the service itself.
    • 13. Perishability
      • Services cannot be saved or stored as they expire during the simultaneous production and consumption process
        • Aircraft seat
        • Restaurant meal
        • Amusement park ride
    • 14. Heterogeneity
      • Standardisation
        • Difficult to achieve in a people based service industry
          • Quality control plays an important part
        • What forms of standardization can you think of?
    • 15. Ownership
      • Service customers usually only have access to or use a facility where a service is performed
        • Use of a hotel room for a holiday – you occupy the space only and have temporary use of the facilities
    • 16. How Tourism Differs
      • Tourism is more supply-led than other services
        • All ready have the product then research which market might be interested in purchasing it.
        • Dunedin the destination is already here who wants to visit.
      • Tourism product might involve the co-operation of several suppliers .
        • e.g. Package holiday
    • 17. How Tourism Differs
      • Tourism is a complex, extended product experience with no predictable critical evaluation point.
        • Pre trip anticipation and post trip reflection
        • While trips to the same destination may be the same different variables can make the trip different – and hard to evaluate against
    • 18. How Tourism Differs
      • Tourism is a high-involvement, high-risk product to its consumers
        • Involves committing large sums of money to something reasonably unknown
      • Tourism is a product partly constituted by the dreams and fantasies of its customers .
        • Unlike banking and car repair, tourism is not consumed for rational, functional purposes.
    • 19. How Tourism Differs
      • Tourism is a fragile industry susceptible to external forces beyond the control of its suppliers
        • Tourism organisations sometimes have to make rapid responses to crises in the form of product redesign, price reductions or promotional damage limitation.
    • 20. 7 P’s of Tourism Marketing
      • Price
      • Place
      • Product
      • Promotion
      • People
      • Process
      • Physical Evidence
    • 21. People
      • Know who your target market is
        • traveller or
        • tourist?
        • what do they expect?
      http://flickr.com/photos/wolfgangstaudt/2242014640
    • 22. People - Employees
      • A tourism organisations most valuable resource
        • Physical appearance, behaviour, knowledge and attitude has a powerful impact on customers perception of the tourism product
        • Ensure uniform, grooming etc. conform to branding and target market
    • 23. People - Employees
      • Ensure staff are trained to ensure the product is delivered in accordance with the marketing strategic plan.
      • Employees physically embody the product and are walking billboards from a promotional point of view – Zeithaml & Bitner (1996)
    • 24. Process
      • Process is inseparable product
        • If any part of the process is found to be unsuitable by the consumer, it could result in a negative evaluation of the whole product.
    • 25. Physical Evidence
      • Defined as the built environment owned and controlled by a tourism organisation
      • The tangible aspect of the tourism product
      • May be used to facilitate the service delivery process e.g. layout and signage
      • Communicates messages about quality, positioning and differentiation
    • 26. Think about the layout, colours , furnishings, sound systems at an airport http://flickr.com/photos/jamespaullong/940934988/ Physical Evidence
    • 27.
      • Marketing Tourism
      • Product and service
      • Tangible and intangible
      • People led and operated
      • Market orientated