• Infections that are passed from one person to another
during sexual activity
• How you get them: having unprotected vaginal sex, anal
sex or oral sex
• How you can avoid them: being abstinent or using a
• Most common types of STIs: herpes, chlamydia,
gonorrhea, HPV, syphilis
DR. DOUG BLACK ON STIS
Human Papilloma Virus
• The human papilloma virus, or HPV, is the most
common viral infection.
• There are over 30 types of HPV that are sexually
transmitted through oral, anal or vaginal sex.
• Vaccinations to reduce the chances of HPV are
available to young women.
• Genital Herpes is caused by the Herpes
• It is in the same family of viruses that cause
cold sores around the mouth. (Imagine having
a cold sore anywhere besides your mouth…
• The virus is transmitted by sexual activities or
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
• Human Immunodeficiency virus or HIV/Aids attacks the
body’s immune system, leaving infected individuals
unable to fight off other illness.
• It is transmitted through sexual activities, but also spread
by sharing items like razors, needles and toothbrushes –
any activity where one is in contact with another person’s
• It is not spread by hugging, shaking hands and other
• A virus that may have evolved from one that existed
• It makes sense if you study evolution that this virus
evolved into one that infects humansz
• A music written in the 1990s by now-deceased
playwright and composer Jonathan Larson
• Loosely based on the opera La Boheme
• Characters and plotline are based on the stories of close
friends of Larson’s who were all sick with or dying from
• Larson wanted to raise awareness of AIDS and prevent
the future generation from getting it
Characters in Rent video
• Mimi – dancer – HIV positive because of her own
• Roger – musician – HIV positive because he
contracted it from an ex-girlfriend who used heroin
• Angel – drag queen – HIV positive for reasons
• Collins – University professor and Angel’s boyfriend
AIDS Awareness -- Rent
• AIDS/HIV transmission:
• The end of AIDS:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IrE7mh7Emj4 (0:57 –
• What, in these scenes from Rent, connects to things we
have talked about this year in Health?
• What kind of choices was Mimi making?
Did you know that
there is no cure for
AIDS and that it is a
• Chlamydia is one of the most common STIs especially
among people ages 15 to 24.
• Symptoms are mild or absent and can include abnormal
discharge from the vagina or penis, burning when peeing
and pain in the lower back, nausea, pain during
intercourse and bleeding between periods.
• If left untreated it can cause infertility in both women and
• Gonorrhea is an infection that often is transmitted at the
same time as Chlamydia and shares the same symptoms.
• It is found most commonly in people aged 15 to 29.
• If left untreated it can cause infertility in both women and
• Syphilis is called the great imitator because it shows signs
that other diseases show.
• There are three stages of Syphillis.
• Stage 1 starts with a small painless sore where the bacteria
entered the body.
• In stage two, a person may develop a general feeling of
being unwell or flat smooth warts in the genital area.
• In stage three, syphilis that has been left untreated can cause
heart problems, mental issues, and even death.
• This single-celled organism can infect the urethra,
bladder, vagina, cervix or get under the foreskin.
• You can start having symptoms just a few days after
• Symptoms: liquidy, foul-smelling vaginal discharge,
itchiness around the vagina or penis, soreness of the inner
thighs, pain during urination.
• It can be transmitted through sexual activity and by
sharing sex toys.
Pubic Lice (Crabs)
• Pubic lice are also called crabs, because that’s what they
look like under a microscope.
• Public Lice live in pubic hairs around the genitals.
• They lay eggs at the base of the hair.
• Symptoms: itchiness, pain, redness and general
discomfort in the genital area.
• These mites are transmitted during sexual activity,
prolonged physical contact or sharing of towels and
bedsheets with someone who already has scabies.
• They burrow under the skin and lay eggs.
• Symptoms are similar to the symptoms of pubic lice
(crabs) small, itchy bumps and blisters, and wavy red
lines where the mites have burrowed.
• The best way to avoid getting an STI is to be abstinent (to not
• Knowing your partner’s sexual history if they have had
sex with someone with an STI, you will get that STI from
them if you have sex with them
• Using a condom. Many STIs are transmitted through the
emission of fluid from the vagina or penis. Covering the penis
with a condom greatly reduces the area where STIS can be
• STIs such as herpes, scabies and crabs cannot be prevented
by using a condom.
More about condoms
• Condoms are long tubes of thin, durable latex
• They cover the penis prior to entering the
vagina during sex and are removed
immediately after ejaculation
• They block any ejaculations from the opening
of the penis
• If used correctly, condoms are 97% effective
in preventing sperm from entering the vagina
HOW TO PUT ON A CONDOM
• Prevent most STIs
• Can be used during oral sex
• Should be used during vaginal or anal sex to protect
Will using the birth
control pill prevent
Birth Control Pills
• The birth control pill is taken once a day and
prevents the egg from being released from the
ovaries during ovulation.
• This means that if sperm is ejaculated into the
vagina during sex, there will be no egg in the
uterus to fertilize and no baby will be concieved.
• The birth control pill does not provide any
protection whatsoever against any type of STI.
How is the pill used?
• If used properly, birth control
pills are 99% effective in pre-
• The pill is taken once per day
at the same time each day. If
a user normally takes their pill at 10 am and
sometimes forgets to take their pill until 8
pm, their chances of accidental pregnancy
will go up.
• Positive side effects of the pill: regulated
menstrual cycle, reduction in menstrual cramps,
• Negative side effects: mood swings, nausea (at
first), weight gain.
• A T-shaped plastic and/or metal instrument
• Embedded in the uterus
• Alters the consistency of mucus in the cervix
• Releases hormones in the body that are hostile to
sperm and eggs
• Can last for up to 5 – 10 years
• A shot administered every 12 weeks through a
• The shot prevents the ovaries from releasing eggs
• It thickens the mucus in the cervix to keep sperm
from entering the uterus
Where to obtain birth
• Informed Choices – 562 Brunswick St,
Fredericton, NB – Phone: (506) 459-5901
• Planned Parenthood Fredericton – 390 King St.,
Fredericton, NB – Phone: (506) 454-6333
• Your doctor – some insurance companies will
cover the cost of birth control without informing
your parents that you are using it
• Pregnancy occurs when an egg is fertilized
by a sperm during sexual intercourse and
is embedded in the side of the uterus.
• Pregnancy is often planned, but will occur
if a male and female have sex without a
condom or without properly using the Pill,
an IUD, etc.
• Pregnancy lasts for approximately 9
months and is divided into 3 trimesters,
marked by growth of the embryo into a
Teen Pregnancy – As
Scary as it Looks
• How did you react to this TV ad?
• Have you seen TV ads/commercials of any kind that
discourage teen pregnancy before?
• How was this one different?
• Why was it different?
BUT IT HAPPENS ANYWAY…
• Why are more TV shows including storylines
about teenage pregnancy?
• Why do these storylines still surprise us?
WHY are some teens
having sex anyway?
• Take a minute to think by yourself about some of
the reasons teenagers might have sex or unsafe
• In your groups, you’ll have 30 seconds to put
your ideas on paper.
• Every 30 seconds, your group will rotate to a
• We will collect all of our ideas on the board.
The National Campaign – Teens on Teen
Costs of pregnancy
• 1 box of canned of baby food = 5$. $60/month
• 1 bottle of baby formula = $10. $120/month
• 1 box of diapers = $10. $150/month
• Baby clothes = $100/month
• Baby toys = $50/month
• Add in living costs ($1000/month, your own food and
• It adds up! How much do you think it costs to raise a
baby for one year? For all 18 years of their childhood?
The costs of raising a baby
• Having the baby
• Miscarriage/ectopic pregnancy
• Adoption is a legal process by which the
biological child of a parent becomes the custody
of another person
• Normally, the child will be raised by the adopted
parents as their own child
• The biological and adoptive parents normally
agree prior to adoption how and when the child
will meet/interact with their child
What is abortion?
• Abortion is a medical procedure that occurs very
early in the first term that terminates the
• The procedure involves the dilation of the cervix
and the extraction of the embryo (a small mass of
cells) by aspiration
• The operation takes between 10 and 15 minutes
and is 100% safe.
• Consider the word “consequence”. Which of the
potential consequences of becoming sexually
active is the most serious to you?
• What are some important people or things in your
life that would change as a result of pregnancy or
• What is one thing you have learned in this unit?
What is one thing you would like to know more
• 3 sentences per answer minimum please!
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