What are pre, formative and summative assessments?
AssessmentRefers to the full range of information gatheredand synthesized by teachers about their studentsand their classroom. Assessment is a continuousprocess (Arends, 2007).There are two general uses or functions ofassessment: Formative assessment andSummative assessment (Woolfolk et al 2008).
Formative assessmentIs an ungraded testing used before and duringteaching to aid in planning and diagnosis(Woolfolk et al 2008). Formative assessment is a process used byteachers and students during instruction thatprovides explicit feedback to adjust on-goingteaching and learning in order to improve student
Formative assessmentFormative assessment refers to assessment forlearning which is focused on monitoringstudent response to and progress withinstructions. It provides immediate feedback toboth teacher and student. (Johnson &Jenkins, 2009)In formative assessment here is a pre-test whichis termed Pre-Assessment.
Formative assessmentThis pre-assessment or pre-test helps the teacherto determine what are the students’ knowledgeand skills in order to assist with planning(Arends, 2007).There is also a diagnostic test which identifies astudent area of achievement and weakness in aparticular subject, which can give an idea ofdifficulty the student is experiencing.
Formative assessmentIt should be noted that the pre-test anddiagnostic test are not graded and theformative test do not count toward finalgrades (Woolfolk et al 2008).
Summative assessmentAre cumulative evaluation used to measuregrowth after instruction and are generally givenat the end of a course in order to determinewhether long term goals have been met(Coffey, 2012)Summative assessment focus on what the studenthas learned at the end of a unit of instruction or atthe end of a grade level (e.g. standard one,National Test) ( Johnson & Jenkins, 2009).
Summative assessmentSummative assessment purpose is to let theteachers and students know the level ofaccomplishment attained. The final exam isclassic example (Woolfolk et al 2008).
Tools used in AssessmentThe tools used in pre-assessment, summative andformative assessment are numerous. A variety oftools are used for assessment including tests,rubrics, interviews, focus groups, survey,observation, and portfolio. There is no one-sizefits-all approach in assessment.A good assessment typically employs multipletools and approaches tailored for differentpurposes (Stony Brook University, 1999).
Tools used in AssessmentTest are used to assess knowledge and thinkingover a range of content or to assess dispositionsand interests. It is the most reliable way to assessknowledge and thinking in a content areadomain.It is the best way to cover a large number of factand concepts. However it requires clearly writtenitems that appropriately sample a range of
Tools used in Assessmentcontent material. (Stony Brook University,1999). Performance tasks are used to assess in-depththinking in one area or to assess skills attained orproducts created. It allows measurement of indepth thinking, skills or products not readilyassessable by tests.However it requires clear expectations for tasksand scoring to provide meaningful assessmentinformation (Stony Brook University, 1999).
Tools used in AssessmentPortfolios are used to document progress ordevelopment or to show case complexachievement of a range of skills. It allows forassessment of student’s development and someownership and control by studentsHowever it require clear purpose, focusedconstruction, and long-term attention to give anymore useful information than stand-aloneassessments (Stony Brook University, 1999).
Tools used in AssessmentSurveys are used to assess opinions and attitudesfrom target populations. It is a very efficientmethod to collect information from a largenumber of people.However it require a sound sampling strategies,and good response rates. Survey questions shouldbe carefully written to keep respondent mistakesand bias to a minimum(Stony Brook University, 1999).
Tools used in AssessmentObservations are used to assess behaviouraloutcomes through direct observation. It is theleast intrusive assessment method that allows forassessment of student performance.However it requires a clear guidance todistinguish what is actually happening and whatthe observers impressions. A rubric or anobservation protocol will help minimizesubjective judgment (Stony Brook University,1999).
Tools used in AssessmentFocus groups are used to brainstorm ideas orcollect in-depth attitudes and opinions from agroup of people. It is an interactive way ofassessing attitudes and opinions, and a costeffective way of collecting suggestions andrequirements when individual interviews are notfeasible.However it require good planning andorganization to effectively solicit information
Tools used in Assessmentfrom participants (Stony Brook University,1999).
Teaching PlanFacilitator’s Name: Mrs. PennyTopic: Sexually Transmitted DiseasesDuration of lesson: Three sessions for two hourseachTime: 8:00 am-10:00 amVenue: Mount Plesant Secondary SchoolAudience: The Students of Mount PlesantSecondary School attending Ms. Penny’s class(form three)
Teaching PlanAudience: The Students of Mount PlesantSecondary School attending Ms. Penny’sClass (form three)Number of Students: Approximately 40 studentsDate: Wednesday 22nd, 23rd and 24th October, 2012
Teaching PlanAimThe primary goal of these sessionsWould be to provide information related toSexually Transmitted Diseases, clarify mythsand misconceptions and promote behaviorthat prevents the spread of STDs.
Teaching PlanCore ObjectivesThe pupils will: Understand the nature and modes oftransmission of STDs. Recognize common signs and symptoms ofSTDs. Be knowledgeable about appropriate resources,counseling and medical care. Recognize and refute myths relating to STDs.
Teaching PlanEngage in critical thinking regardinginformed decision making about personal andsocial behavior that diminishes the risk ofcontracting an STD.
Teaching PlanLearning OutcomesAt the end of the teaching sessions the pupils willbe able to: Define the term STD. List the most common STDs and theircausative agents. Identify the common signs and symptoms ofSTDs. List possible complications of STDs.
Teaching Plan Describe the modes of STD and HIVtransmission and list high risk behaviors fortheir acquisition. Describe current treatment modalities of STDsand HIV. Discuss precautionary/preventative measuresthat can prevent the spread of STDs and HIV. Identify, discuss and clarify common myths andmisconceptions about STIs.
Teaching Plan Identify resources to attain help regardingSTDs.Teaching Methodology: The subject will facilitated using a mixture oflectures and discussions delivered by specialistsfrom the departments of public health andinfectious diseases.
Teaching Plan Role play and movie presentations would alsobe integrated to depict real life scenarios and theimpact of their decisions directly and indirectlyon their future.Teaching Strategies: Activating prior learning PowerPoint presentation Encourage student participation and discussion
Summative AssessmentThe following represents a summative evaluationbased on the above teaching plan.Section A1. Define in your own words the term STD/STI.2. List 5 risky behaviors that can result in theacquisition of an STD__________ __________ ____________________ __________
Summative Assessment3. Which of the diseases listed is NOT an STDA. Hand-foot-mouth disease B. UrethritisC. Chancroid D. Ectoparasitic infections4. If left untreated which STD can lead todeafness and death?A. HIV B. SyphillisC. Pubic Lice D. Genital Warts
Summative Assessment6.Which of the following is a possible symptomof an STD?A. Painful Urination B. Facial swellingC. Itching on palms and soles.D. All of the above7.List 8 common complications of STDs__________ __________ ___________________ __________ _________
Summative AssessmentSection BSelect True or False for each of the statementsbelow based on the information you recentlylearned.1.Some STDs have no visible symptoms.True False2. Untreated STDs eventually clear up.True False
Summative Assessment3. Mutually faithful monogamous partners havelittle or no risk for HIV infection.True False4. Testing for STDs is only available throughprivate physicians.True False
Summative Assessment5. It is possible to be infected with more than oneSTD at a time.True False6. Sex is not the only way that STDs aretransmitted.True False
Summative Assessment7. By changing sex partners often, you lowerYour risk of contracting an STD.True False8. Condoms are the best protection from STDs.True False9. Early-stage sexually transmitted diseases(STDs) without symptoms are not contagious.True False
Summative Assessment10.Gonorrhea is contracted sexually and frompublic or shared toilet seats.True FalseSection CMatch the STD with its causative agent____Genital herpes a. neisseria gonorrhoeae____Syphillis b. phthirus pubis____Chalmydia c. treponella Pallidum
Summative Assessment____Yeast infections e. chlmydia trachomatis____HIV /AIDS f. candida albicans____Pubic lice g. humanimmunodeficiency virus
Summative AssessmentSection DAnswer all questions in this section.1. STDs are fast becoming a major concernamong adolescents. Discuss the need for of aSexual Education programme in schools notingthe benefits and limitations of the endeavour.2. You encounter a sexually active 13 year oldwho began experiencing itching, redness,swelling and burning sensation in the genital
Summative Assessmentregion. What advice would you give to rectifythese signs and symptoms and identify theresource systems available to the individualand their family.
Rubric According to Dr. O’Donnell Dean of education and curriculum development at Pittsburgh University rubric is essentially a scaled tool with levels of achievement and clearly defined criteria related to each level and placed in a grid. Rubrics are typically used to assess some type of performance, procedure or product.
RubricA number of studies have demonstrated the positive impact that well-designed rubrics have on dental students pre-clinical learning. Designing a rubric to capture the key elements of a skill in an assessment with a grader friendly format can be a challenge. Rubrics can help identify areas of students strengths and weaknesses and simultaneously provide valuable detailed feedback to the student.
Rubric Since Biblical times we know about sexually transmitted diseases. With reference to 1 Samuel 6:19. “And it was so, that after they had carried it about, the hand of the Lord was against the city with a very great destruction: and he smote the men of the city, both small and great, and they had emerods in their secret parts.”