Leadership The Impact Of Gender (Education Appx)


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This is a research paper which aims to contribute to the ongoing debate about gender imbalance at leadership level in organisations

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Leadership The Impact Of Gender (Education Appx)

  1. 1. Leadership The Impact of Gender January 2010
  2. 2. Introduction Research carried out by the US Bureau of Labor Statistics and problems before suggesting steps that can be taken to address published on the Catalyst website (www.catalyst.org) shows the issue. that women account for 47% of the US labour force. However, There are, of course, obvious physical differences between the 2009 statistics for the Fortune 500 show that only 15 of men and women. This paper will focus on something less the Fortune 500 and 29 of the Fortune 1000 have female concrete but no less important – personality. Over several CEOs. A similar situation prevails in the UK where, according years Glowinkowski International Ltd (GIL) has measured to research conducted by Cranfield University School of male and female personality across a wide range of cultures Management and published in The Female FTSE Board Report and different organisational sectors using a tool called the 2009, only 12.2% of directorships are held by women, a figure Glowinkowski Predisposition Indicator (GPI™). GPI™ measures which falls to 5.2% for executive directorships. In the FTSE predispositions, defined as the underlying preferences or 100, 25% of organisations have no female directors at all. natural behaviours of an individual. Sometimes called traits, Referring to the gender imbalance in a recent interview in predispositions represent the individual, stable characteristics the Financial Times, Helen Alexander, President of the CBI which determine ‘who we are’. commented on the “danger of losing real talent … at an GPI™ has been developed for use in a business environment important time”. Organisations risk having a board which and the data, structured across three core feedback models, doesn’t represent its customers as well as increasing the is contextualised so as to make it applicable to the way danger of ‘groupthink’, something that occurs within groups individuals prefer to operate in organisational life. The models of people with similar backgrounds, i.e. ‘all male’ boards. The are as follows: consequences of these issues are potentially serious from a • Problem Solving and Implementation Style; in other words, business perspective. There are just seven women in director how an individual thinks around a problem and implements positions in the FTSE 100 banks. The FT’s recent commentary their plans on the financial disaster being at least in part a product of “testosterone fuelled excesses” is not surprising. • Communication and Interpersonal Style; how an individual interacts with others and the way they prefer to behave in In the Foreword of Cranfield University’s 2009 report, Harriet a social context Harman, Leader of the House of Commons and Minister for Women and Equality references “old boy networks” and • Feelings and Self Control; how emotional an individual is, reflects that “there is still much more to be done”. This the way they feel in their own skin and the extent to which suggests there is an important socio-cultural problem they react to impulses and desires needing to be addressed. It is, however, beyond the scope of For the purpose of this paper, data will be presented as the current paper to do this. Rather than looking at the issue a comparison of the position of men and women on the at the macro level, here we take more of a micro dimensions which make up the GPI™. This data will be but no less important level of analysis, investigating the discussed in terms of the way it contributes to behaviour and, individual differences, or rather, the gender1 differences, where there are differences between men and women, the which exist. These gender differences will be discussed in behavioural consequences of the predisposition differences terms of how they contribute to the wider socio-cultural will be reported. Predisposition and Behaviour It is important to note at this stage that predisposition behaviour that delivers results and raises performance and and behaviour are not the same. Although predispositions ultimately, it is behaviour, not predispositions for which an encompass the way we prefer to behave, other situational organisation pays. That said, predispositions are likely to and environmental factors influence our behaviour. Situations influence behaviour in the extent to which an individual can therefore encourage or require an individual to behave feels comfortable behaving in a certain way and therefore, ‘out of character’ to get the job done/deliver the desired the extent to which they will be aware of and deliver their outcome and performance. Behaviour should be looked at as required behaviours. an interaction arising from the combination of a person (their The associations we make between predisposition and predispositions) and the situation they are in. behaviour are based upon 25 years of experience in giving The difference between predisposition and behaviour is a personality feedback and working in the organisational key point because it is behaviour which really matters. It is development arena. ©2010 Glowinkowski™ International Limited 2 Introduction / Predisposition and Behaviour
  3. 3. Leadership - The Impact of Gender Differences in Predisposition In the study, 3,719 individuals’ data from the GPI™ database The GPI™ is a 182 item personality indicator. Data is presented were included. Of this sample, 2,328 were men and 1,391 across three primary feedback models which can be broken were women. The sample was drawn from a broad range of down into 22 sub-dimensions. managers and executives GIL had encountered through its Data comparisons were made between the raw data of consultancy interventions in recent years. They were spread men and women at the sub-dimension level. The data geographically around the globe and were members of many was subjected to a One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) different types of organisations, from small entrepreneurial to statistically study the significance of the differences start ups to large multi-national PLCs belonging to a range of between the means before being considered in terms of the different sectors, from financial services to religious orders, consequences for the behaviour of the two groups. from science and technology to education. Results and Discussion Before reporting the findings of the study and discussing the Both women and men can be thought of as conscientious but differences that exist in the data, it is important to point out in different ways. The female form is about attainment of that there are potentially positive and negative behavioural standards, detail and results focus. The male form is more implications for all predispositions. To say that men differ about drive; influencing others, developing high aspirations from women suggests that there are resulting advantages and and striving for more. disadvantages for both genders. The other differentiators which merit mention are the greater Clear differences were found in the data at the raw level. In male tendency to be interested in combining abstract, fact, out of the 22 scales, 17 showed a statistically significant apparently disconnected pieces of information (Conceptual) difference. Of these differences, 15 were at the p<0.001 level. in order to form forward thinking, long term, big shift In real terms, this means the significance level is extremely ideas for change (Revolutionary). There is a lower level of high. In fact, there is less than a one in one thousand chance Impulsivity implying less of a tendency to act, then think. of the differences being reported as significant and caused by Classic research suggests a Disciplined nature – “Delayed gender when they actually occurred by chance. Gratification” - leads to greater long term results (See Walter The 17 dimensions showing significant differences are shown Mischel’s Marshmallow Experiments3). That said, Impulsivity on the next page. can afford an individual the opportunity to get ahead. It is more of a risk taking stance but one that can reap rewards. Data is compared against a normative group and plotted on Whilst the Disciplined person can talk themselves out of the scales to create a personality profile which shows the trying and never know if they would have succeeded, the strength of predispositions in comparison to the rest of the Impulsive type is more likely to try and face the consequence population. Completing this process with the average profiles if they fail. of men and women is illustrative of the differences between genders that exist. Definitions of the scales are provided in Finally, men are shown to be less Modest than women. Appendix 1. Although Modest people would hope they can let their achievements speak for themselves, Assuming implies a desire Overall, women were found to have higher Anxiety and lower to sell your virtues which lessens the risk of being overlooked Self Esteem than men. Men were found to be more Assertive, for promotion. suggesting they are more likely to surface issues and raise their thoughts. It is important to reiterate the point that there are positive and negative behavioural implications associated with all The male and female forms of Extraversion look markedly predisposition types. different. Whilst the female Extraversion of Fun Loving and Outgoing implies an encouraging warmth, friendliness and These differences complement past research in the area. sociability - especially when combined with an Affiliative Alan Feingold’s review4 carried out at Yale University in nature - the male ‘colour’ of Extraversion, combining the the mid nineties found men to be higher in assertiveness more Assertive and Serious Minded tendencies, has a much whilst women were found to be higher in gregariousness harder edge. Combined with Social Assuredness and less of an (i.e. sociability – more outgoing), anxiety, trust and Affiliative tendency, the male engagement style is likely to be tendermindedness. Paul Costa and Robert McCrae, famed more forthright and challenging. for their work in the development of the Big 5 model, along ©2010 Glowinkowski™ International Limited Differences in Predisposition / Results and Discussion 3
  4. 4. Dimension Direction of difference Anxiety Women more tense, less relaxed Self Esteem Women higher self conscious, lower self esteem Impulsivity Women more impulsive, less disciplined Change Orientation Women more incremental, less radical Information Processing Women more practical, less conceptual Implementation Style Women more outcome orientated, less spontaneous Conscientiousness Women more conscientious, less cursory Achievement Women more perfectionist, less pragmatic Sociability Women more outgoing, less reserved Assertiveness Women higher in accepting, lower in assertiveness Hedonism Women more fun loving, less serious minded Affiliation Women more affiliative, less unaffiliative Conformity Women more conforming, less dissenting Modesty Women more modest, less assuming Influence Women more consensual, less persuasive Ambitiousness Women more content, less ambitious Energy Women more energetic, less paced Table 1: The significant predisposition differences of men and women with Antonio Terracciano5 replicated and expanded upon Michael Kirton’s well known Adaptor-Innovator model has these findings across a broader range of traits in a more consistently shown men to be more innovative and women recent meta-analysis6, finding that women tend to be higher to be more adaptive7. These findings have been reliably in Agreeableness, Neuroticism, Warmth and Openness to recorded across cultures. In relation to GPI™, Innovators Feelings, whilst men tend to be higher in Assertiveness and are Revolutionary and Cursory whilst Adaptors are more Openness to Ideas (shown in the present study through higher Conscientious and Evolutionary. We can find from the current Revolutionary, Conceptual and Intuitive ‘scores’). Costa et al study that the male population is a more innovative one in make note of the fact that the variation is greater between predisposition terms. individuals within genders than it is between the genders, Although both reliable and valid, firm conclusions cannot something we would not deny (we are looking at the average be drawn from predisposition data alone on the imbalance profiles of men and women, which doesn’t mean all women between men and women in senior roles in the workplace. It are Accepting), but conclude that “gender differences are is behaviour which sets individuals apart and it is (or should modest in magnitude, consistent with gender stereotypes, be) behaviour which an organisation bases its personnel and replicable across cultures” (p 328). decisions on. Nevertheless, the data undoubtedly points ©2010 Glowinkowski™ International Limited 4 Results and Discussion
  5. 5. Leadership - The Impact of Gender Male Female Incremental Cognition Radical Incremental Cognition Radical Evolutionary Revolutionary Evolutionary Revolutionary Practical Conceptual Practical Conceptual Rational Intuitive Rational Intuitive Focused Conscientiousness, Attainment Flexible Conscientiousness, Attainment Focused Flexible Outcome Spontaneous Outcome Spontaneous Conscientious Cursory Conscientious Cursory Perfectionist Pragmatic Perfectionist Pragmatic Driven Conscientiousness, Drive Measured Conscientiousness, Drive Driven Measured Persuasive Consensual Persuasive Consensual Ambitious Content Ambitious Content Energetic Paced Energetic Paced Extravert Extraversion Introvert Extraversion Extravert Introvert Outgoing Reserved Outgoing Reserved Assertive Accepting Assertive Accepting Fun Loving Serious Minded Fun Loving Serious Minded Soc. Assured Soc. Uncertain Soc. Assured Soc. Uncertain Collectivist Agreeableness Individualist Agreeableness Collectivist Individualist Affiliative Unaffiliative Affiliative Unaffiliative Trusting Questioning Trusting Questioning Conforming Dissenting Conforming Dissenting Modest Assuming Modest Assuming Self-Contained Emotionality Expressive Emotionality Self-Contained Expressive Relaxed Tense Relaxed Tense Placid Discontented Placid Discontented Optimistic Pessimistic Optimistic Pessimistic Self Confident Self Conscious Self Confident Self Conscious Disciplined Impulsive Disciplined Impulsive Male Female Figure 1: The average profiles of men and women2 ©2010 Glowinkowski™ International Limited Results and Discussion 5
  6. 6. Likely strengths of the Likely strengths of the average profile for women average profile for men Works well in a structured environment Working in less well defined structures Delivers well on defined tasks Finds fostering warm relationships built on trust engaging Finds politically orientated relationship building engaging People minded and comfortable in group environments Independently minded and less group orientated Responds well to supportive, coaching style management Responds well to less supportive, coaching style management Table 2: Advantages and strengths of different predisposition profiles towards the need to do further research, this time looking at the factor which distinguishes high from average or poor performers: that is behaviour. Behaviour Any individual that has to achieve through others has a leadership challenge. The challenge is to build a positive 3. Positional Climate (how it ‘feels’ in an organisation) and win the Building capability and empowering others through effective engagement of employees, galvanising their support for the delegation achievement of the organisation’s goals and in the process, driving up organisational performance. Irrespective of the size or scope of this challenge, it is the leader’s behaviour which 4. Constructive determines whether they will be successful. Maintaining open and healthy relationships within and outside Through our research and consulting work, we have measured the team; dealing with difficult situations early on and observed six behavioural approaches to leadership. None of these approaches should be used exclusively or at the 5. Democratic expense of any other. In fact, in order to create an engaging Climate, leaders should utilise all of the approaches. The Involving others in decision-making and planning activities, situation should dictate which approach or combination of building trust and encouraging others to put forward ideas approaches is used at any one time. The approaches are as and suggestions; avoiding coercion follows: 6. Developmental 1. Directional Developing others to fully realise their career aspirations, Providing a clear sense of direction and purpose and aligning as well as enhancing current performance; building the what happens on the ground, day-to-day, to that overall goal organisation’s capability for the future 2. Engaging Engaging the commitment and enthusiasm of others to build energy and momentum ©2010 Glowinkowski™ International Limited 6 Results and Discussion / Behaviour
  7. 7. Leadership - The Impact of Gender Thinking about behaviour in terms of these six approaches is All are orientated towards showing pro-activity and direction. complicated, particularly from a behavioural skills training Over the last 25 years we have measured and observed these perspective. However, these six approaches can be grouped dimensions in approximately 20,000 individuals. Within this into two dimensions. The first dimension is highly people- time, we have seen leaders who display high levels of concern focused. The approaches that fit within this dimension are: whilst others display low levels. The former can be described • Engaging as being Concerned For People whilst the latter can be • Developmental described as being Indifferent Towards People. Similarly, we • Democratic have witnessed leaders who display high levels of directional behaviour and others who display virtually no direction at all. They are linked by the commonality of ‘showing concern’ for Within this dimension, the former can be thought of as being other individuals. By ‘concern’ we do not mean ‘nice’. Rather, Directive and the latter as being Passive8. there is recognition by the leader that for success, people are important. Our research has led to the development of the Glowinkowski™ The second dimension has more of a task-focus. The Model of Behaviour. The basic premise behind the model is approaches that fit within this dimension are: that the two dimensions cannot be looked at in isolation; in fact, they go hand in hand - whilst a leader is displaying • Directional directive behaviour (high or low), they are also displaying a • Positional level of concern. In the model therefore, the two factors are • Constructive combined, creating four behavioural styles as seen in figure 2. DIRECTIVE (Proactive) A DIRECTIVE DIRECTIVE and and INDIFFERENT CONCERNED A A INDIFFERENT CONCERNED (Towards People) (For People) PASSIVE PASSIVE and and INDIFFERENT CONCERNED A PASSIVE (Reactive) Figure 2. The Glowinkowski™ Model of Behaviour ©2010 Glowinkowski™ International Limited Behaviour 7
  8. 8. The characteristics of the sides that make up the dimensions are as follows: • Directive: Proactive - Taking the lead, being in charge, driving forward, making things happen, task focused, • Hostile • Assertive exercising control • Inflexible • Flexible • Concerned: For People - displaying respect, interested, • Over-demanding • Information • Controlling seeking empathising and sensitive to the feelings, needs, etc. of • Narrow-minded • Results-minded others • Talks rather than • Involving • Passive: Reactive - unresisting, following others, concedes, listens abdicating control, submitting responsibility • Indifferent: Towards People - lacking regard, uncaring, not • Detached • Too friendly sensitive to the feelings, needs, etc. of others • Cagey • Unstructured • Defensive • Conciliatory Each style is characterised by a different set of behaviours as • Uninterested • Conceding described below: • Uninvolved • Indirect • Wary • Non- demanding Red 1 (Control and Demand) Red 1 behaviour is typically dominant and dictatorial. Red 1 uses authority and position to intimidate, pressurise and force others. Communication takes the form of ‘I’ll talk, you listen’; collaboration is by no means the Red 1’s top priority, Figure 3. Characteristics of the four styles preferring to go it alone. Amber 2 (Avoid and Abdicate) It is important to understand several things when thinking Amber 2 leadership behaviour is cautious and distant. The about this model and the behaviour that the quadrants Amber 2 style is to hold off and as they see it, let others describe: make the mistakes. Amber 2 is typified by a pessimistic view that people cannot be lead to develop and improve their • No one behaves in just one of these four ways. An individual’s behaviour is far more dynamic than that, performance. Characteristically speaking, Amber 2 takes a displaying characteristics from each of the quadrants as back seat and ‘leads’ from afar. they go about their roles Green 3 (Befriend and Pacify) • Individual behaviours always fit within one of the four quadrants Green 3 behaviour is disorganised and unplanned. Green 3 is • Individuals should not be labelled as Red 1, Amber 2, geared towards being liked, tending to be overly agreeable Green 3 or Blue 4. It is behaviour which is being observed and undemanding. It is highly sociable, often too much so, and and thus it is behaviour which should be categorised results are not pursued with any great determination. Raising contentious issues can be difficult for a person displaying • Behaviour is not personality. Behavioural styles from each of the four quadrants can be adopted in a single Green 3 because they want to keep things harmonious. interaction, but personality remains constant and unchanged Blue 4 (Challenge and Engage) Behaviour can be observed and therefore measured. Blue 4 behaviours combine a directional, proactive approach However, for the purpose of research studies and consultancy with concern for others. Behaviour tends to be results focused interventions, we measure it using a 360 degree tool called but collaborative and open to considering the opinions of the Engagement Style Inventory (ESI). ESI provides an others in setting direction. Communication is two-way and individual with feedback relating to the style in which they candid. Blue 4 galvanizes support and motivates through deliver certain behaviours, i.e. whether they perform in a Red considering and being responsive to the individual. 1, Amber 2, Green 3 or Blue 4 way. ©2010 Glowinkowski™ International Limited 8 Behaviour
  9. 9. Leadership - The Impact of Gender Differences in Behaviour Data was analysed for a subsample of the GPI™ sample that had the same as in the personality analysis. For the ESI - a attended GIL behavioural skills training and had completed ESI respondent measure which combines both normative and beforehand. Including 70 men and 37 women, the proportion ranking styles of questioning - each of the participants had of women in the study (a little over a third) was approximately their behaviour rated by at least three other people. Results and Discussion In competency terms, the similarity in all but Red 1 Blue Green Amber Red behaviour suggests that the competency profiles of men 4 3 2 1 and women are alike. We’re likely to see a similar level of Male 50.7 17.6 13.5 18.2 threshold behaviours between men and women which lead to good performance. The less abrasive, more Female 49.0 17.3 12.4 21.2 collaborative style reported for men however suggests they are more likely to deliver a greater level of the Table 3: Behavioural style scores reported by immediate reports differentiating, truly added-value behaviours. The differentiating elements are those that gain commitment It is clear from the data that the difference in behaviour amongst direct reports, increase discretionary effort and between men and women, as rated by immediate reports, encourage them to transcend personal goals for the goals of is not a pronounced one. Behavioural style was shown the organisation. Such transformational leadership develops to be similar across Blue 4, Amber 2 and Green 3. The others and increases the talent pool of an organisation. These difference between men and women was found to be more are the behaviours which we have found through our research substantial however for Red 1 Behaviour with women scoring to most impact business performance. significantly higher than men (Female mean = 21.2 , Male Through an understanding of this framework and practice, mean = 18.2, F(1,105)=4.465, p<.05). This difference suggests individuals can increase their level of differentiating that individuals working for females perceive their manager behaviours. There is no reason why women cannot compete to be cooler, more top-down and less democratic than do individuals who have male managers. on a level playing field with men. This difference is one which can be overcome through behavioural skills training. A Red 1 style is synonymous with what McGregor (1961) refers to as Theory X management. Theory X is coercive and However, there could be a very different explanation for controlling, affords little autonomy on behalf of reports and the findings of this study. It may be a result of the negative prevents them from using initiative. This style stamps out any perception held towards women in the workplace. If the high entrepreneurial input from others and whilst it may deliver proportion of men in leadership roles means that leadership results in the short term, is not conducive to long term is still seen as a male occupation, women are going to be performance. perceived differently as leaders. The woman who delivers stereotypically male behaviours is seen negatively whilst As well as offering some explanation for the difference in the man is seen as stereotypically male. This of course fortune between male and female leaders, the difference also works in the other direction as well, where men delivering suggests there is some interplay between the predisposition stereotypically female behaviours are seen differently to data and the ESI data. We have previously said that behaviour and predisposition are different and that an individual women. The important point is that men and women can predisposed to behave in one way can behave in another. do exactly the same things and yet be viewed differently However, effective delivery of ‘out of character’ behaviour for it. This is clearly a socio-cultural problem and needs to demands practice. Where a behaviour is being ‘forced’ it can be be addressed at that level. However, the immediate answer delivered in a gauche way and appear to others as abrupt. This to the problem is the same as if the problem is caused by appears to be happening with the way women deliver Directive predisposition: behavioural skills training. Behavioural skills behaviour. Given the combination of lower assertiveness and training can help an individual to appreciate their individual serious mindedness than in men and higher levels of self doubt, characteristics, the characteristics of the people and situation Directive behaviour is likely to be more of an ‘out of character’ around them and the way to manage themselves in order to form of behaviour and therefore cause problems. get the best performance out of their team. ©2010 Glowinkowski™ International Limited Differences in Behaviour / Results and Discussion 9
  10. 10. Behavioural Skills Training GIL use a well researched and proven methodology called Business performance indicators measured over the same Engagement Through Leadership Skills (ETLS) which helps period showed substantial improvements. For example, debt individuals to up their leadership game. On many occasions recovery in terms of gross collections went up by 27%, the individuals have gone through this process in team and numbers of letters managed (folded, inserted and franked) individual settings and then delivered improved leadership. increased by 100% over the same period of the previous year, For example, we collected data recently for a management help desk calls went up by 30% on the previous year with higher service standards recorded. group within a financial services company using the ESI, put them through the ETLS programme and then collected ESI As we would expect, female improvement was found to be data again six months later. According to their immediate on a par with male improvement. At an individual level, one reports, the leaders were found to have delivered statistically female in particular delivered a considerable improvement significant higher levels of Blue 4 behaviour and lower levels in her leadership performance. Although seen by senior of Red 1, Amber 2 and Green 3. management as talented, ESI showed she was seen by her direct reports as having leadership issues. Following ETLS, the re-measure of ESI showed she had improved in Blue 4 by 27%. This impressive shift in behaviour was accompanied by rises in her performance as a leader, her team’s performance and her Blue Green Amber Red personal wellbeing. Although anecdotal, this case study shows 4 3 2 1 how the ETLS programme represents a practical process for Pre ETLS 51.2 18.8 12.3 17.6 improving leadership delivery. The ETLS programme can be specifically tailored towards Post ETLS 55.3 16.9 11.5 16.3 women in the workplace, acknowledging the fact that there are extra challenges from a socio-cultural perspective that Table 4: Behavioural change following ETLS women need to overcome. Key Conclusions and Recommendations To ignore gender differences in personality is to ignore Clearly men need to modify their behaviour as well. The diversity. In predisposition terms men are different to results of behavioural training for both men and women women, this is natural and to be expected. The implications are potentially huge. The outcome for both groups is a of this natural difference are that the gender groups are positive one and similar, i.e. a modification of the way they going to be more comfortable in different sets of behaviour. behave, influencing the way they are seen by others and The recommendation is that training development needs how successful they are. The journey to behavioural change to provide the opportunity for each gender group to learn is different however. Given the average personality and different behavioural skills. The development for men and behaviour of the two groups, i.e. where they are coming women is therefore not necessarily the same. from and what they do, the actions required to change are As Sir David Walker, former director of the Bank of England different. This should be taken into account when considering states , “we need to change the culture and have a behavioural training for men and women. much better understanding that boards are not golf club Specifically, in order to help women to achieve their potential committees.” The answer is a long term one and therefore at the senior levels of management, we would recommend the situation is one which women, in the short term, have to the following: be aware of. However, if culture is the sum of all that we do 1. Women need to be provided with the opportunity to and therefore shaped by behaviour, women can in the short develop their leadership skills towards being more term behave their way out of the issue and begin to change Directive and Concerned For People, i.e. Blue 4, in a way the culture. Behavioural skills training through ETLS can go a that recognises their particular predisposition patterns long way to helping women adapt their behaviour so they are perceived differently in the workplace and ultimately help 2. Managers of women need to be aware that given the them to redress the balance. predisposition profile of women, together with the ©2010 Glowinkowski™ International Limited 10 Behavioural Skills Training / Key Conclusions and Recommendations
  11. 11. Leadership - The Impact of Gender prejudices in how they are perceived in general, it is 4. To get the most out of an organisation’s current and future critical women are provided with the opportunity to management talent a broad range of leaders need to go experience as much Blue 4 behaviour from their manager through the same training as possible, i.e. great behaviour begets great behaviour 5. Men are not immune. The traditional yet dated biases 3. Leadership skills training provides the opportunity for towards men in the workplace should not cloud the fact women to learn skills that enable them to engage more that they can make substantial improvements to their effectively with all stakeholders leadership as well Endnotes 1 As is stated by the American Psychological Association (APA 4 Feingold, A. (1994). Gender differences in personality: A Publication Manual, 4th Edition, 1994), gender is cultural and meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 116, 429-456 sex is biological. Whether the differences are down to culture 5 Costa, P.T., Terracciano, A. and McCrae, R.R. (2001). or gender is not the subject of this paper. For simplicity and Gender Differences in Personality Across Cultures: Robust in line with past research in the area, gender differences will and Surprising Findings. Journal of Personality and Social be adopted. Psychology, 81, 322-331 2 The difference of one ‘sten’, although small, is consistent 6 Meta-analysis is a statistical method that combines in the large sample and does have noticeable implications. It the results of studies looking at the same question and is likely to be the case that the actual differences between determines whether a particular finding is consistent across men and women are more marked than we have found here. studies and therefore valid. Meta-analysis is capable of Whilst the sample for both men and women is sound, the aggregating data from many thousands of individuals. disproportion of men in senior leadership positions suggests that the male sample is likely to be more representative of 7 e.g. Kirton, M.J. (1976). Adaptors and Innovators: A the broader male population than the female sample is to description and measure. Journal of Applied Psychology, 61, be of the broader female population. The female sample is 622-629. Foxall, G.R. (1992). Gender differences in cognitive more likely to sit away from the centre of the distribution styles of MBA students in three countries. Psychological curve therefore. If the sample was not limited by consisting Reports, 70, 169-170 predominantly of middle to senior managers and instead 8 It should be noted that the concept of two broad factors represented a broader spectrum of the population, the male – one task and the other people focused - underpinning sample would remain relatively constant whilst the female leadership effectiveness is not necessarily a new one. Halpin would probably change slightly, most likely differentiating it and Weiner (1957) identified the factors of ‘Consideration’ further from the male sample. and ‘Initiation of Structure’ as explaining the majority of 3 For a full review of these experiments see Mischel, W., variance in leadership behaviour. Blake and Mouton’s (1964) Shoda, Y. and Rodriguez, M.L. Science, New Series, Vol. 244, Managerial Grid Model references ‘Concern for Production’ No 4907 (May 26, 1989), 933-938 and ‘Concern for People’. ©2010 Glowinkowski™ International Limited Endnotes 11
  12. 12. Appendix Summary of the GPI™ Domains and Dimensions DOMAINS DIMENSIONS and SUB-DIMENSIONS Bi-Polar Sub-Dimension Bi-Polar Sub-Dimension COGNITION Incremental Radical Change Orientation Evolutionary Revolutionary Information Processing Practical Conceptual Decision Making Rational Intuitive ATTAINMENT Focused Flexible Focused Implementation Style Outcome Spontaneous Conscientious Conscientious Cursory Achievement Perfectionist Pragmatist DRIVE Driven Measured Power Persuasive Planner Strategist Consensual Ambition Ambitious Contented Incremental Energy Energetic Paced EXTRAVERSION Extraversion Introversion Sociable Outgoing Reserved Practitioner Visionary Assertiveness Asserting Accepting Hedonism Fun loving Serious-minded Social Poise Socially assured Socially uncertain AGREEABLENESS Collectivist Individualist Affiliation Affiliative Flexible Unaffiliative Trust Trusting Questioning Conformity Conforming Dissenting Modesty Modest Assuming EMOTIONALITY Self-Contained Expressive Anxiety Relaxed Tense Hostility Placid Discontented Optimism Optimistic Pessimistic Self-Esteem Confident Self-Conscious Impulsive Disciplined Impulsive ©2010 Glowinkowski™ International Limited 12 Appendix Introduction
  13. 13. Leadership - The Impact of Gender Cognition Incremental Radical Evolutionary Revolutionary • Prefers step by step change • Prefers radical, big shift change • Emphasis on improvement • Emphasis on finding new ways • Uncomfortable with radical change • May generate too many ideas Practical Conceptual • Prefers more tightly defined models to mitigate risk of • Prefers to take information from a variety of apparently misunderstanding disconnected sources • Relates data directly to the problem at hand • Considers more ambiguous, less coherent data • Generates solutions to the immediate issue • Generates solutions for tomorrow’s issues and problems Rational Intuitive • Preference for facts • Preference for gut feeling • Decision-making based on evidence • Decision-making instinctive • Potential to over-analyse situation • Decision-making potentially not seen as thought through - not based on fact Conscientiousness - Attainment Focused Flexible Outcome Spontaneous • Enjoys having a clear and specific aim or target to focus • Prefers open ended, unstructured approach towards on delivery • Prefers a planned, structured approach e.g. a to-do list • Holds a ready acceptance for change • May be resistant to necessary changes in approach and • Potential for lack of clarity towards outcome aim/target Conscientious Cursory • Enjoys working in the detail of a task • Preference for the main points over the detail • Thorough, takes pleasure in 'dotting the Is and crossing • Doesn't feel the need to get into the detail the Ts' • May miss crucial information • May fail to see the wood for the trees Perfectionist Pragmatic • Driven to exceed against a standard of excellence - • If it works, fit for purpose is fine quality is everything • Likes to get the job done rather than focus on standards • Enjoys constantly raising the bar of execution • May waste time seeking high standards beyond fit for • Quality may take second place to delivery purpose ©2010 Glowinkowski™ International Limited Appendix 13
  14. 14. Conscientiousness - Drive Driven Measured Persuasive Consensual • Preference for managing the actions of others • Preference for being part of a group when making • Enjoys making an input decisions • Enjoys positions of influence • Seeks the views of others • Prefers positions that aren’t in authority Ambitious Contented • Success is about promotion, moving ‘onwards and • Success is about comfort in position and experience of upwards’ an interesting job • Interested in positions of importance, status and • Little desire for prestige, status and power symbols prestigious situations • Less driven by the achievement of personal career goals • Driven by personal career success Energetic Paced • Works at a brisk pace • Approaches work in a measured way • Animated, enthusiastic and decisive • Makes steady progress, avoids hasty decision-making • May be overly hasty in decision-making • Prefers time to think before taking action Extraversion Extraversion Introversion Outgoing Reserved • Thinks by talking • Thinks by thinking • Energised through interaction with others • Energised through thinking and reflection • May need to put aside more time for reflection • May switch off in a social environment Assertive Accepting • Forthright and expressive with views • Prefers to keep own counsel rather than outwardly • Tends to speak own mind express thoughts • May appear as overly dominant and directive • Appears thoughtful, reflective • May be overly submissive Fun Loving Serious Minded • Holds pleasure seeking behaviour as a priority • Prioritises fulfilment of obligations as top priority • Needs social stimulation • Takes position and responsibilities seriously - even having • Could be seen as flippant and not serious about fun responsibilities • Can be seen as overly serious Socially Assured Socially Uncertain • Comfortable engaging in social groups • Prefers one to ones over large groups • Comfortable at building a broad range of relationships • Socially selective • Possibly not socially selective • May avoid networking opportunities ©2010 Glowinkowski™ International Limited 14 Appendix
  15. 15. Leadership - The Impact of Gender Agreeableness Collectivist Individualist Affiliative Unaffiliative • Has a need for harmonious relationships • Harmonious relationships not top priority • Likes to be liked • Comfortable surfacing difficult issues if necessary • May feel uncomfortable surfacing difficult issues with • May be seen as putting objectives over people others Trusting Questioning • Takes people at face value • Cautious of others' hidden agendas • Engages with others in an open and straightforward • Unlikely to take people at face value manner • Tends not to open up with others • Runs risk of being naive Conforming Dissenting • Thinking tends to be in agreement with predominant • Thinking tends to differ from predominant view of the view of the group group • Likes and buys into the views of others • Often disagrees with others' views • Too agreeable in buying into status quo • May be seen as unnecessarily challenging Modest Assuming • Considers the group's achievement rather than own • Comfortable communicating their achievements and • May 'hide light under a bushel' contributions • Potentially doesn't promote own profile • Comfortable promoting own and others' successes • Doesn't celebrate others' successes • May appear boastful ©2010 Glowinkowski™ International Limited Introduction 15
  16. 16. Emotionality Self-Contained Expressive Relaxed Tense • Tends to be calm in stressful situations • Tends to feel high levels of worry • Tends not to get anxious • Element of tension may give an edge • Potential to be seen as laid back • May get worked up in stressful situations Placid Discontented • Comfortable with life's journey thus far • Ill at ease with life's journey thus far, possibly causing • At ease with their position in life anger or regret • May not always be as driven as they need to be • May cause a positive fire in the belly • Can be seen as angry and hostile Optimistic Pessimistic • Looks for the positives • Looks for the negatives • Looks at the future as full of opportunities • Thinks about possible downsides or problems when • Encouraging towards others looking at the future • May be overly positive • Holds a sense of realism • May be overly negative Confident Self Conscious • Has a positive self image • Has a negative self image • Shortcomings are not seen as representing troublesome • May be overly self critical and focus on shortcomings issues • May inhibit realising full potential • May appear as overly confident Disciplined Impulsive • Shows self control • Tends to be quick and decisive • Hard to read, appearing closed • Readily shows feelings • Maintains a hold over desires and impulses • May struggle to control desires and impulses ©2010 Glowinkowski™ International Limited 16 Appendix
  17. 17. Leadership - The Impact of Gender Gender Differences in Education Gender differences in personality have considerable Research looking at associations between the Big 5 implications in education. Our experience in this sector personality traits and preferred assessment methods carried has shown us the impact and value of GPI™ and ETLS driven out by Adrian Furnham and colleagues1 at University College interventions for teaching staff and leadership teams. On London shows moderately strong and highly significant many occasions we have facilitated workshops where several relationships between Conscientiousness and continuous years’ relationship building and interpersonal understanding assessment (i.e. coursework, dissertations) and between have taken place in just a few hours. The application of the Openness and traditional timed exams. In our lexicon, high Glowinkowski approach and the data reported in this paper Openness is someone high in Radical thinking. does not stop with adults however. Our research shows that females are higher in the traits of This year, for the first time in over a decade, GCSE results conscientiousness and therefore are comfortable working showed boys were outperforming girls in maths. This towards a defined goal, getting the details right and raising longstanding gender divide follows changes to the assessment the bar in terms of standards. Working hard and dutifully of maths two years ago where coursework was scrapped in over a long period of time, both things which coursework favour of traditional exams. Many have cited this change as necessitates, are natural strengths of the average female the cause for the reversal in performance levels. Dr John personality profile. In comparison, males score lower on these Dunford, General Secretary of the Association of School and dimensions of personality and higher on the dimensions of College Leaders (ASCL) said, “It clearly shows how the type of Radical thinking linked to preference for exams. assessment directly affects achievement”. Dr Mike Cresswell, Personality data tells us about an individual’s approach Head of the AQA exam board stated, “It’s well established towards something, i.e. the style of their behaviour. that girls outperform boys at coursework”. Coursework and exams are therefore likely to be the So why has the change in assessment method made such an preferred assessment method for girls and boys respectively. impact in such a short period of time? Coursework is being Preference tends to sit with motivation and motivation tends phased out in other areas of the curriculum to be replaced to sit with performance so this data may provide some insight by ‘controlled assessment’ due to concerns over the potential into competency as well. for copying from the internet and asking others, most This year coursework has been removed from the GCSE syllabus notably parents, for help. It’s unlikely that the changes in of economics, psychology, law, religious studies and sociology. performance can be put down to integrity and the eradication Given the findings of this study and the impact of assessment of cheating however. There is a more likely explanation in the changes in maths on the relative performance of boys and form of personality. girls this year, it is likely we will see the gender imbalance in education reduced more widely over the coming years. 1 Furnham, A., Christopher, A., Garwood, J. & Martin, N.G. (2008) Ability, demography, learning style and personality trait correlates of student preference for assessment method. Educational Psychology, 28, 15-27 ©2010 Glowinkowski™ International Limited Appendix 17
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