is a process by which an individual attempts to satisfy certain needs by engaging in various behaviors. Motivation represents those “psychological processes that cause the arousal, direction and persistence of voluntary actions that are goal oriented.”
2 GENERAL CATEGORIES OF MOTIVATION THEORIES:
Content theories of motivation- identify internal factors influencing motivation like: instincts, needs, satisfaction and job characteristics that energize employee motivation.
Process theories of motivation- identify the process by which internal factors and cognitions influence employee motivation.
Most content theories of motivation resolve around the notion that an employee’s needs influence motivation. Needs are physiological or psychological deficiencies that arouse behavior. They can be strong or weak and are influenced by environmental factors. Thus, human needs vary over time and place.
1.CONTENT THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
4 POPULAR CONTENT THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory
Abraham Maslow, a psychologist proposed that motivation is a function of five basic needs:
Physiological – basic needs like food, air, and water to survive.
Safety- need to be safe from physical and psychological harm.
Love - the desire to be loved and to love. Contains the needs for affection and longing.
Esteem - need for reputation, prestige, and recognition from others. Also contains need for self-confidence and strength.
Self-actualization - desire for fulfillment—to become the best one is capable of becoming.He believed human needs generally emerge in a predictable stair-step fashion. When one’s physiological needs are relatively satisfied, one’s safety needs emerge, and so on up the need hierarchy, one step at a time. Once a need is satisfied it activates the next higher need in the hierarchy. This process continues until the need for self-actualization is activated.
Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Physiological Safety Love Esteem Self-actualization
Employees’ Needs and Desires Vary by Age
TOP FIVE NEEDS AND DESIRES
35 and younger compensation, other benefits, health care/medical benefits, job security, flexibility to balance work life issues
36 to 55 compensation, health care/medical benefits, retirement
Benefits, other benefits, job security
56 and older feeling safe in the work environment, retirement benefits, other benefits, health care/medical benefits, meaningfulness of job
ALDERFER’S ERG THEORY A lderfer’s Theory differs from Maslow’s theory in three major respects:
First, a smaller set of core needs is used to explain behavior, from lowest to highest level they are: Existence needs (E) - the desire for physiological and materialistic well-being Relatedness needs(R) - the desire to have meaningful relationships with significant others Growth needs- the desire to grow as a human being and to use one’s abilities to their fullest potential Second, ERG theory does not assume needs. They are related to each other in a stair-step hierarchy as does Maslow. Alderfer believes that more than one need may be activated at a time. Finally, ERG theory contains a frustration-regression component. Ex. Employees may demand higher pay or better benefits when they are frustrated or dissatisfied with the quality of their interpersonal relationships (relatedness needs) at work.
1.The Need for Achievement - desire to accomplish something difficult
-to master, manipulate or organize physical objects, human beings, or ideas
Mc Clelland’s Need Theory
Achievement share three common characteristics:
Preference for working on tasks of moderate difficulty
Preference for situations in which performance is due to their efforts rather that other factors, such as luck
They desire more feedback on their successes and failures than low achievers
2. The Need for Affiliation- desire to spend time in social relationships, joining groups and wanting to be loved. Individuals high in this need are not the most effective managers or leaders because they have hard time making difficult decisions without worrying about being disliked.
3. The Need for Power- desire to influence, coach, teach or encourage others to achieve. People with high need for power like to work and are concerned with discipline and self-respect. There is a positive and negative side to this need. It is characterized by “if I win, you lose” mentality.
Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory
Job satisfaction was more frequently associated with achievement, recognition, characteristics of work, responsibility, and advancement. These factors were all related to outcomes associated with the content of the task being performed. Herzberg labeled these factors motivators because each was associated with strong effort and good performance. He hypothesized that motivators cause a person to move from a state of no satisfaction to satisfaction.
MOTIVATORS job characteristics associated with job satisfaction.
Herzberg found job dissatisfaction to be associated primarily with factors in the work context or environment. Like: company policy, and administration, technical supervision, salary, interpersonal relations with one’s supervisor, and working conditions were mostly frequently mentioned by employees expressing job dissatisfaction. This second cluster of factors are hygiene factors.
job characteristics associated with job dissatisfaction.
Motivators No satisfaction Satisfaction Jobs that do not jobs offering Offer achievement, achievement Recognition, stimulating recognition, stimu- Work, responsibility and lating work, respon- Advancement sibility, and advance- ment Hygiene Factors Dissatisfaction No Dissatisfaction jobs with poor jobs with good company company policies and policies and administration administration, technical supervision, salary, technical supervision interpersonal relationships salary, interpersonal with supervisors, and relationships with working conditions. supervisors, and working conditions.
2.PROCESS THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
- identifying the process by which various internal factors influence motivation
-they are based on the premise that motivation is a function of employees’ perceptions, thoughts, and beliefs.
The three most common process theories of motivation:
Adams’s Equity Theory of Motivation
Equity theory is a model of motivation that explains how people strive for fairness and justice in social exchanges or give-and-take relationships.
The Individual-Organization Exchange Relationship
Adams points out that two primary components are involved in the employee-employer exchange , inputs and outcomes. An employee’s inputs , for which he or she expects in return, include education/training, skills, creativity, seniority, age, personality traits, effort expended and personal appearance. On the outcome side of exchange, the organization provides such things as pay/bonuses, fringe benefits, challenging assignments, job security, promotions, status symbols and participation in important decisions.
Negative and Positive Inequity
On the job, feelings of inequity revolve around a person’s evaluation of whether he or she receives adequate rewards to compensate for his or her contributive inputs. People perform these evaluations by comparing the perceived fairness for their employment exchange to that of relevant others.
The three different equity relationships are:
Equity sensitivity- an individual’s tolerance for negative and positive equity
Negative inequity- comparison in which another person receives greater outcomes for similar inputs.
Positive inequity- comparison in which another person receives lesser outcomes for similar inputs.
EXPANDING THE CONCEPT OF EQUITY:
reflects the extent to which people perceive that they are treated fairly at work. The three diff. components of organizational justice:
Distributive justice - the perceived fairness of how resources and rewards are distributed or allocated.
Procedural justice - the perceived fairness of the process and procedures used to make allocation decisions.
Interactional justice - extent to which people feel fairly treated when procedures are implemented.
Practical lessons from Equity Theory
First, equity theory provides managers with yet another explanation of how beliefs and attitudes affect job performance.
Second, equity theory emphasizes the need for managers to pay attention to employees’ perceptions of what is fair and equitable. Managers are encouraged to make hiring decisions on merit-based, job-related information, and to make more attempts at providing positive recognition about employee behavior and performance.
Third, managers benefit by allowing employees to participate in making decisions about important work outcomes.
Fourth, employees should be given the opportunity to appeal decisions that affect their welfare.
Fifth, managers are more likely to accept and support organizational change when they believe it is implemented fairly and when it produces equitable outcomes.
Sixth, managers can promote cooperation and teamwork among group members by treating them equitably.
Seventh, treating employees inequitably can lead to litigation and costly court settlements.
Eight, employees‘ perceptions of justice are strongly influenced by leadership behavior exhibited by their managers.
Ninth, managers need to pay attention to the organization’s climate for justice.
VROOM’S EXPECTANCY THEORY
holds that people are motivated to behave in ways that produce desired combinations of expected outcomes.
It can be used to predict motivation and behavior in any situation in which a choice between two or more alternatives must be made.
Ex. to predict whether to quit or stay at a job; or whether to major in management, finance, marketing, psychology or communication.
3 key concepts within Vroom’s model
belief that effort leads to a specific level of performance. It is an effort performance expectation.
The following factors influence an employee’s expectancy perceptions:
Previous success at the task
Help received from a supervisor and subordinates
Information necessary to complete the task
Good materials and equipment to work with.
is a performance- outcome perception. It represents a person’s belief that a particular outcome is contingent on accomplishing a specific level of performance.
Ex. passing exams is instrumental to graduating from college.
refers to the positive or negative value people place on outcomes.
Valence mirrors our personal preferences.
Ex. most employees have a positive valence for receiving additional money or recognition.
in contrast job stress and being laid-off would likely result in negative valence.
MOTIVATION THROUGH GOAL SETTING
is a process model of motivation that explains how the simple behavior of setting goals activates a powerful motivational process that leads to sustained, high performance.
Goal- is what an individual is trying to accomplish; it is the object or aim of an action.
4 Motivational Mechanisms of Goal Setting
Goals Direct Attention- goals direct one’s attention and effort toward goal-relevant activities and away from goal-irrelevant activities.
Goals Regulate Effort- goals motivate us to act.
Goals Increase Persistence-within the context of goal setting, persistence represents the effort expended on a task over an extended period of time.
Goals Foster the Development and Application of Task Strategies and Action Plans –goals help to encourage people to develop strategies and action plans that enable them to achieve their goals.
PRACTICAL LESSONS FROM GOAL SETTING RESEARCH
Setting performance goals increases individual, group and organizational performance.
4 practical insights:
Specific high goals lead to greater performance- Goal specificity pertains to the quantifiability of a goal .
Feedback enhances the effect of specific, difficult goals- Feedback lets people know if they are headed toward their goals or if they are off course and need to redirect their efforts. Goals plus feedback is the recommended approach. Goals inform people about performance standards and expectations so that they can channel their energies accordingly. Feedback provides the information needed to adjust direction, effort, and strategies for goal accomplishment.
Participative goals, assigned goals and self-set goals are equally effective- managers are advised to use a contingency approach by picking a method that seems best suited for the individual and situation at hand.
Goal commitment and monetary incentives affect goal - goal commitment is the extent to which an individual is personally committed to achieving a goal.
-goal commitment moderates the relationship between the difficulty of a goal and performance.
-difficult goals lead to higher performance only when employees are committed to their goals.
Monetary incentive -researches uncovered some negative consequences when goal achievement is linked to individual incentives. Goal-based bonus incentives produced higher commitment to easy goals and lower commitment to difficult goals. People were reluctant to commit to high goals that were tied to monetary incentives. People with high goal commitment also offered less help to their co-workers when they received goal based bonus incentives to accomplish difficult individual goals.
Motivation through Job Design
Job design or job redesign - refers to any set of activities that involve the alteration of specific jobs or interdependent systems of jobs with the intent of improving the quality of employee job experience and their on-the-job productivity.
4 APPROACHES OF JOB DESIGN
draws from research in industrial engineering and scientific management.
is kind of management using research and experimentation to find the most efficient way to perform job. It involves five steps:
Develop standard methods for performing jobs by using time and motion studies,
Carefully select employees with the appropriate abilities,
Train workers to use the standard methods and procedures
Support workers and reduce interruption
Provide incentives to reinforce performance
the motivational approaches to job design attempt to improve employees’ affective and attitudinal reactions such as absenteeism, turnover and performance.
Four key motivational techniques:
Job Enlargement-involves putting more variety into a worker’s job by combining specialized tasks of comparable difficulty. Also called as horizontally loading the job.
Job rotation-moving of employees from one specialized job to another
Job enrichment- modifying a job such that an employee has the opportunity to experience achievement, recognition, stimulating work, responsibility and advancement. This is vertical loading wherein employees take the tasks normally performed by their supervisors.
Job characteristics model-
Intrinsic motivation- occurs when an individual is turned on to one’s work because of the positive internal feelings that are generated by doing well rather than dependent on external factors such incentive pay or compliments from boss for the motivation to work effectively.
THE JOB CHARACTERISTICS MODEL
Core job characteristics Critical Psychological states Outcomes Skill variety Task identity Task significance Autonomy Feedback from job
of the work
outcomes of the work
Knowledge of the
actual results of the
Moderators 1.Knowledge and skill 2. Growth need strength 3. Context satisfaction
Core job dimensions
are common job characteristics found to various degrees in all jobs.
the extent to which the job requires an individual to perform a variety of tasks that require him/her to use different skills and abilities.
is when a person works on a product or project from beginning to end and sees a tangible result.
the extent to which the job affects the lives of other people within or outside the organization.
the extent to which the job enables and individual to experience freedom, independence, and discretion in both scheduling and determining the procedures used in completing the job
the extent to which an individual receives direct and clear information about how effectively he/she is performing the job.
BIOLOGICAL AND PERCEPTUAL MOTOR APPROACHES-
Biological and Perceptual Motor Approaches-
is based on research from biomechanics, work physiology, and ergonomics and focuses on designing the work environment to reduce employees’ physical strain, fatigue, and health complaints.
is derived from research that examines human factors engineering, perceptual and cognitive skills and information processing. This approach to job design emphasizes the reliability of work outcomes by examining error rates, accidents and workers’ feedback about facilities and equipment.
GOAL SETTING involves establishing specific, measurable and time-targeted objectives
Two types of Goals
Performance outcome goal- targets a specific end-result.
Learning goal- encourages learning, creativity and skill development.
Management by Objectives-(MBO)-
management system incorporating participation in decision making, goal setting and feedback.
The three general steps to follow when implementing a goal-setting program that has to be implemented in a systematic fashion
Step I: Set Goals A number of sources can be used as input during this goal-setting stage. Time and motion studies are one source. Goals also may be based on the average past performance of job holders goals should be “SMART”. SMART is an acronym that stands for specific, measurable, attainable, result oriented, and time bound. There are two additional recommendations to consider when setting goals. First, for complex task, managers should train employees in problem-solving technique and encourage them to develop a performance action plan. Action plan specify the strategies or tactics to be used in order to accomplish goal. Second, because of individual difference , it may be necessary to establish different goals for employees performing the same job.
Guidelines for Writing SMART goals
Measurable A measurement device is needed to assess the extent to which a goal is accomplished. Goals thus need to be measurable.
Attainable Goals should be realistic, challenging, and attainable. Impossible goals reduce motivation because people do not like to fail. Remember, people have different levels of ability and skill
Result Oriented Corporate goals should focus on desire end-result that support the organization’s vision.
Time Bound Goals specify target dates for completion.
Step 2: Promote Goal Commitment Obtaining goal commitment is important because employee are more motivated to pursue goals they view as reasonable, obtainable, and fair.
Step 3: Provide Support and Feedback Step 3 call for providing employee with the necessary support elements or resources to get the job done. This includes ensuring that each employee has the necessary abilities and information to reach his or her goals.
is objective information about individual or collective performance.
Two Functions of Feedback
One is instructional and the other is motivational . Feedback instructs when it clarifies roles or teaches new behavior. Feedback motivates when it serves as a reward or promises a reward.
360 degree Feedback
Comparison of anonymous feedback from one’s superior, subordinates, and peers with self-perception. Even outsiders may be involved in what is sometimes called full-circle feed-back.
How to Give Feedback for Coaching Purpose and Organizational Effectiveness
Managers need to keep the followings tips in mind when giving feedback as part of a comprehensive performance management .
Focus on performance, not personalities
Give specific feedback linked to learning goals and performance outcomes goals
Channel feedback toward key result areas for the organization.
Give feedback as soon as possible
Give feedback to coach improvement, not just for final result
Base feedback on accurate and credible information.
Pair feedback with clear expectations for improvement
THE END THANK YOU….. Prepared by: Hilaria M. Villaflores