Bottomfish Habitat and Restricted
       Fishing Area Analysis




       Robert O’Conner, NOAA National Marine Fisheries ...
Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) Definition


Congress defined EFH as "those waters and substrate necessary to fish for
spawni...
Research Based EFH Boundaries


Species            Recommended EFH
   Ehu                   100-400
   Onaga              ...
Creation of New Reserve Assumptions and Implications

Geographic Assumptions
• There is connectivity between MHI and NWHI ...
Creation of New Reserve Assumptions and Implications


Habitat Assumptions
• Bottomfish species prefer hard/rocky substrat...
Creation of Bottomfish Reserves
                           Enforcement
Assumptions

1)   The smaller the number of reserve...
Habitat Areas of Particular Concern (HAPC) Examples
                   Based on Geologic Features
         Canyons        ...
Onaga (Etelis coruscans) Essential Fish Habitat Depth Range
High Slopes
Bottomfish Restricted Fishing Area (BFRA) Overview
Main Hawaiian Island Bottomfish Habitat Analysis
   Proposed RFA Within Federal Waters EFH vs Total Federal Waters EFH
Main Hawaiian Island Bottomfish Habitat Analysis
                      Proposed RFA Within Federal Waters EFH vs Total Fed...
Commercial Bottomfish Catch Data
Example Current Patterns
Needs

• With shallower EFH ranges (to ~ 30 Meters) more bathymetry is
  needed that is increasingly difficult and therefo...
Acknowledgements

• Chris Kelley, Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory (HURL),
  University of Hawaii
• State of Hawaii, De...
Bottomfish Habitat and Restricted Fishing Area Analysis
Bottomfish Habitat and Restricted Fishing Area Analysis
Bottomfish Habitat and Restricted Fishing Area Analysis
Bottomfish Habitat and Restricted Fishing Area Analysis
Bottomfish Habitat and Restricted Fishing Area Analysis
Bottomfish Habitat and Restricted Fishing Area Analysis
Bottomfish Habitat and Restricted Fishing Area Analysis
Bottomfish Habitat and Restricted Fishing Area Analysis
Bottomfish Habitat and Restricted Fishing Area Analysis
Bottomfish Habitat and Restricted Fishing Area Analysis
Bottomfish Habitat and Restricted Fishing Area Analysis
Bottomfish Habitat and Restricted Fishing Area Analysis
Bottomfish Habitat and Restricted Fishing Area Analysis
Bottomfish Habitat and Restricted Fishing Area Analysis
Bottomfish Habitat and Restricted Fishing Area Analysis
Bottomfish Habitat and Restricted Fishing Area Analysis
Bottomfish Habitat and Restricted Fishing Area Analysis
Bottomfish Habitat and Restricted Fishing Area Analysis
Bottomfish Habitat and Restricted Fishing Area Analysis
Bottomfish Habitat and Restricted Fishing Area Analysis
Bottomfish Habitat and Restricted Fishing Area Analysis
Bottomfish Habitat and Restricted Fishing Area Analysis
Bottomfish Habitat and Restricted Fishing Area Analysis
Bottomfish Habitat and Restricted Fishing Area Analysis
Bottomfish Habitat and Restricted Fishing Area Analysis
Bottomfish Habitat and Restricted Fishing Area Analysis
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Bottomfish Habitat and Restricted Fishing Area Analysis

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Data Discovery Day
03/06/2008
Rob O'Conner
NOAA
National Marine Fisheries Service

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Bottomfish Habitat and Restricted Fishing Area Analysis

  1. 1. Bottomfish Habitat and Restricted Fishing Area Analysis Robert O’Conner, NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service Chris Kelley, Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory, University of Hawaii
  2. 2. Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) Definition Congress defined EFH as "those waters and substrate necessary to fish for spawning, breeding, feeding, or growth to maturity" (16 U.S.C. 1802(10)). The EFH guidelines under 50 CFR 600.10 further interpret the EFH definition as follows: Waters include aquatic areas and their associated physical, chemical, and biological properties that are used by fish and may include aquatic areas historically used by fish where appropriate; substrate includes sediment, hard bottom, structures underlying the waters, and associated biological communities; necessary means the habitat required to support a sustainable fishery and the managed species' contribution to a healthy ecosystem; and "spawning, breeding, feeding, or growth to maturity" covers a species' full life cycle. Current EFH Depth Range: shoreline to 400 meters within EEZ •Adults •Juveniles •Larvae
  3. 3. Research Based EFH Boundaries Species Recommended EFH Ehu 100-400 Onaga 100-400 Gindai 100-350 YT Kale 50-350 Kale 50-350 Paka 30-300 Hapu 30-300 Lehi 50-250 Buta 50-250
  4. 4. Creation of New Reserve Assumptions and Implications Geographic Assumptions • There is connectivity between MHI and NWHI (complete larval transport or stepping stone larval transport). • There is connectivity between banks of MHI and adult movement is primarily restricted to individual banks. Therefore reserves should exist throughout the MHI and there should be at least one per bank. Species Priority Assumptions • Onaga and Ehu are most vulnerable to overfishing (form dense schools, Ehu caught day or night, Onaga are slow to reproduce) • Hapu and Paka are next most vulnerable (Hapu are endemic and protogynous while Paka form dense schools and have generally shallower habitats) Reserves should serve the needs of Onaga, then Ehu, Hapu, and Paka. Reserves should cover entire EFH depth range (50 - 400 meters).
  5. 5. Creation of New Reserve Assumptions and Implications Habitat Assumptions • Bottomfish species prefer hard/rocky substrate. • Onaga and Ehus aggregate on top of rocky features and feed in the water column while Hapus and Pakas remain closer to the substrate. Pinnacles, Drowned Reefs/Shorelines, Ridges/Promontories, and Canyons should be candidates for reserves both at deep and shallow depths within the EFH. Connectivity and Enhancement Assumptions • Reserve size and location should be such that it benefits surrounding fishing areas. – Adult habitats function as natural hatcheries and are a source for eggs and larvae. • Reserve design should take into account benefit to other reserves. – Connectivity exists via larval transport which patterns are largely unknown. Reserves should encompass both pinnacles and portions of slopes
  6. 6. Creation of Bottomfish Reserves Enforcement Assumptions 1) The smaller the number of reserves, the more enforceable 2) The larger the size of the reserves, the more enforceable 3) Reserves closer to land are more enforceable 4) Reserves near population centers or lookouts are more enforceable 5) Violators should be detectable from land 6) Relying on fishermen to report their own is in-effective Implications 1) Reserves should be the smallest number, the largest size, the closest to land, and the closest to population centers/lookouts as possible
  7. 7. Habitat Areas of Particular Concern (HAPC) Examples Based on Geologic Features Canyons Promontories & Ridges Pinnacles Inside EFH Range Pinnacles Outside EFH Range
  8. 8. Onaga (Etelis coruscans) Essential Fish Habitat Depth Range
  9. 9. High Slopes
  10. 10. Bottomfish Restricted Fishing Area (BFRA) Overview
  11. 11. Main Hawaiian Island Bottomfish Habitat Analysis Proposed RFA Within Federal Waters EFH vs Total Federal Waters EFH
  12. 12. Main Hawaiian Island Bottomfish Habitat Analysis Proposed RFA Within Federal Waters EFH vs Total Federal Waters EFH u its=k 2 n m M i au Md id le Oh au N a iih u Ku a la K a au i B Is n ig la d T ta o ls to l e ta fh 2 5 .3 90 85.1 63 4 .9 18 5 .2 2 .9 8 27 2 .5 16 6 4 .3 5 4 .3 70 fe e d fh 1 9 .4 69 85.1 32 1 .2 2 .2 0 1 .5 5 4 .1 7 70 1 .3 2 8 .7 89 s tee ta fh 1 5 .9 20 0.0 31 3 .7 18 3 .1 1 .4 3 10 8 .5 96 3 .1 2 5 .6 80 fe p rc n g d e e ta e 5 .6 7% 10 % 0 .0 4 .5 8% 1 .8 2% 5 .7 3% 2 .7 0% 4 .1 3% 5 .3 0% s tep rce ta e ta e n g 4 .4 2% 0% .0 5 .5 1% 8 .2 7% 4 .3 6% 7 .3 9% 5 .9 6% 4 .7 9%
  13. 13. Commercial Bottomfish Catch Data
  14. 14. Example Current Patterns
  15. 15. Needs • With shallower EFH ranges (to ~ 30 Meters) more bathymetry is needed that is increasingly difficult and therefore expensive to gather. • In order for reserves to be effective there must be adequate enforcement and the state lacks additional enforcement resources. • Reserve effectiveness could be increased with appropriate penalties for fishing within Bottomfish Restricted Fishing Areas.
  16. 16. Acknowledgements • Chris Kelley, Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory (HURL), University of Hawaii • State of Hawaii, Department of Land and Natural Resources (DLNR) & Division of Aquatic Resources (DAR) • Ocean Currents: http://www7320.nrlssc.navy.mil/global_ncom/haw.html
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