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Mapping human impacts to Papahanaumokuakea

Mapping human impacts to Papahanaumokuakea



HIGICC Annual Meeting

HIGICC Annual Meeting
June 24, 2009
Erik Franklin
Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology



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  • Some activities result in more changes than others because the ecological community is more sensitive to those threats. For instance, a ship grounding on a coral reef causes more long lasting ecological harm than a ship grounding in a muddy bottom. The term vulnerability captures this sensitivity.
  • FFS: UV, acid, sea level, shipping

Mapping human impacts to Papahanaumokuakea Mapping human impacts to Papahanaumokuakea Presentation Transcript

  • Mapping human impacts to Papah ā naumoku ā kea
    • Erik C. Franklin
    • HIMB
      • with Collaborators:
      • K. Selkoe, HIMB
      • B. Halpern, UC Santa Barbara
      • C. Ebert , UC Santa Barbara,
      • E. Selig, UNC Chapel Hill
      • K. Casey, NOAA
      • J. Bruno , UNC Chapel Hill,
      • R. Toonen, HIMB
    • 2,000 km long
    • 22-30 ºN
  • Talk Overview
    • Background on the NWHI resources
    • NWHI resource management structure
    • Need for spatial data on uses
    • Cumulative impact mapping approach
    • Building the NWHI cumulative impact maps
    • Basic stats
    • 30 submerged banks and seamounts
    • 9 areas of emergent land
    • Atolls range 7-28 million years old
    • Contains the most northerly reef in the world
    • High apex predator biomass
      • (sharks, jacks)
    • Endemism ~ 20% across taxa
    • Largest tropical seabird rookery in the world, including 20 species
    • Majority habitat for Hawaiian monk seal and green sea turtles
    • Many undescribed species
    • Hundreds of archeological sites
    Unique and Valuable Resources
  • History of human use
    • 1800’s through early 1900’s:
    • Guano mining at Laysan Island
    • Pearl oyster harvest
    • Whale, monk seal, turtle, seabird harvest
    • 1940’s:
    • Naval bases at Midway and FFS with dredging and infill
    • 6000 soldiers at Midway in WWII; reefs bombed, toxic dumps, invasive spp.
    • Coast Guard stations at Kure and FFS
    • 1970’s -2000:
    • Lobster fishery (collapsed and closed in 2000)
    • Longlining fishery (closed in 2000)
    • Bottomfish fishery (continues until 2011)
    • Recreational fishery at Midway
  • Current Day Impacts
    • Shipping lanes risk groundings, spills and wildlife disturbance
    • Marine debris collects on reefs and atolls, drown fish turtles and seals
    • Climate change beginning to result in
      • Sea level rise drowning reefs and beaches
      • Coral bleaching from sea temp rise
      • Increased rates of disease
      • Seawater acidification
    • Research cruises bring divers & risks of accidental harm
    • Alien species have established in places
    • Special visitation events at midway
    • Habitation on atolls for Fish and Wildlife
    • monitoring tasks
  • Orange = State Waters Green = Fish and Wildlife Blue line = Monument Yellow lines = EEZ Who’s Managing Impacts
          • The four management Co-Trustees:
          • State of Hawaii
          • U.S. Dept Interior (Fish and Wildlife)
          • Dept. Commerce (NOAA) – Monument and NMFS
          • Native Hawaiian Affairs
  • A call for action: Ecosystem based management “ Prioritize and coordinate management of multiple activities within a specified ecosystem” 2004
    • Need better info on:
      • spatial patterns of activities
      • their overlap
      • their ecological impact
  • Mapping Cumulative Human Impacts
  • Mapping Cumulative Human Impacts
    • Create a GIS database of maps of:
      • all human “stressors:” ocean based activities and indirect stresses on the oceans
      • all marine ecosystems
    • Standardize all maps and overlay in single projection
    • Translate activities into ecological impacts: the intensity of the activity is modified by an “ecosystem vulnerability weight” for that activity
    • In each map pixel, sum the modified intensities of all activities present to produce a single cumulative impact score
    • Benthic structures (oil rigs)
    • Species invasion
    • Direct human (trampling)
    • Fishing:
      • -destructive demersal
      • -demersal low bycatch
      • -demersal high bycatch
      • -low bycatch pelagic
      • -high bycatch pelagic
      • - artisanal
    Global map: 17 Different Stressors
    • Commercial shipping
    • Land-based pollution:
      • nutrient input
      • nonpoint inorganic
      • nonpoint organic
    • Ocean-based pollution
    • Ocean acidification
    • UV radiation rise
    • Sea temperature rise
  • Global Cumulative Impact Scores 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Millions of km 2 41% of the ocean is orange or red less than 4% is blue How does Hawaii look?
  • Zoom in on Hawaii
    • The Main Eight look accurate
    • The Northwest look strange:
    • atolls better than deep water?
    • Use local, fine res. habitat data
    • Get local vulnerability weights
    • Add local human stressor data
    NWHI Redo:
  • 1. Mapping Habitat Ten ‘ecozones’ mapped from NOAA benthic cover satellite data at 100m resolution
  • 2. Vulnerability Weights
    • Spatial scale of stressor impact
    • Frequency of stressor impact
    • Number of trophic levels affected
    • Resistance of ecosystem to change
    • Recovery time of ecosystem
    Combined into a Vulnerability Weight Five aspects quantified at order of magnitude scales for every stressor in every ecosystem: 25 scientific experts with personal experience working in the NWHI estimated the values (Selkoe et al. 2008)
  • Survey results: Selkoe et al. 2008 Human Stressors to NWHI Vulnerability Weights Global origin Pacific-wide origin Local (NWHI) origin
  • Threat Rankings: 13 datasets included in NWHI map Human Stressors to NWHI Vulnerability Weights
  • Ship Traffic Tracks based on reported vessel locations in the NWHI from 1994 Data from Voluntary Observing System courtesy of NOAA
  • Acidification UV Temperature: Disease Temperature: Bleaching Climate Change Data
  • Bottomfishing Pounds all fish taken summed over 1996-2002 at 0.25 degree resolution, excluding <2 boats per cell. Dataset courtesy of Reggie Kokubun of the DAR
  • Final Map of Cumulative Impact
  • New Rankings
  • Atoll Close-ups Midway Maro Pearl & Hermes French Frigate Shoals 10 Km 10 Km 10 Km 10 Km P&H: Highest mean scores for both SST metrics Midway: Lowest mean impact score of atolls Maro: Highest mean impact score of atolls FFS: highest mean scores for UV, acid, sea level, shipping
  • Missing Threats
    • Existing:
    • Ship groundings
    • Trampling damage
    • Cruise ships
    • Tidal data
    • Pelagic long-line fishery ?
    • Chemical contamination ?
    • Non-existing:
    • Ghostfishing and better marine debris
    • Sport fishing
    • Historical impacts
    Results are conservative!
  • Key uses for results
    • Target areas for monitoring warming-induced bleaching and disease
    • Demonstrate the low relative impact of research
    • Evaluate new uses with cumulative impact perspective
    • Catalogue and display use data
    • Integrate with other management considerations
  • Mahalo! Funding from the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology Coral Reef Ecosystem Research Partnership & National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, UC Santa Barbara Photos courtesy NOAA & James Watts