Mapping human impacts to Papahanaumokuakea


Published on

HIGICC Annual Meeting
June 24, 2009
Erik Franklin
Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology

Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Some activities result in more changes than others because the ecological community is more sensitive to those threats. For instance, a ship grounding on a coral reef causes more long lasting ecological harm than a ship grounding in a muddy bottom. The term vulnerability captures this sensitivity.
  • FFS: UV, acid, sea level, shipping
  • Mapping human impacts to Papahanaumokuakea

    1. 1. Mapping human impacts to Papah ā naumoku ā kea <ul><li>Erik C. Franklin </li></ul><ul><li>HIMB </li></ul><ul><ul><li>with Collaborators: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>K. Selkoe, HIMB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Halpern, UC Santa Barbara </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. Ebert , UC Santa Barbara, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E. Selig, UNC Chapel Hill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>K. Casey, NOAA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>J. Bruno , UNC Chapel Hill, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R. Toonen, HIMB </li></ul></ul>
    2. 2. <ul><li>2,000 km long </li></ul><ul><li>22-30 ºN </li></ul>
    3. 3. Talk Overview <ul><li>Background on the NWHI resources </li></ul><ul><li>NWHI resource management structure </li></ul><ul><li>Need for spatial data on uses </li></ul><ul><li>Cumulative impact mapping approach </li></ul><ul><li>Building the NWHI cumulative impact maps </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Basic stats </li></ul><ul><li>30 submerged banks and seamounts </li></ul><ul><li>9 areas of emergent land </li></ul><ul><li>Atolls range 7-28 million years old </li></ul><ul><li>Contains the most northerly reef in the world </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>High apex predator biomass </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(sharks, jacks) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Endemism ~ 20% across taxa </li></ul><ul><li>Largest tropical seabird rookery in the world, including 20 species </li></ul><ul><li>Majority habitat for Hawaiian monk seal and green sea turtles </li></ul><ul><li>Many undescribed species </li></ul><ul><li>Hundreds of archeological sites </li></ul>Unique and Valuable Resources
    6. 6. History of human use <ul><li>1800’s through early 1900’s: </li></ul><ul><li>Guano mining at Laysan Island </li></ul><ul><li>Pearl oyster harvest </li></ul><ul><li>Whale, monk seal, turtle, seabird harvest </li></ul><ul><li>1940’s: </li></ul><ul><li>Naval bases at Midway and FFS with dredging and infill </li></ul><ul><li>6000 soldiers at Midway in WWII; reefs bombed, toxic dumps, invasive spp. </li></ul><ul><li>Coast Guard stations at Kure and FFS </li></ul><ul><li>1970’s -2000: </li></ul><ul><li>Lobster fishery (collapsed and closed in 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Longlining fishery (closed in 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Bottomfish fishery (continues until 2011) </li></ul><ul><li>Recreational fishery at Midway </li></ul>
    7. 7. Current Day Impacts <ul><li>Shipping lanes risk groundings, spills and wildlife disturbance </li></ul><ul><li>Marine debris collects on reefs and atolls, drown fish turtles and seals </li></ul><ul><li>Climate change beginning to result in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sea level rise drowning reefs and beaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coral bleaching from sea temp rise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased rates of disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seawater acidification </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Research cruises bring divers & risks of accidental harm </li></ul><ul><li>Alien species have established in places </li></ul><ul><li>Special visitation events at midway </li></ul><ul><li>Habitation on atolls for Fish and Wildlife </li></ul><ul><li> monitoring tasks </li></ul>
    8. 8. Orange = State Waters Green = Fish and Wildlife Blue line = Monument Yellow lines = EEZ Who’s Managing Impacts <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The four management Co-Trustees: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>State of Hawaii </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. Dept Interior (Fish and Wildlife) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dept. Commerce (NOAA) – Monument and NMFS </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Native Hawaiian Affairs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. A call for action: Ecosystem based management “ Prioritize and coordinate management of multiple activities within a specified ecosystem” 2004 <ul><li>Need better info on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>spatial patterns of activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>their overlap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>their ecological impact </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Mapping Cumulative Human Impacts
    11. 11. Mapping Cumulative Human Impacts <ul><li>Create a GIS database of maps of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>all human “stressors:” ocean based activities and indirect stresses on the oceans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>all marine ecosystems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standardize all maps and overlay in single projection </li></ul><ul><li>Translate activities into ecological impacts: the intensity of the activity is modified by an “ecosystem vulnerability weight” for that activity </li></ul><ul><li>In each map pixel, sum the modified intensities of all activities present to produce a single cumulative impact score </li></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>Benthic structures (oil rigs) </li></ul><ul><li>Species invasion </li></ul><ul><li>Direct human (trampling) </li></ul><ul><li>Fishing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-destructive demersal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-demersal low bycatch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-demersal high bycatch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-low bycatch pelagic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-high bycatch pelagic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- artisanal </li></ul></ul>Global map: 17 Different Stressors <ul><li>Commercial shipping </li></ul><ul><li>Land-based pollution: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nutrient input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nonpoint inorganic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nonpoint organic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ocean-based pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Ocean acidification </li></ul><ul><li>UV radiation rise </li></ul><ul><li>Sea temperature rise </li></ul>
    13. 13. Global Cumulative Impact Scores 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Millions of km 2 41% of the ocean is orange or red less than 4% is blue How does Hawaii look?
    14. 14. Zoom in on Hawaii <ul><li>The Main Eight look accurate </li></ul><ul><li>The Northwest look strange: </li></ul><ul><li>atolls better than deep water? </li></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>Use local, fine res. habitat data </li></ul><ul><li>Get local vulnerability weights </li></ul><ul><li>Add local human stressor data </li></ul>NWHI Redo:
    16. 16. 1. Mapping Habitat Ten ‘ecozones’ mapped from NOAA benthic cover satellite data at 100m resolution
    17. 17. 2. Vulnerability Weights <ul><li>Spatial scale of stressor impact </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency of stressor impact </li></ul><ul><li>Number of trophic levels affected </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance of ecosystem to change </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery time of ecosystem </li></ul>Combined into a Vulnerability Weight Five aspects quantified at order of magnitude scales for every stressor in every ecosystem: 25 scientific experts with personal experience working in the NWHI estimated the values (Selkoe et al. 2008)
    18. 18. Survey results: Selkoe et al. 2008 Human Stressors to NWHI Vulnerability Weights Global origin Pacific-wide origin Local (NWHI) origin
    19. 19. Threat Rankings: 13 datasets included in NWHI map Human Stressors to NWHI Vulnerability Weights
    20. 20. Ship Traffic Tracks based on reported vessel locations in the NWHI from 1994 Data from Voluntary Observing System courtesy of NOAA
    21. 21. Acidification UV Temperature: Disease Temperature: Bleaching Climate Change Data
    22. 22. Bottomfishing Pounds all fish taken summed over 1996-2002 at 0.25 degree resolution, excluding <2 boats per cell. Dataset courtesy of Reggie Kokubun of the DAR
    23. 23. Final Map of Cumulative Impact
    24. 24. New Rankings
    25. 25. Atoll Close-ups Midway Maro Pearl & Hermes French Frigate Shoals 10 Km 10 Km 10 Km 10 Km P&H: Highest mean scores for both SST metrics Midway: Lowest mean impact score of atolls Maro: Highest mean impact score of atolls FFS: highest mean scores for UV, acid, sea level, shipping
    26. 26. Missing Threats <ul><li>Existing: </li></ul><ul><li>Ship groundings </li></ul><ul><li>Trampling damage </li></ul><ul><li>Cruise ships </li></ul><ul><li>Tidal data </li></ul><ul><li>Pelagic long-line fishery ? </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical contamination ? </li></ul><ul><li>Non-existing: </li></ul><ul><li>Ghostfishing and better marine debris </li></ul><ul><li>Sport fishing </li></ul><ul><li>Historical impacts </li></ul>Results are conservative!
    27. 27. Key uses for results <ul><li>Target areas for monitoring warming-induced bleaching and disease </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate the low relative impact of research </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate new uses with cumulative impact perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Catalogue and display use data </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate with other management considerations </li></ul>
    28. 28. Mahalo! Funding from the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology Coral Reef Ecosystem Research Partnership & National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, UC Santa Barbara Photos courtesy NOAA & James Watts