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Chapter One Special Education in an Era of Inclusion and Standards Leah Hight
Standard-Based Education Definition: What is taught must be tied to the state-derived content along with performance standards Key Features: Content standard: The understanding that students should be receiving from academic subjects Performance standard: Levels that students must prove knowledge and understanding in subject areas Other areas of standards are seen as standards, benchmarks, and indicators
Student Accountability NCLB requires standards-based tests of all students, unless unable because of disability If a student has an IEP, the form of taking these standard tests must be documented in the IEP The IEP has control over the student taking the test or not
Inclusion It is important for all persons to feel a sense of belonging in education, no matter their academic and social levels Inclusion has to do with how educators respond to individual differences Each student must feel a part of their class whether it be in a special education room or mainstream classes
RTIResponse to Intervention Tier 1: Differentiated Instruction delivered by a general education teacher All students participate in this tier Use of evidence-based curriculum Effective for 80 – 85 percent of students Tier 2: Few Students who did not respond to the curriculum in tier 1 Builds from curriculum in tier 1 Use of strategic evidence based intervention Some students may receive this instruction while still staying placed in the general education classroom Still participate in tier 1 curriculum, just taught in a slightly different way Tier 3: High-Quality intensive intervention Very few students Size of student groups reduced Taught by special education teacher Supplement curriculum in tier 1, not replaced Does not mean they are disabled
UDLUniversal Design for Learning Main ideas of UDL Attends to individual needs in general fashion that does not draw attention to any one individual Developing curricula and materials that attend to the needs of students with special needs Capitalizes on new technology Provides a new way of looking at students with disabilities What UDL features provide: Appropriate challenge for all students Materials have flexible format Methods are flexible and diverse Provides accurate ongoing information that helps teachers adjust their instruction according to student’s needs
Differentiated Instruction Definition: Reformulation of the basic idea of individualizing instruction that has been espoused for many years within special education Idea of concept: A wide range of student needs can be accommodated within general education classrooms Provides principles of UDL Capability to provide a way to address individual needs of the range of student’s needs in the classroom
Evidence-Based Practice Requires teachers to use interventions that have evidence that they have worked with the populations with whom they will be using them on It is all about how teachers instruct students Teachers must be aware of their student’s needs to use interventions properly
Diversity Considerations Teachers must consider their curriculum and daily lessons must reflect significant diversity Teachers must design classroom to address the needs of a range of learners with diverse needs This is another way of remembering that each student had their own individual way of learning
No Child Left BehindNCLB The NCLB Act was passed in 2001- The reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA). It had intent to better serve the neediest of students in our schools and to hold schools more accountable for their education Key Provisions: Increased accountability- standardized tests Parent and student choice – ability to replace children, obtain educational services Greater flexibility to states, school districts, and schools Putting reading first – ensure goals Highly qualified teachers
Section 504 The Rehabilitation Act has had profound effects on access for students with characteristics that have a limiting effect on their ability to learn. Any child who has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities can qualify for special services under section 504
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 2004 Been amended 3 times Originally called Public Law 94-142 Must provide a equal education to all students with disabilities All students with disabilities have access to general education
Free, appropriate Public Education School districts must provide special education and related services necessary to meet the needs of students with special learning requirements. If schools are unable to provide those things, other agencies must provide necessary services at public expense. Schools must also provide transportation and such related services
Appropriate Evaluation IDEA requires that prior to a student receiving special education and related services for the first time, a full and individual initial evaluation must be conducted. Also, parental consent must be provided, evaluation by IEP team, use of more than one procedure, testing, and reevaluations
Individualized Education Program IEP A written document summarizing a student’s learning program and is required for every student who qualifies for services. Purpose is to provide learning goals for an individual student, to determine services, and to enhance communication among parents and other professionals.
Least Restrictive Environment Schools must educate children with disabilities- to an extent- in general education settings with peers who are nondisabled. This provides an opportunity for students to attend school in the most inclusive setting possible.
Parent and Student Participation in Decision Making/ Procedural Safeguards Parental consent must accompany every decision that affects a child with a disability. Parents must also consent to all evaluations made of the student. Parents have the right to obtain the student or move the student based on their knowledge of their child’s special education
Americans with Disabilities Act ADA Similar to Section 504 Represents broad civil rights coverage for individuals who are disabled Establishes guidelines for employment, public housing and services
This picture depicts a teacher with a very diverse group of children with learning disabilities. It can be a challenge to reach all weak areas of each child’s disabilities.