Globalization in world history
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Globalization in world history

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Globalization in world history Globalization in world history Presentation Transcript

  •   Risha Jamal Hifza Junaid
  • Globalization in its literal sense is the process of transformation of local phenomenon into global ones. A process by which the people of the world are unified into a single society and function together.
  • The term globalization is quite new, widely introduced and commonly used only in the late 1980s/early 1990s.
  • International Monetary Fund (IMF) identified four basic aspects of globalization: trade and transactions, capital and investment movements, migration and movement of people and the dissemination of knowledge.
  • • One division of its history is done by Thomas L. Friedman, who divides globalization‟s history in three parts. Globalization 1 1492 - 1800 Globalization 2 1800 - 2000 Globalization 3 2000 - present
  •  However, a more popular division is done by A.G.Hopkins, who has divided the history into three Archaic Modern parts, as well. Globalization Globalization Earliest forms 1800s – 1600s present Protoglobalizatio n 1600 - 1800
  • Earliest forms – 1600s  States began to interact and trade with others within close proximity as a way to acquire coveted goods that were considered a luxury.  Merchants became connected and aware of others.  The spread of goods, commodities and cultures to other regions.
  • Prerequisites  There were three main prerequisites for globalization to occur. Eastern Origins • West adapts ideas and principles from the East. Distance • Difficult to wander too far away. • Interaction in Asia, Middle East, North Africa, Europe. Inter• States became dependenc dependent on each other. y
  • Archaic Globalization The result of increased interaction. Universalizing of kingship – Traveling men found prized possessions from far away lands. Trading & desire Pilgrimages – for better health Increased – Spices, precious exchange of cultures, especi stones, medicin ally. al drugs were exchanged.
  • Trade Routes and Empires  Three major trade routes: Silk road, Syria to Baghdad route and the route through Egypt.  There were two major empires; the Roman and the Chinese empires that were specifically influential in trade.
  • Silk Route
  • As a Result  Mapping came of age by around, with increasingly accurate representations of Asia, Europe and much of Africa.  Long distance travel resulted in caravans for protection of goods and a common rate of exchange for trading, eventually leading to banking.
  • As a Result  Printing press by Johannes Gutenberg made books cheaper and easily accessible. Secular books were printed.  More information dissemination lead to Renaissance and developments in all fields of life.  Christopher Columbus discovers the “New World.” Johannes Gutenberg
  •  Phase of increasing trade links and cultural exchange that characterized the period immediately preceding the advent of so-called 'modern globalization' in the 19th century.
  •  This period is marked by trade arrangements (East India Company), the shift of domination to Western Europe, the rise of larger-scale conflicts between powerful nations and rise of new commodities.
  • Changes in Trade and Wars  Switch from inter-nation trading of rarities to the trading of commodities.  Shift of expansionism by large nations to Western Europe, nations began competing in an effort to achieve world domination. Anglo-Dutch Wars • Between England and Holland • 1652 - 1654 French and Indian Wars • Between Britain and France • Ended in 1763 American Revolutionary War • Between England and thirteen colonies of N.America • 1775 - 1783
  • Atlantic Slave Trade  One of the main reasons for the rise of commodities was the rise in the slave trade, specifically the Atlantic slave trade.  Due to increase in production, labor shortage rose and so did the use of slaves.  The Atlantic slave traders, ordered by trade volume, were: the Portuguese, the British, the French, the Spanish, the Dutch, and the Americans.  Current estimates are that about 12 million were slaves
  • As a Result  Rise in commodity trade lead to a rise in plantation economy.  Colonies were formed and that resulted in exchange of culture especially in the Americas.  Global Disease increased.  Exchange of food items.
  • As a Result  New technologies were invented as the need arose.  Guns, and particularly the naval cannon, played a major role.  Increasing the size and versatility of ocean-going ships was a key gain.  Calculation of direction and speed of wind and ship.  Better and more efficient printing presses.
  • 1800 present  Also known as contemporary globalization.  Industrial  Shaped Revolution gave it a jump start. by 19th century Imperialism.  Transport Revolution.
  •  After WWII, Bretton Woods Conference took place where the framework of international monetary policy, commerce and finance was laid.  This lead to the founding of several international institutions intended to facilitate economic growth and lowered trade barriers.  Lead to the formation of GATT and later, WTO.
  • UNO  Created after failure of League of Nations in 1945.  Platform for all countries in the world to discuss all aspects of government. • Health, politics, economics. • International Labor Organization. • Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
  • Internet and its effects  Internet facilitated the expansion of the movement toward a global village.  Creation of cheaper, faster and easier means of communication, the provision of a vast pool of information.  E-commerce.  Created a “global audience.”  Social media - Focus now on individual contact.
  • As a Result  Exports nearly doubled from 8.5% from total Gross World Product in 1970 to 16.2% in 2001.  Aviation became affordable to middle classes in developed countries in the „70s.  1990 – the growth of low – cost communication networks accelerated the rate of communication between countries.
  • As a Result  In late 19th and early 20th century the connectivity of the world‟s economies and cultures grew.  Exchange of various commodities and ideas that were unique to one culture, became accessible to others.  Rise of the East.  Diseases – the SARS virus spread between three continents at an alarming speed.
  • Thank you!!