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Willingness to pay for px of mother to-child transmission in ghana by Emmanuel Ayifah
Willingness to pay for px of mother to-child transmission in ghana by Emmanuel Ayifah
Willingness to pay for px of mother to-child transmission in ghana by Emmanuel Ayifah
Willingness to pay for px of mother to-child transmission in ghana by Emmanuel Ayifah
Willingness to pay for px of mother to-child transmission in ghana by Emmanuel Ayifah
Willingness to pay for px of mother to-child transmission in ghana by Emmanuel Ayifah
Willingness to pay for px of mother to-child transmission in ghana by Emmanuel Ayifah
Willingness to pay for px of mother to-child transmission in ghana by Emmanuel Ayifah
Willingness to pay for px of mother to-child transmission in ghana by Emmanuel Ayifah
Willingness to pay for px of mother to-child transmission in ghana by Emmanuel Ayifah
Willingness to pay for px of mother to-child transmission in ghana by Emmanuel Ayifah
Willingness to pay for px of mother to-child transmission in ghana by Emmanuel Ayifah
Willingness to pay for px of mother to-child transmission in ghana by Emmanuel Ayifah
Willingness to pay for px of mother to-child transmission in ghana by Emmanuel Ayifah
Willingness to pay for px of mother to-child transmission in ghana by Emmanuel Ayifah
Willingness to pay for px of mother to-child transmission in ghana by Emmanuel Ayifah
Willingness to pay for px of mother to-child transmission in ghana by Emmanuel Ayifah
Willingness to pay for px of mother to-child transmission in ghana by Emmanuel Ayifah
Willingness to pay for px of mother to-child transmission in ghana by Emmanuel Ayifah
Willingness to pay for px of mother to-child transmission in ghana by Emmanuel Ayifah
Willingness to pay for px of mother to-child transmission in ghana by Emmanuel Ayifah
Willingness to pay for px of mother to-child transmission in ghana by Emmanuel Ayifah
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Willingness to pay for px of mother to-child transmission in ghana by Emmanuel Ayifah

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  • 1. Socio-economic Burden of HIV/AIDS: Investigating pregnant women’s Willingness-to-Pay to Prevent Mother-to-child Transmission in Ghana Emmanuel Ayifah iLiNS Project, University of Ghana Email: eayifah@yahoo.com Ayifah E. (2011) 1
  • 2. Presentation Outline• Facts About Ghana• HIV/AIDS Cost and Funding issues• The Research Agenda – Background – Objectives – Methodology – Results – Conclusions and Policy Recommendations 2 Ayifah E. (2011)
  • 3. Facts About Ghana• Population: 24.3 million (2010 Population census)• Average life expectancy in 2008: 57 years• Average per capita income: US$1,320HIV/AIDS Statistics - 2010• HIV/AIDS Prevalence rate -1.5 %• Prevalence among pregnant women - 2.0%• New Infections-12,890• PLWHAs - 254,270 (children , 12.7% )• AIDS Death - 16,319 (children , 9.9% )PMTCT indicators in 2009• PMTCT clients – 381,874• No. of clients positive – 6,634 (1.7%)• Clients on ART – 3,643• Total no. of HIV infected pregnant women – 12,990• Percentage of HIV+ pregnant women on ART-28% Ayifah E. (2011) 3
  • 4. HIV/AIDS Cost and Funding issues Ayifah E. (2011) 4
  • 5. Unit Cost Estimate of HIV/AIDS clinical Care, Ghana - (GAC, 2010) Distribution of HIV/AIDS Care and• Average yearly Cost per Treatment Costs client - US$534 Infrastructure• Range - US$ 473 and 3% US$563 Other (Program support, training) Supplies (ARVs, 34% lab testing etc.) 55%• Pediatric clients - Personnel 7% US$582 (10% more than Equipment 1% adults) Ayifah E. (2011) 5
  • 6. Unit Costs of HIV/AIDS Clinical Care (one patient year) - Recent Studies Study Country Unit Cost Unit/Comment Year (US$) HS2020, 2009 Cote D’ivoire 119 Pre-ART care 2009 co-trimoxazole prophylaxis and monitoring laboratory test Rosen and Ghana 534 Drugs and consumables, Asante 2009 (473-563) laboratory services 2010 Resch et al. Nigeria 811-827 1 patient year of ART 2009 2009 116-121 Pre- ART monitoring Sanders, 2009 Rwanda 319 Drugs, lab, OI prophylaxis, 2009 pre-ARV, nutrition support Dadri, 2006 South Africa 964 - 1,513 Include both in-patient and 2004 out-patient cost 6 Ayifah E. (2011)
  • 7. Financial Resource Gap for Ghana’s HIV/AIDS Program Ayifah E. (2011) 7
  • 8. Investigating Alternative Funding Options The Research AgendaInvestigating pregnant women’s Willingness- to-Pay to Prevent Mother-to-child Transmission in Ghana Ayifah E. (2011) 8
  • 9. Background• Mother-to-Child Transmission (MTCT) of HIV/AIDS accounts for the highest single mode of infection in children (UNAIDS,1998).• In Ghana Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV/AIDS services are free and the true cost of service per person per year was estimated at US$630.00 in 2003 (NACP)• It is worth noting that, the government cannot meet the cost on PMTCT alone. There is therefore the need for individuals to contribute to ensure sustainability of HIV/AIDS and other health care interventions, hence the study to assess hypothetical willingness-to-pay (WTP) for PMTCT of HIV/AIDS in Ghana.• WTP studies are used to measure the value individuals/households place on improving/preventing further deterioration in health due to diseases (Whittington et al. 1999; Kominami et al. 2007;Muko et al. 2004; Forsythe et al. 2002). Ayifah E. (2011) 9
  • 10. Objectives of the Study• Assess respondents knowledge about HIV/AIDS, MTCT and PMTCT of AIDS• Estimate respondents WTP for PMTCT of AIDS• Examine relevant determinants WTP.• Provide policy recommendations . Ayifah E. (2011) 10
  • 11. Methodology Ayifah E. (2011) 11
  • 12. Study Population Randomly selected pregnant women attending antenatal care at Atua Government Hospital (Atua) and St. Martins Deporres Hospital (* Agormanya) (February-March, 2008)*Site Prevalence - 7.8% (Sentinel Survey, 2010 ) Ayifah E. (2011) 12
  • 13. Sample Size – 200 pregnant women (100 per hospital)Consent - Verbal informed consentEliciting WTP - The Contingent Valuation Method• Realistic hypothetical scenario– PMTCT Fund• Minimizing budget constraint bias – income and other expenses (food, clothing, and other needs)• Payment Vehicle – Maximum out-of-pocket monthly voluntary contribution throughout pregnancy period• Bid Elicitation - Open ended bid elicitation format.Determinants of WTP – Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) Regression Ayifah E. (2011) 13
  • 14. Definition of Variables and Apriori Expectations Variable Definition Expected SignIncome Monthly income +Nchldn 1= At least one live child - 0 = otherwiseEducation 1= at least primary education + 0 = otherwiseMstatus 1 = married, 0= otherwise +Age Age in completed years -Transport Cost Cost of transportation to and fro the - hospitalPMTCT 1 = knows about PMTCT + 0 = otherwise HIV Status 1 = Positive, 0 = otherwise + Ayifah E. (2011) 14
  • 15. RESULTS Ayifah E. (2011) 15
  • 16. Background Characteristics Variable Aggregate sample Yilo Krobo District Manya Krobo District (N=200) Atua Government Hospital, St. Martins Depores Atua Hospital, Agormanya (N=100) (N=100)Age15-19 6 3 320-29 108 45 6330-39 73 43 3040+ 13 9 4Education LevelNo education 27 14 13Basic (Primary/JHS) 141 74 67Secondary 22 8 14Tertiary 10 4 6Marital StatusNot married 82 39 43Married 99 48 51Widowed 19 13 6Live ChildrenNo Child 46 16 30> =1 Child 165 40 70OccupationUnemployed 22 17 5Civil servants 14 4 10Petty Trading 128 61 67Agric related work 7 4 3Other 29 14 15Monthly Income*No income 22 17 5below GH¢50.3 134 65 69 GH¢50.31-100 31 12 19GH¢100.1-200 10 4 6GH¢200.1-300 3 2 1 16 *Exchange rate of Gh¢ 1.4 = $1 Ayifah E. (2011)
  • 17. HIV/AIDS Related Knowledge and WTP for PMTCT Variable Aggregate sample Atua Government St. Martins Depores (N=200) Hospital, Atua (N=100) Hospital, Agormanya (N=100) Heard about HIV/AIDS 200 100 100 HIV/AIDS Test Yes 158 80 78 No 42 20 22 Results Positive 64 37 27 Negative 94 43 51 Knowledge of MTCT Yes 198 99 99 No 2 1 1 Knowledge of PMTCT Yes*** 154 83 71 No 46 17 29 WTP for PMTCT of HIV/AIDS 178 84 94 Yes 22 16 6 No* * Mean WTP *Gh¢ 3.4 ($2.4) Gh¢3.2 ($ 2.3) Gh¢3.6 ($ 2.6) Std. deviation 2.9466 2.959 2.766 WTP Range (Min, Max) GH¢ 0.5 - GH¢ 20 GH¢ 0.5 - GH¢ 20 GH¢ 0.5 - GH¢ 10 ( $0.4 – $14.3) ( $0.4 – $14.3) ( $0.4 – $7.1) 17*Exchange rate of Gh¢ 1.4 = $1 ** Unemployed = 70.4% * * * 63.4% resp. 1st heard of PMTCT upon visiting the clinic Ayifah E. (2011)
  • 18. OLS Regression Results for WTP Aggregate Atua St. Martins Sample Government Depores Hosp. (N=200) Hosp. Atua Agormanya (N=100) (N=100)Regressor Coefficients Coefficients CoefficientsIncome 2.2322 *** 3.1380 *** 3.6086 ***nchldn -0.1391 0.0437 -0.1829Education 0.3423 * 0.2317 -0.1081mstatus 0.1897 0.4027 -0.0471Age -0.1984 -0.5315 -0.0111Transport Cost -0.0026 -0.0335 0.6021*PMTCT -0.7186 -0.7186 -0.4191 HIV Status -1.0182 ** -1.1506 ** -0.7267*** Significant at 1% R-Squared= 0. 5739 R-Squared= 0.5058 R-Squared= 0.6135 **Significant at 5% 18 *Significant at 10% Ayifah E. (2011)
  • 19. Summary of results• Most respondents (N=108) were between 20-29 years• Awareness of PMTCT of HIV/AIDS (N=154, 77%) is relatively lower than awareness of HIV/AIDS (N=200, 100%) and MTCT of HIV/AIDS(N= 198, 99%)• Average WTP = Gh¢3.4 ($2.4)• Income, Education and Transport cost were positively related to WTP• HIV/AIDS status was negatively related to WTP 19 Ayifah E. (2011)
  • 20. Major Conclusions• Pregnant women place high value on PMTCT of HIV/AIDS as indicated by their WTP for PMTCT.• Significant determinants of WTP for PMTCT of HIV/AIDS include income, educational level, Age, Distance to antenatal clinic and HIV/AIDS Status.• The result is consistent with theoretical construct that higher income is associated with higher WTP.• HIV/AIDS positives are willing to pay less. 20 Ayifah E. (2011)
  • 21. Policy Recommendations• PMTCT of HIV/AIDS sensitization campaigns should be intensified.• Social Intervention schemes (eg LEAP, NYEP in Ghana) should give priority to the unemployed, especially HIV/AIDS patients.• More community based HIV/AIDS clinical care centers should be established to ease the burden on clients having to travel far for treatment.• PMTCT fund through out-of pocket voluntary contributions would accrue some economic benefits when introduced. Ayifah E. (2011) 21
  • 22. THANK U Ayifah E. (2011) 22

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