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Tree Crops & Agroforestry - Young Farmers 09
 

Tree Crops & Agroforestry - Young Farmers 09

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This is my presentation on tree crops & agroforestry at Young Farmers Conference 2009.

This is my presentation on tree crops & agroforestry at Young Farmers Conference 2009.

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    Tree Crops & Agroforestry - Young Farmers 09 Tree Crops & Agroforestry - Young Farmers 09 Presentation Transcript

    • Tree Crops and Agroforestry Whole-systems Regeneration Through Perennial Agriculture Connor Stedman – Gaia Northeast Thanks to: M. Kat Anderson, Dave Jacke, Ethan Roland, Jon Young
    •  
    • What is Agroforestry?
      • Agroforestry (AF) is land use integrating trees and/or tree crops with other types of agriculture.
      • The three I’s:
        • Intentional
        • Intensive
        • Interconnected
      • The “Rule of 3”: An AF system must have at least 3 “layers” or managed functional elements.
    • The Roots – Indigenous AF Worldwide
    • Tropical Agroforestry
    • Tropical Agroforestry
      • Read 1491 by Charles Mann. Current Amazonian rainforest diversity is a result of thousands of years of native agroforestry.
    • Tropical Agroforestry
      • Read 1491 by Charles Mann. Current Amazonian rainforest diversity is a result of thousands of years of native agroforestry.
      • Hawai’ian Ahupua’a – whole-watershed management from mountain to sea, cared for by extended family networks.
    • Temperate & Mediterranean Agroforestry
      • (Wherever acorns are found.)
    • Balanoculture
    • Cork Oak Savanna
    • Tending the Wild Across North America
    • Tending the Wild Across North America
      • M. Kat Anderson spent 17 years interviewing native elders from around California.
    • Tending the Wild Across North America
      • M. Kat Anderson spent 17 years interviewing native elders from around California.
      • Their stories illustrate whole-ecosystem caretaking based on agroforestry and managing wild plant and animal populations for harvest.
    • Tending the Wild Across North America
      • M. Kat Anderson spent 17 years interviewing native elders from around California.
      • Their stories illustrate whole-ecosystem caretaking based on agroforestry and managing wild plant and animal populations for harvest.
      • Analogous patterns are found in the history (and sometimes present day) of every inhabited ecosystem in North America.
    • Soaproot – Chlorogalum spp.
      • A “wild” plant physiologically
      • adapted to human harvesting
      • and use.
    • Some Paradigm Shifts
      • Don’t just plant and harvest crops – manage and participate in the ecosystems that support staple crops in abundance.
    • Some Paradigm Shifts
      • Don’t just plant and harvest crops – manage and participate in the ecosystems that support staple crops in abundance.
      • Traditional land use patterns have resulted in heritage ecosystems , with humans as keystone species within those ecosystems.
    • Some Paradigm Shifts
      • Don’t just plant and harvest crops – manage and participate in the ecosystems that support staple crops in abundance.
      • Traditional land use patterns have resulted in heritage ecosystems , with humans as keystone species within those ecosystems.
      • With regenerative land use practices, human economic activities increase ecosystem health.
    • References on Indigenous Agroforestry
      • Tending the Wild – M. Kat Anderson
      • Enduring Seeds – Gary Paul Nabhan
      • The Voice of the Dawn – Frederick Matthew Wiseman
      • It Will Live Forever – Julia Parker & Beverly Ortiz
      • 1491 – Charles Mann
      • Changes in the Land – William Cronon
    • Coppice: Traditional European Agroforestry
    • The Coppice Cycle
    • Billhook
    • Coppice Products: Unlimited Potential
      • Baskets – Furniture – Buildings – Tools – FUEL
      • … ..and more!
    • Coppice and Standard
      • Understory: coppice
      • Overstory: mast trees.
      • Other yields: wild
      • plant & fungus food &
      • medicine, wild game,
      • silvopasture…
      • Whole Ecosystem Management
    • So…. What does all this mean in the Northeast US?
    • Northeast US Forest Characteristics
      • Temperate forest ecosystem; 40+ inches of rain distributed evenly through the year.
    • Northeast US Forest Characteristics
      • Temperate forest ecosystem; 40+ inches of rain distributed evenly through the year.
      • Rainfall exceeding evaporation + heavy winter snowfalls = high levels of spring mineral leaching from topsoil.
    • Northeast US Forest Characteristics
      • Temperate forest ecosystem; 40+ inches of rain distributed evenly through the year.
      • Rainfall exceeding evaporation + heavy winter snowfalls = high levels of spring mineral leaching from topsoil.
      • Most forests are under 100 years old. Old-growth very rare and extremely fragmented.
    • Northeast US Forest Characteristics
      • Temperate forest ecosystem; 40+ inches of rain distributed evenly through the year.
      • Rainfall exceeding evaporation + heavy winter snowfalls = high levels of spring mineral leaching from topsoil.
      • Most forests are under 100 years old. Old-growth very rare and extremely fragmented.
      • Coastal & intervale prairies and savannas almost completely gone – huge loss of diverse early-succession habitats.
    • Northeast US Forest Characteristics
      • Temperate forest ecosystem; 40+ inches of rain distributed evenly through the year.
      • Rainfall exceeding evaporation + heavy winter snowfalls = high levels of spring mineral leaching from topsoil.
      • Most forests are under 100 years old. Old-growth very rare and extremely fragmented.
      • Coastal & intervale prairies and savannas almost completely gone – huge loss of diverse early-succession habitats.
      • 200+ years of near-complete fire suppression.
    • Northeast US Forest Characteristics
      • Temperate forest ecosystem; 40+ inches of rain distributed evenly through the year.
      • Rainfall exceeding evaporation + heavy winter snowfalls = high levels of spring mineral leaching from topsoil.
      • Most forests are under 100 years old. Old-growth very rare and extremely fragmented.
      • Coastal & intervale prairies and savannas almost completely gone – huge loss of diverse early-succession habitats.
      • 200+ years of near-complete fire suppression.
      • A 10,000+ Year History of Agroforestry
    • Tree Crop Characteristics for AF in the Northeast
      • Climate-appropriate
    • Tree Crop Characteristics for AF in the Northeast
      • Climate-appropriate
      • High Yielding & High Quality
    • Tree Crop Characteristics for AF in the Northeast
      • Climate-appropriate
      • High Yielding & High Quality
      • Disease Resistant
    • Tree Crop Characteristics for AF in the Northeast
      • Climate-appropriate
      • High Yielding & High Quality
      • Disease Resistant
      • Historic or present-day use as staple crop
    • Tree Crop Characteristics for AF in the Northeast
      • Climate-appropriate
      • High Yielding & High Quality
      • Disease Resistant
      • Historic or present-day use as staple crop
      • Same, Analogous, or Closely Related Plants Found in Local Ecosystems
    • Tree Crop Characteristics for AF in the Northeast
      • Climate-appropriate
      • High Yielding & High Quality
      • Disease Resistant
      • Historic or present-day use as staple crop
      • Same, Analogous, or Closely Related Plants Found in Local Ecosystems
      • --Fun and Exciting – Motivational Species!--
    • Top Tree Crops: Small Fruits
      • Currants & Gooseberries ( Ribes spp. )
    • Top Tree Crops: Small Fruits
      • Currants & Gooseberries ( Ribes spp. )
      • Raspberries & Blackberries ( Rubus spp.)
    • Top Tree Crops: Small Fruits
      • Currants & Gooseberries ( Ribes spp. )
      • Raspberries & Blackberries ( Rubus spp.)
      • Bush Cherries ( Prunus spp. )
    • Top Tree Crops: Mid-Sized Fruits
      • Juneberries ( Amalanchier spp.)
    • Top Tree Crops: Mid-Sized Fruits
      • Juneberries ( Amalanchier spp.)
      • Pawpaw ( Asimina triloba )
    • Top Tree Crops: Mid-Sized Fruits
      • Juneberries ( Amalanchier spp.)
      • Pawpaw ( Asimina triloba )
      • Hardy Kiwi ( Actinidia arguta )
    • Top Tree Crops: Orchard Fruits
      • Pear ( Pyrus spp. )
    • Top Tree Crops: Orchard Fruits
      • Pear ( Pyrus spp. )
      • Persimmon ( Diospyrus spp. )
    • Top Tree Crops: Orchard Fruits
      • Pear ( Pyrus spp. )
      • Persimmon ( Diospyrus spp. )
      • Mulberry ( Morus spp. )
    • Top Tree Crops: Nut Trees
      • Hazel/Filbert ( Corylus spp. )
    • Top Tree Crops: Nut Trees
      • Hazel/Filbert ( Corylus spp. )
      • Chestnut ( Castenaea spp. )
    • Top Tree Crops: Nut Trees
      • Hazel/Filbert ( Corylus spp. )
      • Chestnut ( Castenaea spp. )
      • Black Walnut ( Juglans nigra )
    • Top Tree Crops: Timber/Coppice
      • Black Locust ( Robinia pseudoacacia )
    • Top Tree Crops: Timber/Coppice
      • Black Locust ( Robinia pseudoacacia )
      • Black Walnut ( Juglans nigra )
    • Top Tree Crops: Timber/Coppice
      • Black Locust ( Robinia pseudoacacia )
      • Black Walnut ( Juglans nigra )
      • Hazel/Filbert ( Corylus spp. )
    • Some Tree Crop Resources
      • Tree Crops - J. Russell Smith
      • Edible Forest Gardens - Dave Jacke & Eric Toensmeier
      • Uncommon Fruits - Lee Reich
      • A Guide to Nut Tree Culture in North America – Dennis W. Fulbright, ed.
      • Northern Nut Growers Association – nutgrowing.org
      • The Woodland Way – Ben Law
      • Permaculture: A Designer’s Manual – Bill Mollison
    • Why Implement AF Now?
      • Overyielding Polycultures
      • Perennial Staple Crops
      • Carbon Sequestration
      • Erosion Control & Soil Fertility Renewal
      • Sustainable, Local, Carbon-Neutral Fuel
      • Habitat Regeneration
      • Productive Use of Marginal/Degraded Land
      • Enhancement of Existing Farm Systems
      • = BIOREGION REPAIR
    • 4 Strategies for AF Implementation
      • 1. Enhance Existing Farm Systems & Solve Problems with Tree Crops
      • 2. Implement Proven AF Tree Crop Systems
      • 3. Trial, Research, and Develop Commercially Unproven AF Tree Crop Systems
      • 4. Manage Existing Landscapes as Heritage Ecosystems
    • 1. Enhance Existing Farm Systems & Solve Problems with Tree Crops
        • Windbreaks
        • Riparian Buffers
        • Hedgerows
    • 2. Implement Commercially Proven Tree Crop Systems
      • Alley Cropping
      • Forest Farming
      • Silvopasture
    • 3. Trial, Research, and Develop Commercially Unproven Tree Crop Systems & Techniques
    • 3. Trial, Research, and Develop Commercially Unproven Tree Crop Systems & Techniques
      • Ideas:
        • Fruit/nut orchard with diverse perennial crop understory
    • 3. Trial, Research, and Develop Commercially Unproven Tree Crop Systems & Techniques
      • Ideas:
        • Fruit/nut orchard with diverse perennial crop understory
        • Prescribed fire management in nut tree-based AF systems
    • 3. Trial, Research, and Develop Commercially Unproven Tree Crop Systems & Techniques
      • Ideas:
        • Fruit/nut orchard with diverse perennial crop understory
        • Prescribed fire management in nut tree-based AF systems
        • Trial uncommon fruits for small commercial markets within AF systems, such as:
          • Juneberry
          • American Persimmon
          • Pawpaw
          • Jujube
          • Honeyberry
          • Hardy Kiwi
    • 4. Manage Existing Landscapes as Heritage Ecosystems
    •  
    • Contact Info
      • [email_address]
      • turkeytail.wordpress.com
      • Gaia Northeast
      • B.Sc. and M.Sc. Degree Programs Start February 2011
      • www.gaianortheast.org
      • www.gaiauniversity.org