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Tree Crops & Agroforestry - Young Farmers 09
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Tree Crops & Agroforestry - Young Farmers 09

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This is my presentation on tree crops & agroforestry at Young Farmers Conference 2009.

This is my presentation on tree crops & agroforestry at Young Farmers Conference 2009.

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  • 1. Tree Crops and Agroforestry Whole-systems Regeneration Through Perennial Agriculture Connor Stedman – Gaia Northeast Thanks to: M. Kat Anderson, Dave Jacke, Ethan Roland, Jon Young
  • 2.  
  • 3. What is Agroforestry?
    • Agroforestry (AF) is land use integrating trees and/or tree crops with other types of agriculture.
    • The three I’s:
      • Intentional
      • Intensive
      • Interconnected
    • The “Rule of 3”: An AF system must have at least 3 “layers” or managed functional elements.
  • 4. The Roots – Indigenous AF Worldwide
  • 5. Tropical Agroforestry
  • 6. Tropical Agroforestry
    • Read 1491 by Charles Mann. Current Amazonian rainforest diversity is a result of thousands of years of native agroforestry.
  • 7. Tropical Agroforestry
    • Read 1491 by Charles Mann. Current Amazonian rainforest diversity is a result of thousands of years of native agroforestry.
    • Hawai’ian Ahupua’a – whole-watershed management from mountain to sea, cared for by extended family networks.
  • 8. Temperate & Mediterranean Agroforestry
    • (Wherever acorns are found.)
  • 9. Balanoculture
  • 10. Cork Oak Savanna
  • 11. Tending the Wild Across North America
  • 12. Tending the Wild Across North America
    • M. Kat Anderson spent 17 years interviewing native elders from around California.
  • 13. Tending the Wild Across North America
    • M. Kat Anderson spent 17 years interviewing native elders from around California.
    • Their stories illustrate whole-ecosystem caretaking based on agroforestry and managing wild plant and animal populations for harvest.
  • 14. Tending the Wild Across North America
    • M. Kat Anderson spent 17 years interviewing native elders from around California.
    • Their stories illustrate whole-ecosystem caretaking based on agroforestry and managing wild plant and animal populations for harvest.
    • Analogous patterns are found in the history (and sometimes present day) of every inhabited ecosystem in North America.
  • 15. Soaproot – Chlorogalum spp.
    • A “wild” plant physiologically
    • adapted to human harvesting
    • and use.
  • 16. Some Paradigm Shifts
    • Don’t just plant and harvest crops – manage and participate in the ecosystems that support staple crops in abundance.
  • 17. Some Paradigm Shifts
    • Don’t just plant and harvest crops – manage and participate in the ecosystems that support staple crops in abundance.
    • Traditional land use patterns have resulted in heritage ecosystems , with humans as keystone species within those ecosystems.
  • 18. Some Paradigm Shifts
    • Don’t just plant and harvest crops – manage and participate in the ecosystems that support staple crops in abundance.
    • Traditional land use patterns have resulted in heritage ecosystems , with humans as keystone species within those ecosystems.
    • With regenerative land use practices, human economic activities increase ecosystem health.
  • 19. References on Indigenous Agroforestry
    • Tending the Wild – M. Kat Anderson
    • Enduring Seeds – Gary Paul Nabhan
    • The Voice of the Dawn – Frederick Matthew Wiseman
    • It Will Live Forever – Julia Parker & Beverly Ortiz
    • 1491 – Charles Mann
    • Changes in the Land – William Cronon
  • 20. Coppice: Traditional European Agroforestry
  • 21. The Coppice Cycle
  • 22. Billhook
  • 23. Coppice Products: Unlimited Potential
    • Baskets – Furniture – Buildings – Tools – FUEL
    • … ..and more!
  • 24. Coppice and Standard
    • Understory: coppice
    • Overstory: mast trees.
    • Other yields: wild
    • plant & fungus food &
    • medicine, wild game,
    • silvopasture…
    • Whole Ecosystem Management
  • 25. So…. What does all this mean in the Northeast US?
  • 26. Northeast US Forest Characteristics
    • Temperate forest ecosystem; 40+ inches of rain distributed evenly through the year.
  • 27. Northeast US Forest Characteristics
    • Temperate forest ecosystem; 40+ inches of rain distributed evenly through the year.
    • Rainfall exceeding evaporation + heavy winter snowfalls = high levels of spring mineral leaching from topsoil.
  • 28. Northeast US Forest Characteristics
    • Temperate forest ecosystem; 40+ inches of rain distributed evenly through the year.
    • Rainfall exceeding evaporation + heavy winter snowfalls = high levels of spring mineral leaching from topsoil.
    • Most forests are under 100 years old. Old-growth very rare and extremely fragmented.
  • 29. Northeast US Forest Characteristics
    • Temperate forest ecosystem; 40+ inches of rain distributed evenly through the year.
    • Rainfall exceeding evaporation + heavy winter snowfalls = high levels of spring mineral leaching from topsoil.
    • Most forests are under 100 years old. Old-growth very rare and extremely fragmented.
    • Coastal & intervale prairies and savannas almost completely gone – huge loss of diverse early-succession habitats.
  • 30. Northeast US Forest Characteristics
    • Temperate forest ecosystem; 40+ inches of rain distributed evenly through the year.
    • Rainfall exceeding evaporation + heavy winter snowfalls = high levels of spring mineral leaching from topsoil.
    • Most forests are under 100 years old. Old-growth very rare and extremely fragmented.
    • Coastal & intervale prairies and savannas almost completely gone – huge loss of diverse early-succession habitats.
    • 200+ years of near-complete fire suppression.
  • 31. Northeast US Forest Characteristics
    • Temperate forest ecosystem; 40+ inches of rain distributed evenly through the year.
    • Rainfall exceeding evaporation + heavy winter snowfalls = high levels of spring mineral leaching from topsoil.
    • Most forests are under 100 years old. Old-growth very rare and extremely fragmented.
    • Coastal & intervale prairies and savannas almost completely gone – huge loss of diverse early-succession habitats.
    • 200+ years of near-complete fire suppression.
    • A 10,000+ Year History of Agroforestry
  • 32. Tree Crop Characteristics for AF in the Northeast
    • Climate-appropriate
  • 33. Tree Crop Characteristics for AF in the Northeast
    • Climate-appropriate
    • High Yielding & High Quality
  • 34. Tree Crop Characteristics for AF in the Northeast
    • Climate-appropriate
    • High Yielding & High Quality
    • Disease Resistant
  • 35. Tree Crop Characteristics for AF in the Northeast
    • Climate-appropriate
    • High Yielding & High Quality
    • Disease Resistant
    • Historic or present-day use as staple crop
  • 36. Tree Crop Characteristics for AF in the Northeast
    • Climate-appropriate
    • High Yielding & High Quality
    • Disease Resistant
    • Historic or present-day use as staple crop
    • Same, Analogous, or Closely Related Plants Found in Local Ecosystems
  • 37. Tree Crop Characteristics for AF in the Northeast
    • Climate-appropriate
    • High Yielding & High Quality
    • Disease Resistant
    • Historic or present-day use as staple crop
    • Same, Analogous, or Closely Related Plants Found in Local Ecosystems
    • --Fun and Exciting – Motivational Species!--
  • 38. Top Tree Crops: Small Fruits
    • Currants & Gooseberries ( Ribes spp. )
  • 39. Top Tree Crops: Small Fruits
    • Currants & Gooseberries ( Ribes spp. )
    • Raspberries & Blackberries ( Rubus spp.)
  • 40. Top Tree Crops: Small Fruits
    • Currants & Gooseberries ( Ribes spp. )
    • Raspberries & Blackberries ( Rubus spp.)
    • Bush Cherries ( Prunus spp. )
  • 41. Top Tree Crops: Mid-Sized Fruits
    • Juneberries ( Amalanchier spp.)
  • 42. Top Tree Crops: Mid-Sized Fruits
    • Juneberries ( Amalanchier spp.)
    • Pawpaw ( Asimina triloba )
  • 43. Top Tree Crops: Mid-Sized Fruits
    • Juneberries ( Amalanchier spp.)
    • Pawpaw ( Asimina triloba )
    • Hardy Kiwi ( Actinidia arguta )
  • 44. Top Tree Crops: Orchard Fruits
    • Pear ( Pyrus spp. )
  • 45. Top Tree Crops: Orchard Fruits
    • Pear ( Pyrus spp. )
    • Persimmon ( Diospyrus spp. )
  • 46. Top Tree Crops: Orchard Fruits
    • Pear ( Pyrus spp. )
    • Persimmon ( Diospyrus spp. )
    • Mulberry ( Morus spp. )
  • 47. Top Tree Crops: Nut Trees
    • Hazel/Filbert ( Corylus spp. )
  • 48. Top Tree Crops: Nut Trees
    • Hazel/Filbert ( Corylus spp. )
    • Chestnut ( Castenaea spp. )
  • 49. Top Tree Crops: Nut Trees
    • Hazel/Filbert ( Corylus spp. )
    • Chestnut ( Castenaea spp. )
    • Black Walnut ( Juglans nigra )
  • 50. Top Tree Crops: Timber/Coppice
    • Black Locust ( Robinia pseudoacacia )
  • 51. Top Tree Crops: Timber/Coppice
    • Black Locust ( Robinia pseudoacacia )
    • Black Walnut ( Juglans nigra )
  • 52. Top Tree Crops: Timber/Coppice
    • Black Locust ( Robinia pseudoacacia )
    • Black Walnut ( Juglans nigra )
    • Hazel/Filbert ( Corylus spp. )
  • 53. Some Tree Crop Resources
    • Tree Crops - J. Russell Smith
    • Edible Forest Gardens - Dave Jacke & Eric Toensmeier
    • Uncommon Fruits - Lee Reich
    • A Guide to Nut Tree Culture in North America – Dennis W. Fulbright, ed.
    • Northern Nut Growers Association – nutgrowing.org
    • The Woodland Way – Ben Law
    • Permaculture: A Designer’s Manual – Bill Mollison
  • 54. Why Implement AF Now?
    • Overyielding Polycultures
    • Perennial Staple Crops
    • Carbon Sequestration
    • Erosion Control & Soil Fertility Renewal
    • Sustainable, Local, Carbon-Neutral Fuel
    • Habitat Regeneration
    • Productive Use of Marginal/Degraded Land
    • Enhancement of Existing Farm Systems
    • = BIOREGION REPAIR
  • 55. 4 Strategies for AF Implementation
    • 1. Enhance Existing Farm Systems & Solve Problems with Tree Crops
    • 2. Implement Proven AF Tree Crop Systems
    • 3. Trial, Research, and Develop Commercially Unproven AF Tree Crop Systems
    • 4. Manage Existing Landscapes as Heritage Ecosystems
  • 56. 1. Enhance Existing Farm Systems & Solve Problems with Tree Crops
      • Windbreaks
      • Riparian Buffers
      • Hedgerows
  • 57. 2. Implement Commercially Proven Tree Crop Systems
    • Alley Cropping
    • Forest Farming
    • Silvopasture
  • 58. 3. Trial, Research, and Develop Commercially Unproven Tree Crop Systems & Techniques
  • 59. 3. Trial, Research, and Develop Commercially Unproven Tree Crop Systems & Techniques
    • Ideas:
      • Fruit/nut orchard with diverse perennial crop understory
  • 60. 3. Trial, Research, and Develop Commercially Unproven Tree Crop Systems & Techniques
    • Ideas:
      • Fruit/nut orchard with diverse perennial crop understory
      • Prescribed fire management in nut tree-based AF systems
  • 61. 3. Trial, Research, and Develop Commercially Unproven Tree Crop Systems & Techniques
    • Ideas:
      • Fruit/nut orchard with diverse perennial crop understory
      • Prescribed fire management in nut tree-based AF systems
      • Trial uncommon fruits for small commercial markets within AF systems, such as:
        • Juneberry
        • American Persimmon
        • Pawpaw
        • Jujube
        • Honeyberry
        • Hardy Kiwi
  • 62. 4. Manage Existing Landscapes as Heritage Ecosystems
  • 63.  
  • 64. Contact Info
    • [email_address]
    • turkeytail.wordpress.com
    • Gaia Northeast
    • B.Sc. and M.Sc. Degree Programs Start February 2011
    • www.gaianortheast.org
    • www.gaiauniversity.org