Beni Znassen Association for Culture,
Development and Solidarity (ABCDS)
The new Moroccan Migration policy
Towards a national participatory approach for
Beni Znassen association for Culture, Development
and Solidarity (ABCDS)
Beni Znassen association for culture, development and solidarity, known as ABCDS,
is a non profitable and independent organization working in Oujda where it has
been founded in the year 2005. It seeks through its activities to promote the culture
of human rights and civism, working to denounce violence, racism and hatred, and
to respect the human dignity of migrants, Moroccans and foreigners and instilling
the values of freedom, equality and justice.
ABCDS implemented since its creation , a program for migrant arrivals to the city of
Oujda, the crossroads of migration from sub-Saharan African and Asian countries, to
respond quickly to the needs through humanitarian and legal assistance, giving
priority to the most marginalized and threatened people. The program also aims at
advocating for civil and human rights of migrants, to fight against all forms of direct
and indirect racism and fight against all forms of discrimination , based on the
principles of human dignity , and solidarity.
ABCDS actively participates in national and international events for the rights of
migrants, including World Social Forums ( WSF) held in Belem, Brazil in 2009, in
Dakar in 2011 and in Tunis in 2013 , the World Social Forums on Migration ( FSMM
) Rivas - Vacia -Madrid in 2008 and Quito, Ecuador in 2010. ABCDS notably
participated in the regional consultation on migration for the MENA region,
organized by the United Nations Program for Development ( UNDP) in Amman /
Jordan in 2008 , to prepare for the World Report on Human Development , focused
on migration , published in 2009, entitled " Overcoming barriers: human mobility
ABCDS also participated in international missions and field visits to assess the
situation of migrants, like Turkey , Tunisia and Libya, and to a set of countries in
West Africa , Europe and Latin - America.
ABCDS is an active member of Civil Coalition of Migration and Asylum (CCMA ),
(Morocco), the Maghreb- Sahel Network on Migration , which includes associations
active in the Maghreb and West Africa of Migreurop , based in Paris , bringing
together activists and researchers from Africa, Europe and the Middle East and Euro-
African network on Migration Manifesto.
Address Angle Bd. Lieutenant Belhoucine et rue Gharnata, Oujda, Maroc
Tel/Fax +212 (0) 536 68 67 50
Axes of the memorandum
2- Fundamental guiding principles
3- Towards a policy of an integrated national approach
4- Axes and dimensions of migration
5- The fight against trafficking in human beings
6- Fight against racism for a society free from
7- The integration : Dimension of development
8- Management of cultural diversity and pluralistic
9- Political Content of the new migration approach
10- African Alliance for Migration and Development
General Recommendation: The National Conference
on Migration and asylum Policies
1- Introduction :
10 September 2013, the official announcement of the royal initiative marks the
beginning of a qualitative transformation in the politics of Morocco concerning
approaches to migration, which previously has been reduced in its security side.
Migration requires diagnostic questions, proposal of solutions and remedies. To do
so, a national plan based on a thorough and comprehensive study of the different
phases of the experiment is required. It must take into consideration society and its
different sensitivities, and to identify indices of acceptability of the phenomenon
which is part of the social reality.
For successful migration and integration policy, the government should be open to
active associations of civil society, and to develop a clear and coherent national
policy to crystallize migration and asylum as human rights, to promote the rights of
foreign migrants in Morocco and Moroccan emigrants abroad regardless of their
administrative situation, ensure their acquired rights to full citizenship, and
participate actively in the development of society.
From its national and international experience in the field of migration, Beni
Znassen Association for Culture, Development and Solidarity (ABCDS) submits to
public debate its memorandum gathering proposals, designs for a just political and
humanist Morocco on migration and asylum, based on a national, strategic and
2- Fundamental guiding principles: Paragraphs
— Accuracy of all parallel interventions in the field of migration to have a
realistic and reasonable situation.
— Developing a clear fundamental notion answering all questions to master
the foundations of the future organization of migration depending on a Moroccan
— The subject of migration is still fertile for scientific research in order to
develop a best practical approach that can be an appropriate reference, able to
define in advance the different mechanisms of migration
— Consolidation of open and participatory dialogue to strengthen the position to
rationalization and precision of goals and factors, helping to develop a
comprehensive design, thorough and accurate.
— Precision and clarification of positions in the light of developments and
possible transformations especially that the problem is multi-dimensional. The
Moroccan approach in this area should be realistic and clear defining the
requirements to achieve results and scientific answers.
— Asking not to duplicate the experiences and approaches does not mean not
to adopt most of these experiences but to do it in a framework of a national policy.
— The strategic choice emerges from the Moroccan environment.
— Migration issue is not limited to technical and administrative operation. This
is why we insist on the social aspects, based on realistic estimates and
methodologists and intellectual managements and coherent action plans, within
the framework of a strategic approach to avoid any possible problems.
— Need for effective involvement of national civil society specialized in the
development of organizations and institutions and in the planning of programs
and action plans, along with strengthening and by changing the arrangements for
— Develop and activate the mechanisms that ensure the right of access to all
documentation, all agreements and developments relating to migration.
— The development of the strategy must reflect the Moroccan strategy of
3- Towards a policy of an integrated national
The action and planning are necessary to circumvent the various migration issues
given the situation of Morocco as a transmitting and receiving country of migrants
and as a transit country, this requires an integrated strategic approach to the
various migration issues:
— Moroccan migrants in regular situation ;
— Moroccan migrants in an irregular situation;
— Moroccan migrants returning to the country or deported;
— Migrants residing in Morocco in a regular situation (including refugees);
— Migrants residing in Morocco illegally;
— Migrants seeking international protection.
— The Moroccan government must report annually, in a parliamentary session, a
detailed report of the results on migration and discuss it.
— Need to intervene in favor of Moroccans abroad in illegal administrative
situation and put their cause in the agenda of negotiations and agreements.
— Statistics and data of different categories should be precise and reviewed
annually, divided according to gender, age, social status, hobbies (Language-belief-
culture, nationality ...).
— In the absence of precise figures on Moroccans deported, estimated at 15,000
annually (Eurostat), being more exposed to psychological stress and
marginalization, it is necessary to intervene and take necessary measures to help
them reintegrate .
— Need to have accurate statistics on the number of Moroccan prisoners
abroad, depending on the age, sex and duration of imprisonment, country, city ,
and check their prison conditions and providing them the necessary assistance .
— Determining the number of Moroccans detained in detention centers
specifically designed for undocumented migrants and check their conditions of
detention and provide the support and assistance they need .
— Strengthen links with Moroccans living abroad ( MLA) and plan a policy that
takes into account the various changes and to make MLA a proud citizen of his
— • Supporting the elderly living abroad.
— Support the Moroccan underage living abroad especially unaccompanied .
— Create a national specialized service of " missing migrants " Moroccans and
— Regulatory Law on agencies and intermediates of migration and recruitment
4- Axes and dimensions of migration
The historical revision of the Moroccan national policy on migration must take into
account the royal initiative to achieve its objectives on the basis of a strategic plan
including different dimensions of migration:
Axis: Humanist Dimension;
Axis: Dimension of rights;
axis: Dimension of integration and development;
Axis: Dimension of cultural integration or civil and civilizational
Migrants in particular human situation
a) migrants in vulnerable situations (people with special needs, people with
serious illnesses, elderly ...);
b) Unaccompanied Children;
c) Victims of trafficking;
d) Refugees and asylum seekers.
— Creation of an institution or a national humanitarian agency to answer
humanitarian emergencies, including the ministries, national institutions and non-
governmental organizations, the objective remains the treatment of urgent cases
and assistance to migrants ..
— Create an independent national agency responsible for coordinating the
national reception system and the management of asylum procedures, and
including among its members organizations of civil society.
— Build humanitarian shelters specialized in hosting various migrants in
precarious situations including unaccompanied children, victims of human
trafficking and asylum seekers. These homes must afford quality services.
— Access to Permanent Resident Card for migrants in a precarious situation and
unaccompanied children . Similarly, the right to family reunification should be
— Right to access humanitarian shelters for a year to migrants without income,
residence card holder must be permitted to learn the language and take advantage
of professional training and retraining till they find jobs.
— Right of asylum seekers to legal assistance and freedom of movement.
— The right to nationality to persons born in the territory regardless the parents’
— Need to revise the code of Moroccan nationality.
— social and humanitarian assistance to these categories of migrants as
advocated by the international law of human rights .
— Strengthening the conditions of school success for unaccompanied children.
— Strengthening the dynamics of adaptation.
— Upgrading expertise for an effective approach to the situation of these
— Insure the quality of products offered for consumption to migrants.
— Strengthening social and legal support.
5- The fight against trafficking in human beings
The need to strengthen national legislation on the fight against human trafficking
through an initiative targeting victims who should receive support and assistance .
— the creation of an institution specialized in the fight against human
trafficking, responsible for the coordination of efforts at all levels and across
regions of the Kingdom, including among its members representatives of ministries
and national institutions , active and specialized NGO’s , UN agencies working in
Morocco (UNICEF, IOM , UNHCR, UNWOMEN ) . The institution will assess the
measures and steps taken by the government's law enforcement and management
training. In addition, it develops national plans and supervises education and
— The creation of the National Observatory for the Fight against human
— The creation of a specialized court.
— Adoption of the recommendations and guidelines set out in :
Study of the International Organization for Migration ( IOM) and the
Ministry of Justice on human trafficking in Morocco;
Report of the visit to Morocco of the Special Rapporteur of the United
Nations Trafficking in Persons, especially women and children,
conducted from 17 to 21 June 2013 ;
2013 annual report on human trafficking in the world of the Office of
Monitoring and the fight against trafficking of persons under the U.S.
Department of State - Part devoted to Morocco
— Fundamental human rights to victims and the right to obtain a residence
— Insure victims’ safety and freedom of movement.
— Strengthening of measures for training and reintegration.
— Qualification and assistance to victims (education, vocational training ...)
6- Fight against racism for a society free from
The international community as a whole , suffers significantly different forms of
racism which is due generally to a sense of racial superiority , cultural, religious or
even "social jealousy" .. the situation in Morocco is it an exception ? !
Morocco knows no organized , secret or public racist activity, but that does not stop
to study deeply the problem to prevent and anticipate any possible consequences ,
especially as cultural levels, living standards and the internal dynamics of culture
could generate clichés -behaviors ...
Several voices are Calling to pass a law criminalizing racism , because of
increasingly recorded cases in racially motivated attacks , and the return of waves of
(Takfirists fatwas) against politicians, artists and activists from civil society..
For this orientation and this trend not to be reflected on foreign non- Muslims, it is
necessary to take all necessary measures.
— The Need of a law criminalizing racism, discrimination, anti-Semitism and "
— Creation of a National Observatory for the fight against racism and
discrimination, to tackle all racist and discriminatory position through education
and awareness of the value of cultural diversity, freedom of conscience and the
dangers of social exclusion, and encouraging, at the same time, dialogue and
encounter between minorities and host communities.
— Development of an analytical record of all the different positions and points
that could give rise to racism.
— Non-politicization and exploitation of migration issue in political conflict.
— Strengthening measures against racism, hatred and xenophobia.
— Strengthen tools and methods of protection against racism ..
7- The integration : Dimension of development
Integration is Generally defines as the coexistence, cohabitation and the positive
reception between cultural environments in the same geographical area on the
basis of mutual respect of different values. The High Council for Integration (HCI)
French, defines, in its report for 1991, entitled "Towards a new integration model," as
being to encourage active participation in society as a whole of all men and women
called to live permanently in accepting back without reservation, and focusing on
the similarities and convergences in rights and duties ...
According to political leaders and experts , experiences and European approaches
showed failure : social and spatial exclusion , extremism , racism , xenophobia and
psychological tensons due in particular to cultural trauma among foreigners ...
All this confirms that integration in the northern countries remains a problem . In a
statement the French Prime Minister published on the website of the French
Government on 13 December 2013: "We want to restart the republican integration
model, which is down today." In Germany , the term integration is perceived
negatively dependent on what is in the minds of many people , problems and
intractable contradictions . in Switzerland , the popular referendum on February
2014 approve the initiative from the right wing " against mass immigration ." This
shows that Europe's failure in migration policy is widespread.
So, will Morocco adopt the same policy that proved to be a failure?
At the organizational level:
— Creation of a national agency responsible for the integration and
reintegration for migrants residing in Morocco and Moroccan migrants in the case
of voluntary or forced return to the country.
— Creation of " Regional Directorates of integration" responsible for planning
the policy to adopt in terms of integration ,submit concrete proposals and
coordinate among the various stakeholders . " Sub-committees or sub- provincial
working groups " can be created , composed of specialists from various
administrations and departments as well as representatives of municipalities,
migrant communities , specialized associations and experts , to draw up annual
reports and studies while ensuring the management and monitoring of action
plans and measures .
— Preliminary information intended to facilitate integration:
— providing and " integration Booklet ": A practical guide with information
necessary for migrants in native languages, about the political system, the legal
and constitutional values, customs and Moroccan traditions, the region and the city
of residence, the national language learning centers, administrative services, health
services and the judicial system, relevant associations, facilities for culture and
sports ... so the guide must include the regulatory laws related to the rights of
migrant workers and integration programs.
— Creating a website related to national integration programs and information
needed in all regions and provinces of the Kingdom.
— Creation of accredited learning of national languages in the provinces and
regions of the UK centers.
— Establishment of an adequate educational system, adapted to the age and
level of foreign language learners.
— Adoption of new teaching methods, using modern technologies of distance
learning or in classroom.
— Parallel Activities to foreign learners in an authentic learning situations.
Access of migrant children in the school system:
— Strengthening and promoting the official circular of October 9, 2013, the
Ministry of National Education and Vocational Training in the integration of foreign
students descended from the Sahel and sub-Saharan Africa in the school system:
— including a subject about "Social relations" in the curriculum to teach
tolerance and respect of others ...
— Consideration of the difference between children who have been to school in
their country of origin and children who were born or had entered Morocco before
they reach school age .
the involvement of parents of foreign students within the committees to
receive and study requests for public school enrollment .
Involvement of families in the schools’ activities and make them aware of
their responsibilities via cultural and educational courses .
Strengthening classes in Arabic and / or French for non-native speakers and
Foreign students from non- Muslims should be exempt from " Islamic
Learning the language and culture of origin is required in parallel with public
Respect for religious festivals of non- Muslim children , assessments , and
monitoring and testing should not coincide with the holidays.
Creating models - classes for orientation.
— Training Session and guidance for an appropriate approach to the difference
of cultures, ethnicities and religions.
Human Development :
— the creation of a national fund of development, integration and reintegration
for migrants from sub-Saharans and Moroccans wishing to create companies both
at home or in one of the of sub-Saharan countries unilaterally or jointly with the
provision of all the administrative and procedural facilities and encourage the
integration of companies founded by foreigners in Morocco or in their countries.
— integration of migration issues and its objectives in accordance with human
development programs .
— developing measures to ensure direct access of refugees and migrants to the
— Encourage the immigrant resident in Morocco to achieve his ambitions and
take advantage of national programs of development concerning self- employment
as an approach to promote equal opportunities and to ensure respect for
— Training and career guidance.
8- Management of cultural diversity and pluralistic
composition : building a strategy of civilized
Civilized cohabitation is a qualitative property correlating with its base objectives
and realistic plans , at the local regional and national levels . It requires knowledge
, science and technology to study the reality of cultures with all its components , all
levels and contradictions included to build the potential to change negative
perceptions , clearing all discriminating standards on one hand and accumulating
positive concepts on the other. And strengthening of the principle of equality and
belonging to the nation and mutual respect to each other, enhancing the culture of
unity against the unique culture or culture of congruence and symmetry , as well as
enhancing the common positive vision of different cultural and historical references
along with managing its diversity.
Questions construction of complementarity issues and
How to measure the possibilities of cohabitation ?
What are the vital and cultural ties to the construction of complementarity
What are the dynamic factors that make migration
a realistic and civilizational presence ?
What are the conditions that make migrants involved in a natural way
instead of getting involved in a separate society , isolated and closed?
What are the provisions and procedures for managing differences without
turning to contradictions?
What guarantees the success of the experiment on the basis of participation
that make migration an actual added value ?
What are the factors limiting the dominance of closed cultural model that has
the potential of civilized cohabitation ?
To what extent can we link migration to citizenship ?
Can migration play a civilizational role ?
Concerns are related to targets for the construction of the base of an open
environment , valuing diversity and recognizing the homogeneity of norms and
values, and because the strategic planning for the construction of civic cohabitation
is based on the results of studies and scientific analysis , it must address two
different cultural areas:
1. Culture of the host community
2. Cultures of migrant communities
Identification of measures in the light of objectives:
— Identification of the general orientation in relation to the treatment of foreign
— Raising social awareness about the historic role of diversity in the dynamics
of social modernization.
— Scientific Diagnosis of the situation and strengthening responses to
adaptation and sense of belonging.
— Reducing social exclusion and xenophobia.
— Definition of cultural and behavioral levels specifically those more inclined to
— Focus on issues of interaction and integrative composition based on the
foundations of the recognition of diversity and difference .
— Preparation of the community to positive responsiveness, valuing cultural
diversity , promotion of all the factors and mechanisms for strengthening
adaptation and recognition of difference as a civilizational phenomenon.
— Focus on the positive Productions between different cultures that will develop
factors of diversity and positive interaction .
— Protection of migrants against all forms of hostile behavior .
— Extraction of prospects and opportunities that can strengthen the feeling of
— Management of differences and negotiated intercultural conflict to ensure
— Establishment of the conditions of an environment recognizing the diversity
and differences based on openness and respect.
— Increase the level of cultural and social communication.
— Diagnosis of diversity and identification of anticipated challenges and issues
of social diversity .
— Identification of obstacles and difficulties of communication, conflict of values,
effective measures to reduce risks, meet the current and prospective challenges
and propose alternatives.
— Definition of concrete actions to build consensus between the culture of the
host country and the culture of migrant.
— Strengthening mechanisms for coexistence of different values and
— Definition of integrated operation system in accordance with an operational
future planning .
— Creation of the Royal Academy of African languages and cultures.
Promoting the learning of African languages.
Encouraging cognitive training of African cultures.
— Creation of the National Institute for skills and competences in cultural and
social rapprochement .
— Creating research units on migration policies , integration and coexistence in
Moroccan universities .
— Promotion of academic and field research and thematic networks .
— Membership of regional and provincial authorities and elected councils in the
development of integration policy, and efforts to reduce the gap between migrants
and the local population.
— Build and develop modes of systematic cooperation with the civil society
working on immigration issues
— Need for cooperation between the Ministry in Charge of Moroccans Living
Abroad and Migration Affairs and the Ministry of Communications for the
establishment of a media strategy to fight against stereotypes and prejudices
against migrants, particularly those from sub-Saharan Africa to achieve a better
understanding of migration and the rights of migrants and refugees, with the
encouragement of displaying films and documentaries on sub-Saharan Africa and
the presence of migrant animators and presenters in the national media .
— Involvement of Local Councils “ of Islamic jurisprudence” and mosques in the
circle of interest in migration issues to spread the culture of acceptance of the
other and the culture of peaceful coexistence between different religions and
— Circular for institutions and public services to overcome the bureaucratic
restrictions, adjust the terminology and renew the discourse.
— Establishment of a national plan for the development of intercultural
9- Political Content of the new migration approach
In order to control migration, European countries have opted for more restrictive
migration policies. Complication of administrative procedures, media campaigns
increasingly alarmist and strengthened security measures , including the creation of
detention centers specifically designed for undocumented migrants . Among the
methods used in the " war on migrants , the most important "shield" in terms of
logistics and military equipment and financial resources, is the European Agency for
the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders the European
Union ( FRONTEX) . All this suggests that Europe is experiencing a kind of "
The strategy of the European countries is mainly based on the externalization of
borders and the enlargement of the shield area to include neighboring countries
and the southern shore of the Mediterranean including Morocco, and the transfer of
its security approach by exploiting the financial resources and the signing of
agreements. the most important agreement is "The mobility Partnership EU- Morocco
", signed in June 7, 2013 , which seeks to control migration and mobility.
This purely security approach is ignoring the humanistic dimensions that Europe
seeks to involve Morocco in it , puts us in front of several questions:
What are the expected results of the subordination of Morocco to " FRONTEX”
Can Morocco withstand the financial pressure and human rights impact
resulting from this approach?
If Morocco is still a gateway for arrivals from the South said "poor" Will it turn
into a home to embrace the crises experienced by the " rich " North?
How will Morocco bear the costs of the consequences of the " war on
migrants ' in the North and its negative impact on diplomatic relations that
we are look forward to strengthening and deepening with Sub-Saharan
countries and Africa in general?
Considering deficiency elements in the European approaches and the failure of all
the proposed scenarios, pushes Morocco to prepare for an approach based on the
exploitation of positive values of the Moroccan society that is based principally on
openness, peace, coexistence and tolerance … and coordinate on the light of African
common and integrated principles in the framework of “ the African alliance for
migration and development”
— Creation of a national strategic institution of migration, regulating the entry
and stay of foreigners in charge of protecting the human rights of migrants,
Moroccans and foreigners, including in its membership all departments and
national institutions concerned with migration , including civil society as advisor
for monitoring and evaluating the national migration policy and its implementation
in coordination with the authorities , as well as the development of studies and
researches , and improving the quality and exchangeof data on migration.
— Guarantee the right to migration and movement by removing all items related
to the criminalization of migration and forms of detention.
— The importance of integration and the mechanisms for its implementation
must be highlighted.
— Access to education at all levels , health and legal services, regardless of the
administrative status of the migrant.
Additional measures :
— Creating of effective mechanisms to ensure protection of migrant workers
against all forms of abuse, harassment and violence.
10- African Alliance for Migration and Development
The new migration and asylum policy in Morocco, based on humanitarian norms
and international law , is the basic foundation for the kingdom to defend the
initiative to create an "African Alliance for Migration and Development " in order to
deepen a "common African vision " on migration and to mobilize support .
Active civil society can play an important role in developping a just and humanistic
asylum and immigration policy common among African countries, given the
presence of active regional associations working for the rights of migrants as the
"Network of Maghreb- Sahel on migration ."
— Making September 10 of each year, a day of African migration.
— Deeping the partnership between Morocco and the African economic
groupings , particularly the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS
) and the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS ) to include the
free movement people between Morocco and the Western and Central African
countries ( only 5 out of 15countries member countries of the ECOWAS are
exempt from visa to enter Morocco) in the horizon of exemption of visa for citizens
of the rest of African countries to enter Morocco .
— Creating a "Fund for African integration" dedicated to the development of
African economies and the development of local communities.
— Join and support the " Nansen initiative ", launched in October 2012 with the
aim to establish a consensus among states on how best to deal with the cross-
border movement in the context of sudden disasters or slow onset ,in the
perspective of implementation of a common African strategy.
— Creation of a legal mechanism for the protection of displaced people across
the borders in the case of natural disasters.
— Encourages tourism in the West African- Moroccan space targeting low-
income people .
— Creation of the African Observatory for Human Trafficking .
— Establish a framework for African cooperation in the field of human
trafficking , the development of the most effective programs in achieving the
strategic objectives using information technology and communication and all
programs and mechanisms that improve cooperation in the field of observation,
coordination and develop systems to protect victims.
The purpose of this document prepared by the Commission of Planning, studies and
evaluation of the Beni Znassen Association for Culture and Development and
Solidarity (ABCDS) on the establishment of a multidimensional participatory strategy
: humanist - legally respectful of human rights - social – of development -
institutional-procedural ... is to build a broad base of discussion open to the proposal
and the opinions ...
Migration issues remain cross-cutting issues, intertwined and indivisible, difficult to
treat either of its aspects separately.. on the other hand, it is not possible to
emphasize the success of any approach without the adoption of a comprehensive
vision embodying the principle of effective participation in the development
strategies of migration governance:
THE NATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MIGRATION AND
A national institution for dialogue and planning.. The national conference takes
place every two years to determine public policy on the issues of immigration and
immigrants, as well as design schemes and preparing recommendations.
The National Conference includes all national institutions and agencies concerned
with migration of national, and regional components of Moroccan society of political
bodies and unions , cultural and artistic organizations, associations and national
civil society, immigrants and foreign bodies, employers, contracting agencies of the
United Nations and international organizations working in Morocco , experts and
specialised researchers, Sociologists and Antropologists , media organizations ...
And the Secretariat of the Conference should be permanent.
Secretariat of the National Conference: meets every six months, concerned with the
assessment, guidance and correction and follow-up recommendations. ensures the
organization of seminars between the two conferences in the overall affairs and
immigration issues. It includes in its membership representatives of national
institutions concerned with migration and NGO’s.