Other possible questions: How do you avoid using L1? Are you happy about how you use L1? How do your students use L1?
Spanish people will say « is raining », French people will say « I have 17 years old » or « I wash the car now » which are direct grammatical translations from their own languages.
Faculté des Sciences. Semester 1 Academic Year 2011_12. Physics and Chemistry Masters Students.
English class for Masters Physics and Chemistry students. They mostly want to be General Science teachers in Secondary French schools. Some want to become researchers.
THE USE OF L1 IN THE CLASSROOMalexandra.firstname.lastname@example.org IATEFL Glasgow 22 March 2012 1
A teacher and learners using L1 in an English L2 language classroom. 2
Identity and emotions linked to L1 REFERENCE LANGUAGE MOTHER TONGUE L1 MILK TONGUE LINGUA MATERNA 1ST NATIVE ACQUIRED TONGUE LANGUAGEHow many of you speak more than 1 language?What is your mother tongue? 3
Language acquisition and NEW IDENTITYNew identities linked to new interlanguages 4
Language acquisition modifies pre- acquired langage(s) and creates new interlanguages L1? --L2? L1?-- L3? L1 L2?--L3?Don’t think in your L1! Think in English! Don’t translate word for word! 5
How do you use L1? Do you use L1? How do you use L1? 6
Direct methodAims to mirror the NATURALISTIC method within an INSTRUCTED environment 8
Hungarian Experiment Zoltan Dornyei Professor of Psycholinguistics Nottingham University 9
• Jo napot kivanok! Hello!• Dornyei Zoltan vagyok. I am Zoltan Dornyei.• Most Nottinghamben vagyok. I am in Nottingham now.• Hogy vannak? How are you?• Tudom hogy beszelnek angolul. I know you speak English.• Szomjas vagyok, mikor fogunk kavet inni? I’m thirsty when are we going to drink coffee?• Koszonom szepen. Thank you very much.• Viszontlatasra! Goodbye! 10
Problems with sole use of direct method Impossible to recreate authentic “immersion” situation seen in L1 acquisition. Gesticulating no better than miming? Demands a lot of physical effort from the teacher. Not always learner centered. Difficult to check student comprehension. Students remain silent rather than use their L1. L1 use seen as a failure. 12
How do your students use L1?Classroom layout affects student interaction and language choice. Team work and peer-elected group leaders make students responsible for their actions. 13
Reflecting on my L1 and EnglishPrepare questions which your students can reflect on. How long have you been learning English? How many of your past teachers used L1 in English class? When do you use L1 in class? How do you think your teacher feels when you use L1? 20
Final points for reflection• A teacher’s positive awareness of his/her students’ L1 language and culture will have an influence on their L2 learner self.• Adaptability: The choice to use or limit L1 in the classroom will depend on your students’ needs. 22
Downloadable powerpoint and references At Glasgow Online: http://iatefl.britishcouncil.org/2012 Or At Nantes University:http://prodoc.univ-nantes.fr/course/view.php?id=357 Or Leave me your email and I’ll send them to you! 24
Special Thanks to: Colin McKensie Gloria Barnett-Powell Zoltan Dornyei Xavier Cartron Douglas Carnall Louisa Dunne 25
Awad, S. 2012. Absent inter-lingua grammatical equivalence. IATEFL VOICES 224: 4-5.Byram, M. and P. Grundy (eds.). 2003. Context and Culture in Language Teaching andLearning. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Castelloni, V. 2001. La langue maternelle en classe de langue étrangère. Saint-Germain-du-Puy: CLE International.Cole, S. 1998 ‘ The use of L1 in communicative English classrooms’. The Language TeacherOnline.(Retrieved 27 September 2011 fromhttp://www.jalt-publications.org/tlt/files/98/dec/cole.html.)Cook, V. 2001.‘Using the first language in the classroom’. Spreading the influence ofSecond Language Acquisition. (Retrieved 27 September 2011 fromhttp://homepage.ntlworld.com/vivian.c/Writings/Papers/L1inClass.htm.)Cook,V. (ed.). 2003. Effects of the Second Language on the First. Clevedon: MultilingualMatters.Dornyei, Z. 2009. The Psychology of Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: OxfordUniversity Press. 27
References continued:Dornyei, Z and E. Ushioda (eds.). 2009. Motivation, Language Identity, and the L2 Self. Bristol:Multilingual Matters.Farrell, T.S.C. 2012. Plenary: Reflective practice for language teachers in Pattison, T. (ed.).IATEFL 2011 Brighton Conference Selections. Canterbury: IATEFL.Feben, B. 2012. Grammar mimes: can we work on grammar without pens or paper? inPattison, T. (ed.). IATEFL 2011 Brighton Conference Selections. Canterbury: IATEFL.Feuillet, J. 2005. Apprentissage précose dune langue étrangère et bilinguisme. Nantes: CRINI.Hannam, S. 2011. ELT under the microscope. IATEFL VOICES 223: 15.Krause, C. A. 1916. The Direct Method in Modern Languages. New York: C. Scribners Sons.Thornbury, S and Meddings, L. 2010. Teaching Unplugged, Dogme ELT. Surrey: DELTA Publishing. 28