1.
Presented by
Hiba Armouche
Variables
www.facebook.com/TrainerHibaArmouche
hiba.armouche@yahoo.com
2.
• Identifying relationships among
variables enhances understanding.
• Understanding relationships helps us to
explain the nature of our world.
The Importance of Studying
Relationships-
3.
Outline
• Variable and Constant
• Independent and Dependent Variables
• Quantitative and Categorical Variables
• Moderator Variables
• Mediator Variables
• Extraneous Variables
5.
A Variable is any characteristic or quality that varies
among the members of a particular group
Example: gender, eye color, motivation..
The individual members or class of objects however
should differ-or vary- to qualify the class as a variable.
A constant is a characteristic or quality that is the
same for all members of a particular group.
Variables
6.
Variables
Example: A researcher is interested in studying
the effects of reinforcement on student
achievement.
7.
• Quantitative variables: varies in amount and
degree but not in kind
Example: height, length, interest
• Categorical variables: varies only in kind, not in
degree or amount (qualitatively different).
Example :eye color, gender, occupation.
Types of variables:
Variables
8.
Variables
Researchers in education often study the
relationship among/either:
1. Two or more quantitative variables
Ex: -Reading achievement and
mathematics achievement
- Amount of time watching
television and aggressiveness of
behavior
9.
Variables
2. One categorical and one quantitative
variable
Ex: -Method used to teach reading and
reading achievement
-Counseling approach and level of
anxiety
10.
Variables
3. Two or more categorical variables
Ex: -Gender of teacher and subject
matter taught
- Ethnicity and father occupation
N.B: Some variables can be treated both as
quantitative or categorical
EX: quantitative :degree of anxiety level
Categorical : group of high anxiety/Group of low
anxiety
11.
Variables
Independent/Dependent variables:
• An independent variable is presumed to
influence other variables. Sometimes
independent variables are called
manipulated variables or experimental
variables.
12.
Variables
• An independent variable may be either manipulated
or selected:
– A manipulated variable is produced by the
researcher
Ex: amount of reinforcement
– A selected variable is one that already exists and
that the researcher locates and then chooses to
study
Ex: Gender, mathematical ability, test anxiety
13.
Independent/Dependent variables:
• A dependent variable is presumed to be affected by
one or more independent variable. The dependent
variable is often called an outcome variable
Example: Gender of teacher and subject matter
taught
Variables
14.
• A moderator variable is a secondary
independent variable that the researcher
selects because he or she thinks it may
affect the relationship between the primary
independent variable and the dependent
variable.
Variables
15.
• Research Question 1: “Does anxiety affect
test performance and, if so, does it depend on
test-taking experience?”
– Independent variable: anxiety level
– Moderator variable: test-taking experience
– Dependent variable: test performance
Variables
16.
Variables
A mediator variable is a variable that attempts to
Explain the relationship between the 2 variables.
Example : “Does anxiety affect test performance
and, if so, does it depend on test-taking
experience?”
The mediator could be the SES
17.
• An extraneous variable is an independent
variable that may have unintended effect on
the dependent variable.
Variables
18.
Example:
The principal of a high school compares the final
examination scores of two history classes taught by
teachers who use different methods, not realizing that
they are also different in many other ways because of
extraneous variables.
The classes differ in:
Size of class - Gender of students- Gender of teacher-
Age of teacher - Time of day class meets
Days of week class meets- Length of class - Ethnicity of
teacher
Variables
19.
Thank You
www.facebook.com/TrainerHibaArmouche
hiba.armouche@yahoo.com
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.