•Training is a planned and systematic effort to modify or develop knowledge, skills, and
attitudes to achieve effective performance in an activity or range of activities.
•Its purpose, in the work situation, is to enable an individual to acquire abilities
(competencies), in order that he or she can perform adequately a given task or job.
These principles drove our process mapping and subsequent evaluation:
• Integration – we must operate holistically
• Simplicity – we should streamline wherever possible
• Standardization – it should be the rule, not the exception
• Root cause analysis – we must pinpoint the underlying issues with the existing
• Prioritization – we will prioritize by potential customer impact, volume and the
current level of complaints
• Compliance – our work must comply with regulatory, legislative and University
• Level of “marginal utility” – we must get back at least what we put into a
Cost justification – must demonstrate the return on investment of our
redesigned processes and their enablers
•Examines how the training should be planned so that it will meet identified training
needs. It shifts the focus from investigating the problem (which is the key issue in the
analysis) to investigating and scoping the solution.
•Goal of Training Design
–To determine what training experience will meet training needs and thereby close
performance gaps between what people can do and what they must do to meet the
Principles of Good Training Design
•Structure—the configuration of the various elements in a program considering the plan
and goals and taking note of the sequence of activities
–Linkage—appropriate connection of topics
–Specificity—detailing goals, learnings, and activities and avoiding overlaps and
–Synergy—considering the learningsconverge (integration or summary of learnings)
•Openness and Flexibility—responding to anticipated needs and the degree of capacity
to adopt to varying circumstances
Relevance—addressing the needs of trainees or participants and the organization as well
•Compatibility-considering the background of the trainees or participants
•In-Process Evaluation and Feedback—presence of learning validation during conduct
•Transferability—passing on skills to trainees or participants
•Cost-Effectiveness—providing the greatest benefit at minimum cost
Need For Training Design
On the part of the Training Institution
Blueprint - the way to respond to the needs of the participants
Focus - clarifies scope of the subject matter
Management - in terms of time and financial resources
Order - enhances effective and orderly presentation
Contingencies - provides inputs for contingencies
Evaluation - important in evaluating the training outputs
On the part of the Trainee
Guide - on the emphasis of topic, time allotment, and methodology
Basis for determining cost efficiency and effectiveness
Precondition in getting ready for the training proper
Contents Of Training Design:
Name the program
–Provide rationale in the conduct of the program
•State the program objectives
•Determine the specific contents of the program
–Nice to know
•Arrange learning units in the order they will be taken up
STEPS IN DESIGNING A TRAINING PROGRAM
•Select the learning methodology and determine the time frames
•Determine dates and appropriate venue
•Identify standards and evaluation measures
•Select the resource speakers
•Calculate and prepare the budget.
TRAINING NEEDS ASSESSMENT
The training needs assessment is a critical activity for the training and development
function. Whether you are a human resource generalist or a specialist, you should be
adept at performing a training needs assessment. This paper will begin with an overview
of the training and development function and how the needs assessment fits into this
process, followed by an in-depth look at the core concepts and steps involved in
conducting a training needs assessment.
Designing a training and development program involves a sequence of steps that can be
grouped into five phases: needs assessment, instructional objectives, design,
implementation and evaluation. To be effective and efficient, all training programs must
start with a needs assessment. Long before any actual training occurs, the training
manager must determine the who, what, when, where, why and how of training. To do
this, the training manager must analyze as much information as possible about the
• Organization and its goals and objectives.
• Jobs and related tasks that need to be learned.
• Competencies and skills that are need to perform the job.
• Individuals who are to be trained.
Overview of Training and Development
The first step in designing a training and development program is to conduct a needs
assessment. The assessment begins with a "need" which can be identified in several ways
but is generally described as a gap between what is currently in place and what is needed,
now and in the future. Gaps can include discrepancies/differences between:
• What the organization expects to happen and what actually happens.
• Current and desired job performance.
• Existing and desired competencies and skills.
A needs assessment can also be used to assist with:
• Competencies and performance of work teams.
• Problem solving or productivity issues.
• The need to prepare for and respond to future changes in the organization or job
The results of the needs assessment allows the training manager to set the training
objectives by answering two very basic questions: who, if anyone, needs training and
what training is needed. Sometimes training is not the solution. Some performance gaps
can be reduced or eliminated through other management solutions such as
communicating expectations, providing a supportive work environment, arranging
consequences, removing obstacles and checking job fit.
Once the needs assessment is completed and training objectives are clearly identified, the
design phase of the training and development process is initiated:
• Select the internal or external person or resource to design and develop the training.
• Select and design the program content.
• Select the techniques used to facilitate learning (lecture, role play, simulation, etc.).
• Select the appropriate setting (on the job, classroom, etc.).
• Select the materials to be used in delivering the training (work books, videos, etc.).
• Identify and train instructors (if internal).
After completing the design phase, the training is ready for implementation:
• Schedule classes, facilities and participants.
• Schedule instructors to teach.
• Prepare materials and deliver them to scheduled locations.
• Conduct the training.
The final phase in the training and development program is evaluation of the program to
determine whether the training objectives were met. The evaluation process includes
determining participant reaction to the training program, how much participants learned
and how well the participants transfer the training back on the job. The information
gathered from the training evaluation is then included in the next cycle of training needs
assessment. It is important to note that the training needs assessment, training objectives,
design, implementation and evaluation process is a continual process for the organization.
There are three levels of needs assessment: organizational analysis, task analysis and
Organizational analysis looks at the effectiveness of the organization and determines
where training is needed and under what conditions it will be conducted.The
organizational analysis should identify:
• Environmental impacts (new laws such as ADA, FMLA, OSHA, etc.).
• State of the economy and the impact on operating costs.
• Changing work force demographics and the need to address cultural or language
• Changing technology and automation.
• Increasing global/world market places.
• Political trends such as sexual harassment and workplace violence.
• Organizational goals (how effective is the organization in meetings its goals),
resources available (money, facilities; materials on hand and current, available
expertise within the organization).
• Climate and support for training (top management support, employee willingness to
participate, responsibility for outcomes).
The information needed to conduct an organizational analysis can be obtained from a
variety of sources including:
• Organizational goals and objectives, mission statements, strategic plans.
• Staffing inventory, succession planning, long and short term staffing needs.
• Skills inventory: both currently available and short and long term needs,
organizational climate indices: labor/management relationships, grievances,
turnover rates, absenteeism, suggestions, productivity, accidents, short term
sickness, observations of employee behavior, attitude surveys, customer
• Analysis of efficiency indices: costs of labor, costs of materials, quality of products,
equipment utilization, production rates, costs of distribution, waste, down time,
late deliveries, repairs.
• Changes in equipment, technology or automation.
• Annual report.
• Plans for reorganization or job restructuring.
• Audit exceptions; reward systems.
• Planning systems.
• Delegation and control systems.
• Employee attitudes and satisfaction.
Task analysis provides data about a job or a group of jobs and the knowledge, skills,
attitudes and abilities needed to achieve optimum performance.
There are a variety of sources for collecting data for a task analysis:
• Job description-- A narrative statement of the major activities involved in
performing the job and the conditions under which these activities are performed.
If an accurate job description is not available or is out of date, one should be
prepared using job analysis techniques.
• KSA analysis-- A more detailed list of specified tasks for each job including
Knowledge, Skills, Attitudes and Abilities required of incumbents.
• Performance standards-- Objectives of the tasks of the job and the standards by
which they will be judged. This is needed to identify performance discrepancies.
• Observe the job/sample the work.
• Perform the job.
• Job inventory questionnaire-- Evaluate tasks in terms of importance and time
• Review literature about the job-- Research the "best practices" from other
companies, review professional journals.
• Ask questions about the job-- Of the incumbents, of the supervisor, of upper
• Analysis of operating problems-- Down time, waste, repairs, late deliveries,
Individual analysis analyzes how well the individual employee is doing the job and
determines which employees need training and what kind.
Sources of information available for a individual analysis include:
• Performance evaluation -- Identifies weaknesses and areas of improvement.
• Performance problems -- Productivity, absenteeism or tardiness, accidents,
grievances, waste, product quality, down time, repairs, equipment utilization,
• Observation -- Observe both behavior and the results of the behavior.
• Work samples -- Observe products generated.
• Interviews -- Talk to manager, supervisor and employee. Ask employee about what
he/she believes he/she needs to learn.
• Questionnaires -- Written form of the interview, tests, must measure job-related
qualities such as job knowledge and skills.
• Attitude surveys -- Measures morale, motivation, satisfaction.
• Checklists or training progress charts -- Up-to-date listing of current skills.
Results of the Needs Assessment
Assuming that the needs assessment identifies more than one training need, the training
manager, working with management, prioritizes the training based on the urgency of the
need (timeliness), the extent of the need (how many employees need to be trained) and
the resources available. Based on this information, the training manager can develop the
instructional objectives for the training and development program.
All three levels of needs analysis are interrelated and the data collected from each level is
critical to a thorough and effective needs assessment.
The purpose of a training needs assessment is to identify performance requirements or
needs within an organization in order to help direct resources to the areas of greatest
need, those that closely relate to fulfilling the organizational goals and objectives,
improving productivity and providing quality products and services.
The needs assessment is the first step in the establishment of a training and development
Program. It is used as the foundation for determining instructional objectives, the
selection and design of instructional programs, the implementation of the programs and
the evaluation of the training provided. These processes form a continuous cycle which
always begins with a needs assessment.
OBuild a standardized list of core training tasks for all HR
Build different levels of training as a career progression
Tailor training to each HR Job Family
Provide individual training plans for all HR employees
Provide an HR supervisor training program
Allow for both core training and job specific training
Certain trainings will be mandatory and be enforced
HR Leadership will need to support the program
Training will be conducted by qualified presenters or web applications
Utilize existing HR training programs such as PHR and SPHR
Provide certifications for some training tasks and/or HR Academy
Incentivize training (possibly using bonuses, steps, job opportunities, etc.)
Allow for consequences of not obtaining training
Obstacles and Real World Limitations
Training Staff shortages
Quality and Experience of Trainers
Quantity of Trainers
Backlog of HR personnel needing to be trained
Lack of Training Resources in Fairbanks
Resources to manage the program
Technology to track training
Time constraints for employees to be able to attend training
Time constraints for supervisors to be able to manage training