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Reflective thinking
Reflective thinking
Reflective thinking
Reflective thinking
Reflective thinking
Reflective thinking
Reflective thinking
Reflective thinking
Reflective thinking
Reflective thinking
Reflective thinking
Reflective thinking
Reflective thinking
Reflective thinking
Reflective thinking
Reflective thinking
Reflective thinking
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Reflective thinking
Reflective thinking
Reflective thinking
Reflective thinking
Reflective thinking
Reflective thinking
Reflective thinking
Reflective thinking
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Reflective thinking
Reflective thinking
Reflective thinking
Reflective thinking
Reflective thinking
Reflective thinking
Reflective thinking
Reflective thinking
Reflective thinking
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Reflective thinking

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09/03/2012

09/03/2012

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  • 1. An empowered teacher is a reflective decision makerwho finds joy in learning and in investigating theteaching/learning process. (Posnot-1989)
  • 2. What is the definition of reflective thinking?
  • 3. Modes of Reflective Thinking 1- Technical level 2- Contextual level 3- Dialectical level
  • 4. 1- Technical Level Reference past experiences Teacher competency towards meeting outcomes Focus on behaviour/content/skill. Simple, theoretical description
  • 5. 2- Contextual level Looks at alternative practices Choices based on knowledge and value commitments Content related to context/student needs Analysis,clarification Validation of principles
  • 6. 3- Dialectical level Addresses moral, ethical, or sociopolitical issues Disciplined inquiry Individual autonomy Self-understanding
  • 7. Technical level: Methodological problems and theory development.Contextual level: Pedagodical matters as examined relative to a relationship between theory and practice.Dialectical level: Questioning of moral and ethical issues related directly or indirectly to teaching practices.
  • 8. Dialectical level Contextual levelTechnical level
  • 9. technical Practitioners reflecting at the …………………. level function with minimal schemata from which to draw when dealing with problems.
  • 10.  Practitioners are developing knowledge and the ability to reconstruct action situations as a means for reviewing the self as teacher, and questioning assumptions previously taken for granted. Dialectical
  • 11.  An outcome for practitioners reflecting at ………………… Contextual level may be understanding concepts, contexts, and theoretical bases for classroom practices, then defending those practices and articulationg their relevance to student growth.
  • 12.  Many novice teachers are thought to function at a …………………. level based on a lack of schemata in technical dealing with educatiove problems.
  • 13. Contextual ……………….. level of reflection (Coller,1999; Grimmett et al.,1990; Lasley,1992; Van Manne,1997) involves reflections regarding clarification of and elaboration on underlying assumptions and predispositions of classroom practices as well as consequences of strategies used.
  • 14. Dialectical At ……………….. level, practitioners contemplate ethical and political concerns relative to instructional planning and implemetation. Practitioners are concerned with worth of knowledge and social circumstances useful to students without personal bias.
  • 15. Contextual The …………………… mode deals with pedagogical matters as examined relative to a relationship between theory and practice.
  • 16.  Risk taking on the part of the ……………… practitioner in Dialectical the form of peer review and self-assessment independent of external standarts or conditions will help the practitioner at his level achieve self-efficacy and self-actualization.
  • 17. technical Valli(1990,1997) refers to the …………………. level as technical rationality but differs by positing that it is nonreflective level.
  • 18. Questioning moral and ethical issues of teaching, instructional planning, and implementation are all a part of higher aspects of reflection found at theDialectical ……………………. level.
  • 19.  Action research should be an outcome of reflective thinking at the …………………. level. Dialectical
  • 20.  Self-reflection to interpret and inform practice and establish congruency between theory and practice would be indicative of functioning at a ……………….. Contextual level.
  • 21. technical ……………………. practitioners may be transitioning into linking theory develpment to practice and identification of the relevancy of activities and objectives.
  • 22.  Critical reflectivity is comparable to the ……………….. Dialectical level of Grimmett et al(1990) and Lasley(1992).
  • 23.  Understanding personal and environmental interactions is also a desired outcome for practitioners fuctioning at a …………………….. level. Contextual
  • 24. Dialectical ……………… level deals with the questioning of moral and ethical issues related directly and indirectly to teaching practices.
  • 25.  The ability to make defensible choices and view of an event with open-mindedness is indicative of reflecting at a ………………… level. Dialectical
  • 26. Reflective Thinking Process problem Problem framing schema Possible Rejection solution setsacceptance experimentation evaluation
  • 27. Problem framing …………………………… step is to step back from the problem to look at the situation from a third-person perspective so that the problem maybe framed.
  • 28.  The episode is likened to past events in an attempt to make sense of the problem and to search for possible solutions in the reflective thinker’s repertoire. Possible solution sets
  • 29.  ………………. consists of a review of the implementation Evaluation process and the consequences of the solution. Acceptance or rejection of the solution takes place.
  • 30.  If the solution proves successful, the instance may be stored for subsequent retrieval in similar situations or may become routine (Dewey,1993). Schema
  • 31. Techniques for Facilitating Reflective Activities
  • 32. Concepts of Constructivist Theory Learning as a process of change Assimilation Accommodation Balance/equilibrium
  • 33.  A constructivist is a practitioner who Believes learning is constructed or invented by the learner Involves learners in active manipulations of meanings, numbers and patterns Believes learning is nonlinear Provides students with the tools of empowerment: concepts, heuristic procedures, self-motivation, and reflection Believes learning occurs most effectively through guided discovery, meaningful application, and problem solving.
  • 34. Techniques for Facilitating Reflective Activities Thinking aloud Discussions Grouping practices Cooperative learning Brainstorming Consensus building Buzz groups Role playing Questioning
  • 35. Guidelines for Brainstorming Preset time constraints Equality and democracy All ideas acceptable; be creative Volume of ideas important No discussion of ideas Risk-free environment Designated recorder
  • 36. Consensus Guidelines Topic or idea is placed before the team for discussion Topic is discussed, questions and concerns are raised, data and solutionoptions are presented. Team decides whether to achieve consensus, the lenght of time to spend, and what it will do if consensus cannot be reached. Differences and disagreements, as well as similarities, are explored and encouraged. Suggestions and modifications to the original topic are made. A new idea is created by the team on the basis of discussion. Facilitator checks for consensus.
  • 37.  If no consensus, facilitator asks for variation of the idea and tests for consensus again. If no consensus, facilitator suggests stand-aside proposals. Facilitator tests for consensus for stand-aside proposal.
  • 38. Guidelines for Questioning Information-seeking questions Questions that encourage research Questions that supply information Questions that require group decision making Class-controlling questions Questions that establish mood and feeling Questions that foster beliefs and values Questions that foster insight
  • 39. Consensus Guidelines Topic or idea is placed before the team for discussion Topic is discussed, questions and concerns are raised, data and solution options are presented. Team decides whether to achieve consensus, the lenght of time to spend, and what it will do if consensus cannot be reached. Differences and disagreements, as well as similarities, are explored and encouraged. Suggestions and modifications to the original topic are made. A new idea is created by the team on the basis of discussion. Facilitator checks for consensus.
  • 40.  If no consensus, facilitator asks for variation of the idea and tests for consensus again. If no consensus, facilitator suggests stand-aside proposals. Facilitator tests for consensus for stand-aside proposal.
  • 41.  http://brainden.com/crossing-river.htm http://online.taigame.org/en/game/bridge-crossing For more information about reflective thinking you can check: Taggart,L.G & Wison, A.P.(2005). Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Metods. U.S.A.: University Press of America
  • 42.  Prepared by: Adem Özgün Çukurova University Social Sciences Institute Elt MA Stduent

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