Urban development in third world countries


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Urban development in third world countries

  1. 1. GEO524 Seminar in Urban analysis and problems Himmet Haybat
  2. 2. <ul><li>Third World is a term originally used to distinguish those nations that neither aligned with the West nor with the East during the Cold War. </li></ul><ul><li>These countries are also known as the Global South, developing countries, and least developed countries in academic circles. </li></ul>
  3. 3. WHAT İS İT MEAN OF THİRD WORLD COUNTRİES? <ul><li>Also t his term means that the economically underdeveloped countries of South Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Latin America, considered as an entity with common characteristics, such as poverty, high birthrates, and economic dependence on the advance countries </li></ul>
  4. 4. South Asia
  5. 5. Sub-Saharan Africa
  6. 6. Latin America
  7. 7. <ul><li>The underdevelopment of the third world is marked by a number of common traits; distorted and highly dependent economies devoted to producing primary products for the developed world and to provide markets for their finished goods; traditional, rural social structures; high population growth; and widespread poverty. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Urbanisation is the process in which the number of people living in cities increases compared with the number of people living in rural areas. A country is considered to be urbanised when over 50% of its population lives in urban places. </li></ul><ul><li>Urbanisation is most rapid in Third World countries, where the world's largest cities occur </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>The process of urbanization has occurred differently in much of the developing world. </li></ul><ul><li>Historically many of these countries were former colonies . They have some of the highest rates of population growth and the largest urban areas. They are characterized as being poor having significantly less technology then the developed world, and a very rapid transition from rural to urban societies. </li></ul>
  10. 13. <ul><li>Population is placing pressure on urban areas and without having the benefit of industrialization the lack of employment opportunities for the mass of urban migrants is undermining the ability of cities to incorporate people.  </li></ul><ul><li>The consequences of this lack of employment opportunities are growing urban areas a large percent of whose population is unemployed and living in poverty and forced to live in unsanitary squatter settlements ( Slum ,F avela , Shantytown   ) </li></ul>
  11. 14. <ul><li>Slums form at edges of cities, not in the center </li></ul><ul><li>No infrastructure is provided (water, utilities, sanitation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pirated electricity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Small formal sector, so large numbers unemployed or, at best, in the informal sector </li></ul>
  12. 15. <ul><ul><li>Squatter settlements = illegally set up settlements on land and do not pay rent. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These places have not sewer, water or electricity </li></ul>
  13. 16. <ul><li>A rea of a city characterized by substandard housing and squalor and lacking in tenure security. </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as informal settlements found in cities in the developing world. </li></ul><ul><li>One billion people worldwide live in slums </li></ul><ul><li>Slum can seen mostly in India </li></ul>
  14. 17. Slum in Kolkata, India
  15. 18. <ul><li>G enerally used term for a shanty town in Brazil or Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>This was the place where former slaves with no land ownership and no options for work lived. </li></ul>
  16. 19. Favela, Mexico City
  17. 20. <ul><li>Shanty towns, which are usually built on the periphery of cities, often do not have proper sanitation, electricity or telephone services. </li></ul><ul><li>Shanty towns are mostly found in developing nations </li></ul><ul><li>O ne-sixth of the world's population live in the shanty towns </li></ul>
  18. 21. School Children walk to their shanty homes in Kenya They live 10 to a room
  19. 22. <ul><li>Year City Number evicted </li></ul><ul><li>1976 Mumbai (India) 70,000 </li></ul><ul><li>1988 Seoul (South Korea) 800,000 </li></ul><ul><li>1989 Lagos ( Nigeria ) 300,000 </li></ul><ul><li>1990 Rangoon (Burma) 1,000,000 </li></ul><ul><li>1995 Beijing (China) 100,000 </li></ul><ul><li>2001-03 Jakarta (Indonesia) 500,000 </li></ul><ul><li>2005 Harare ( Zimbabwe ) 750,000 </li></ul>
  20. 23. <ul><li>More than 50% illegal </li></ul><ul><li>Addis Ababa 85% </li></ul><ul><li>Jakarta 62% </li></ul><ul><li>Dar es Salaam 60% </li></ul><ul><li>Bogata 59% </li></ul><ul><li>Cairo 54% </li></ul><ul><li>Ankara 51% </li></ul><ul><li>30-50% of housing illegal </li></ul><ul><li>Karachi 50% </li></ul><ul><li>Lusaka 50% </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico City 50% </li></ul><ul><li>Manila 40% </li></ul><ul><li>Delhi 40% </li></ul><ul><li>Caracas 34% </li></ul><ul><li>Lima 33% </li></ul><ul><li>Sao Paulo 32% </li></ul>
  21. 24. <ul><li>Inner-city slums Peripheral slums </li></ul><ul><li>Karachi (Pakistan) 34% 66% </li></ul><ul><li>Khartoum (Sudan) 17% 83% </li></ul><ul><li>Lusaka (Zambia) 34% 66% </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico City 27% 73% </li></ul><ul><li>Mumbai (India) 20% 80% </li></ul><ul><li>Rio de Janeiro 23% 77% </li></ul>
  22. 25. <ul><li>Involution is capacity of service sector to absorb more and more labor in a finely expressed division of jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Two parts: Firm centered or formal and bazaar or informal economy </li></ul><ul><li>Firm centered consists of impersonal social institutions, specialized occupations for productive ends and is capital intensive </li></ul><ul><li>Bazaar economy consists of independent activities of highly competitive traders who relate to one another through complex </li></ul>
  23. 26. <ul><li>Informal-Bazaar economy is the most absorptive </li></ul><ul><li>Consist of carefully managed credit relationships, splitting of risks and sliding prices </li></ul><ul><li>Effect is to split trading activities to allow more to enter the system </li></ul><ul><li>Process of involution and absorption is characterized by tenacity of basic patterns, internal ornateness and unending virtuosity-special skills </li></ul>
  24. 27. <ul><li>Informal- characterized by small scale, easy entry, adapted technology, flexible hours, no set wages and family or local organization </li></ul><ul><li>Formal- large scale, more difficult entry requirements, often imported technology, fixed hours of operation, daily/weekly or monthly wage, distant ownership or management </li></ul>
  25. 28. <ul><li>Contaminated water </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate disposal of human wastes </li></ul><ul><li>Wastewater and garbage </li></ul><ul><li>Insects, pests (e.g. rats) and parasites in homes </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate-sized houses, poor ventilation and overcrowding </li></ul><ul><li>Children at risk from traffic, unsafe or contaminated sites </li></ul><ul><li>Indoor air pollution </li></ul><ul><li>House sites vulnerable to landslides or floods </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritional deficiencies </li></ul><ul><li>No or inadequate health care and advice </li></ul><ul><li>No emergency services </li></ul>
  26. 29. <ul><li>Compact cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation by walking, biking, or mass transit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dispersed cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation by automobile </li></ul></ul>
  27. 30. <ul><li>Ecocity, green city: Curitiba, Brazil </li></ul><ul><li>Bus system: cars banned in certain areas </li></ul><ul><li>Housing and industrial parks </li></ul><ul><li>Recycling of materials </li></ul><ul><li>Helping the poor </li></ul>
  28. 31. Road Supply as a Percentage of Urbanized Areas
  29. 32. Vehicle Ownership and Household Income, Two African Cities, 1992
  30. 33. Global Car Ownership, 1993
  31. 34. Daily Motorized Trips by Public & Private Transport, Selected Cities in Developing Countries
  32. 35. <ul><ul><li>Trip Purpose, Selected Cities </li></ul></ul>
  33. 36. Car and Bus Travel Times (a) door-to-door travel times, average for all trips
  34. 37. Traffic Fatalities and Rates, Selected Countries
  35. 39. <ul><ul><li>Low wage jobs – shoe shine, begging, selling souvenirs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child labour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Huge gaps between rich and poor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard to offer services to public </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Schools, transportation systems, social services </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 40. <ul><li>Social Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Squatter settlements - Illegally set up settlements on land and do not pay rent. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very poor living conditions – no sewers, water or electricity . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slum Dwellers – pay rent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poor living conditions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High sick rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High Infant mortality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>World Bank gives aid to assist in educating and providing healthcare. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 42. <ul><li>Natural Disasters hit them the hardest because of the poorly constructed buildings. </li></ul><ul><li>Sites next to industrial areas are very susceptible to toxins and air pollutants. </li></ul><ul><li>Developing countries usually have very poorly maintained vehicles and unregulated gas leading to pollution. (CO, CO 2 , lead, NO 2, ) </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure supplying clean drinking water is usually connected to infrastructure dealing with disposal of waste. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Much of the sewage in poor urban areas still runs into ditches beside roads and flows into rivers used for drinking.) </li></ul></ul>
  38. 43. 3 rd World Drinking Water Clean water 3 million people die every year due to waterborne diseases caused by unclean water, 90% are children under the age of 5.
  39. 44. <ul><li>Increase in demand of rural property can cause prices to rise </li></ul><ul><li>Young people cannot afford to buy homes in their own village </li></ul><ul><li>Newcomers to rural areas may not appreciate the traditional customs of village life </li></ul><ul><li>Original inhabitants may feel swamped by new-comers </li></ul>
  40. 45. <ul><li>The people who leave cities to live in rural areas tend to be skilled or be professionals. They are often well educated and earn god salaries. </li></ul><ul><li>People who are left behind tend to belong to the lower income groups, less skilled and less educated, and more likely to be unemployed </li></ul>
  41. 46. <ul><li>Due to population decline in urban areas the following may occur: </li></ul><ul><li>Funds diminish for transport, education, leisure and other services </li></ul><ul><li>Poorer unemployed people remain in the city </li></ul>
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