A sustainable city enhances the economic, social, cultural and environmental well-being of current and future generations
Sustainable cities, sometimes known as ecological or ‘eco’ cities, are settlements designed to have as little impact on the environment as possible.
These can be pre-existing cities that feature management directed towards reducing the inputs of energy, water and food and reducing the outputs of heat, water and air pollution, or they can be cities designed from scratch with these concerns in mind.
Vauban is a new neighborhood of 5,000 inhabitants and 600 jobs 4 km to the south of the town center in Freiburg, Germany. It was built as "a sustainable model district" on the site of a former French military base, and is named after Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban, the 17th century French Marshall who built fortifications in Freiburg while the region was under French rule.
Construction was begun in the mid-1990s, and by the beginning of 2001, 2000 people had moved in .
C algary is a city in the Province of Alberta, Canada. It is located in the south of the province, in an area of foothills and prairie, approximately 80 km (50 mi) east of the front ranges of the Canadian Rockies. The city is located in the Grassland region of Alberta.
In 2006, the City of Calgary had a population of 988,193 making it the third-largest municipality in the country and largest in Alberta . The entire metropolitan area had a 2006 population of 1,079,310, making it the fifth-largest census metropolitan area (CMA) in Canada. In 2009, Calgary's metropolitan population was estimated at 1,230,248, raising its rank to fourth-largest CMA in Canada.
Located 294 kilometers (183 miles) south of Edmonton, Statistics Canada defines the narrowly populated area between these cities as the "Calgary–Edmonton Corridor."
T he city is large in physical area, consisting of an inner city surrounded by communities of various density. Unlike most cities with a sizeable metropolitan area, most of Calgary's suburbs are incorporated into the city proper
Calgary maintains a major streets network and a freeway system. Much of the system is on a grid where roads are numbered with avenues running east–west and streets running north–south
Roads in predominantly residential areas as well as freeways and expressways do not generally conform to the grid and are usually not numbered as a result
However, it is a developer and city convention in Calgary that non-numbered streets within a new community have the same name prefix as the community itself so that streets can more easily be located within the city
Calgary Transit provides public transportation services throughout the city with buses and light rail. Calgary's rail system, known as the C-Train was one of the first such systems in North America
Planning problems are inherently wicked (e.g. difficult to define, have no rules that determine when they are solved, are not true or false but good or bad, are unique, basically political in nature and are often derivative of another problem)
Weak laws and regulations, and a related lack of enforcement.
P ermit higher urban densities through zoning (e.g., facilitate vertical rather than horizontal development).
S et urban growth boundaries (e.g., growth management): urban land consumption very often occurs on the highest quality lands (e.g., prime agricultural land). Use Greenbelts (and forbid leap-frog development).
M inimize conversion of natural lands to urban uses (therefore, stress infill—except for some earthquake-prone areas).
R etrofitting and renovation of older structures
G reenbelts that work by refusing to permit leapfrog development
Gives priority to the pedestrian (i.e., walkability), reduces dependency on the automobile, and enhances the aesthetic appreciation of urban life
Increases the efficiency of human interactions in space. Transactional intensity (e.g., business, news, life business) is facilitated. Minimizes travel times and commuting times and therefore reduces the waste of time and non-renewable resources (e.g., petroleum). How?
T hrough zoning, integrate commercial, retail, recreational and residential land uses on individual land parcels
Social goals . Why? Urban populations require adequate and affordable housing, health care, safety, cleanliness, freedom from crime, opportunities for work and personal development. How?
B onusing for mixed-income housing
P rotect the existing housing stock
F acilitation of cooperative housing
Diversity (e.g., cultural, lifestyle, land uses, transportation modes, choices, choices, choices). Why? Diversity makes a city more interesting and makes it more resilient to external environmental shocks. How?
P rotect cultural resources through conservation areas or designations
P lan for urban surprises (e.g., use organic design)
Furthermore , urban systems require further specification of the general concept of sustainable development, one that will take into account the special natural and social features of the urban system
In addition , the fact that cities accumulate human population, they have to maintain certain levels of environmental quality, which are related to the healthy survival and reproduction of the human species