Modern and postmodern citiesPresentation Transcript
Modernism is modern thought, character, or practice. More specifically, the term describes the modernist movement, its set of cultural tendencies and array of associated cultural movements, originally arising from wide-scale and far-reaching changes to Western society in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
In general, the term modernism encompasses the activities and output of those who felt the "traditional" forms of art, architecture, literature, religious faith, social organization and daily life were becoming outdated in the new economic, social, and political conditions of an emerging fully industrialized world.
Modernism rejected the lingering certainty of enlightenment thinking and also rejected the existence of a compassionate, all-powerful Creator God in favor of the abstract, unconventional, largely uncertain ethic brought on by modernity, initiated around the turn of century by rapidly changing technology and further catalyzed by the horrific consequences of World War I on the cultural psyche (ruh) of artists.
Modernism is marked by a strong and intentional break with tradition. This break includes a strong reaction against established religious, political, and social views.
Modernism was a revolt against the conservative values of realism.
The horrors of World War I (1914-19), with its accompanying atrocities and senselessness became the catalyst for the Modernist movement in literature and art.
Known as "The Lost Generation" American writers of the 1920s Brought Modernism to the United States.
American Modernists rejected traditional institutions and forms.
The term was first used around the 1870s
Postmodernism is a philosophical movement away from the viewpoint of modernism. More specifically it is a tendency in contemporary culture characterized by the problem of objective truth and inherent suspicion towards global cultural narrative or meta-narrative.
According to the Postmodern Worldview, the Western world society is an outdated lifestyle disguised under impersonal and faceless bureaucracies. The postmodernist endlessly debates the modernist about the Western society needing to move beyond their primitiveness of ancient traditional thought and practices.
"Postmodernism" is used in critical theory to refer to a point of departure for works of literature, drama, architecture, cinema, journalism, and design, as well as in marketing and business and in the interpretation of law, culture, and religion in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.
Indeed, postmodernism, particularly as an academic movement, can be understood as a reaction to modernism in the Humanities.
Postmodernism is often associated with difference, plurality, textuality, and skepticism.
When capitalist industrialization transformed cities in the 19t h Century, people began to speak ‘modernism’ that is, the articulation of technology, democracy, architecture, consumerism, and city life
With regard specifically to urbanism, modernism was ex e mplified (örneklediği) by a movement of architects and planner s in the period between World War I and World War II in the 20th Century
Furthermore, their designs were placed in new land use patterns by modernist principles of planning that stressed zoning of like functions into segregated districts, an emphasis on transportation corridors and a preference(tercih) for high rise skyscraper buildings surrounded by open space .
The era of postmodernism was ushered (başlattı) in as a critique of modernist architecture in the 1970s , as described by Charles Jenks
In one way or another their buildings abandoned the slavish (aynı) adherence to the sharp edges of modernist geometry and replaced it with flowing designs that included a return to embellishment of the exterior.
Than skyline of rectangular skyscrapers, downtown sections of cities began to possess buildings with peaked, triangular or multiple-leveled roofs, more ornamentation on the exterior of buildings and explosive or deconstructionist features that reconfigured their iconic, rectangular shape
Now many other urban areas across the US and elsewhere are exhibiting aspects that might be classified as postmodern
Ethnic diversity is increasingly replacing the once homogeneous cities in places like Europe
Homogeneous functional zoning
Dominant commercial centre
Steady decline in land values away from centre
Chaotic multinodal structure
Highly spectacular centres
Large ‘seas’ of poverty
Mass production of styles(seri üretim sitilleri)
Eclectic ‘collage’ of styles
Use of heritage(miras)
Produced for specialist markets
Managerial–redistribution of resources for social purposes
Public provision of essential services
Entrepreneurial–use of resources to lure mobile international capital and investment
Public and private sectors working in partnership
Market provision of services
Economies of scale
Flexible production aimed at niche markets
Economies of scope
Cities planned in totality
Space shaped for social ends
Spatial ‘fragments’ designed for aesthetic rather than social ends
Large degree of internal homogeneity within class groups
High degree of social polarisation
Groups distinguished by their consumption patterns
Diverse technical systems crammed into compact spaces typify modern cities. A Berlin tourist boat cruises up the Landwehr Canal through a mesh of automobile, pedestrian, rapid-transit, communication, and commercial networks—even a sprig of nature Berlin
A struggle with water and space has defined Amsterdam from the seventeenth century through today. Canals were even filled in to create space for housing and transport—until their tourist potential proved (ispat) irresistible(dayanılmaz ) Amsterdam