What do you want to contribute today (INSEMTIVES)
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

What do you want to contribute today (INSEMTIVES)

on

  • 906 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
906
Views on SlideShare
906
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
5
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

What do you want to contribute today (INSEMTIVES) What do you want to contribute today (INSEMTIVES) Presentation Transcript

  • What do you want to contribute today? Guiding user contributions in social software Hans-Jörg Happel, FZI Karlsruhe, Germany 2011-02-18 @ INSEMTIVES Q7 Meeting, London, UK
  • Agenda
    • Contributing to Social Software
    • Need-Driven Knowledge Sharing
    • Tool: Woogle4MediaWiki
    • Tool: Semantic Need
    • Summary & Outlook
    Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  • The Social Web
    • Social Software is essentially „open“
      • Everybody is free to contribute
      • Widely unconstrained usage
      • Decentralized, self-organized, emergent
      • Evolutionary, continuously improving
    • But openess also bears risks
      • Error & Vandalism (e.g., Wikipedia)
      • Waste of resources (Enterprise Social SW)
    Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  • Contribution Problems in Social Software
    • Decoupling
      • Contributor vs. beneficiary
      • Time of investment vs. time of benefit
        • aka „curse of prepayment“ [ZB08]
        • Often accompanied by a decoupling of cause and effect
    • Limited resources
      • Individuals, but also in communities
    Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  • The Toothpaste Problem
    • “ People who visit a toothpaste isle with only 4 products walk away much happier than those who visit the typical supermarket isle crammed with 40 variants of Colgate. Why? Because they don’t get overwhelmed by a tsunami of possibilities that leaves them wondering if they made the wrong choice.
    • When it comes to a large organization publishing data, perhaps a similar problem arises. Given all the information in the world that we could publish in structured form, how are we to know which important bits to address first ?”
    Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London Ed Benson, MIT http://groups.csail.mit.edu/haystack/blog/2010/11/09/the-toothpaste-problem-choosing-the-right-data-to-publish/
  • Observation: Lack of guidance and incentives
    • Although the Social Web coined the „ Prosumer “ role, very few tools & methods systematically address the contributor side of social software
    • Also observed on the Semantic Web
      • „ Semantic gap between supply and demand on the Semantic Web” [Mika09]
      • Semantic Web Vision paper focuses on usage scenarios [BHL01]
    Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  • Questions
    • How can people be guided to create useful content?
    • How can people be incentivized to create that content?
    Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  • Agenda
    • Contributing to Social Software
    • Need-Driven Knowledge Sharing
    • Tool: Woogle4MediaWiki
    • Tool: Semantic Need
    • Summary & Outlook
    Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  • Typical contribution problems
    • Motivational (Willingness to share)
    • Social
      • Organizational/group culture
      • Lack of trust
      • Image of self
    • Technical
      • Usability
      • Means (e.g, Tools)
      • Cost/Effort
    • Cognitive
      • Lack of awareness what others need
      • Lack of awareness what one can contribute
    Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  • Knowledge Sharing as a communication process Explicit Implicit Semi-Explicit Information seeker Information provider Query Answer
    • Information need
    • explicit (e.g. query)
    • implicit („push triggered“)
    Mediation Services Private information space Private information space Shared information space Mediation space
    • Knowledge sharing
    • need-driven („pull“, request)
    • pro-active („push“)
    Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  • Need-Driven Knowledge Sharing
    • “ Need-Driven Knowledge Sharing is an approach to knowledge sharing in groups, which allows information providers to share knowledge based on the implicit or explicit needs of information seekers.”
    • Information providers shall receive better guidance about which knowledge is sought
    • Information seekers shall be able to better satisfy their information needs. As a supportive measure, they should also receive improved means to describe their information needs.
    Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  • Sources for needs
    • Means for deriving information needs
      • Queries
      • Information access/browsing
      • Context
    • We chose to focus on queries
      • Explicit; can be captured easily
      • Express a „demand“ [Mika09]
      • Recur across time and different people [Smy05, Tee06, Zha09]
    Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  • Agenda
    • Contributing to Social Software
    • Need-Driven Knowledge Sharing
    • Tool: Woogle4MediaWiki
    • Tool: Semantic Need
    • Summary & Outlook
    Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  • Motivation
    • Wikis (in particular Wikipedia) are a popular example for crowdsourcing
    • But: Wikis lack efficient means for coordination
      • To improve quality & structure
      • To guide its evolution towards „completeness“
    • In Wikipedia, these coordination tasks are carried out by the community as well
      • Not feasible in an Enterprise context
      • Even a problem for Wikipedia
      • How can IT help?
    Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  • There are two kinds of people in a Wiki…
    • Readers
    • Have information needs
      • But only few means for articula-ting such needs (e.g. search)
    • Have collaboration needs
      • Search is an inherently social activity (40,4% of users interact with others before and during search; 58,7% share information after search [EC08])
    • Contributors
    • Have limited ressources (time/effort) and face futher barriers (motivation, privacy)
    • Choices on contributions are seldom based on demand of readers ( lack of guidance )
    • Wiki communities stress the relevance of content („what is worth to be documented“)
    • Artificial decoupling of readers and contributors in Wikis
    • Only few readers become contributors
    Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
    • Are Wikis search-friendly?
      • Not collaborative/“wiki-style“
      • No query logs
    Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  • Contributing in MediaWiki
    • Are Wikis really contribution-friendly?
      • „ Red links“ are great, but do not tell how much this information is required
      • The „empty-page“ phenomenon (How to start an article)
    Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  • (Media)Wikis can do better
    • Improve search with collaborative features
    • Allow people to express information needs
    • Provide a first-order representation for information needs
    • Guide contributions
    Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  • Every query can be a Wiki page…
    • Allows for
      • Wiki-Text („Social Did-You-Mean“)
      • Discussion page
      • Watches/Notifications (WoogleAlerts)
    • Shows basic statistics about query
      • „ How many people searched for that?“
    Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  • Social Search
    • Add, remove and re-rank query results
    • Add comments
    Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  • Demand guidance
    • Woogle uses queries and further metadata to qualify desired content
    • Users are informed how strong the information need is, and in which context it arises
    Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  • Preferences & Instrumentation
    • Preferences might be defined globally or by each individual user
    • Scientific instrumentation framework
      • Logs certain kinds of user interactions
      • Customize system/override configuration for experimental groups
      • Randomized group assignment
      • Informed consent (user acceptance dialog)
    Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  • Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  • Online Field Experiment
    • Three experimental groups (random assignment): Woogle UI, Woogle UI+Info, Reference
      • Internal wiki: 1967 content pages, 165 registered users, 42 active users
      • 44 users accepted to participate (69 total; 25 declined); 122 days of data collection
    • 924 different queries
      • 263 without result
      • 118 only 1/2 results (50% without follow-up click)
    • 978 article saves
      • 206 times, a "navigational search" was preceding the edit
      • in 43 of these 206 cases, a new article was created
      • 25 of the navigational search failed, in 16 cases resulting in the creation of new pages
    • 60 articles created after clicking on " red link ": 6 relevant for our study
      • 3 articles without particular demand (9418 red links shown)
      • 3 articles with demand (1869 red links shown)
    • 3 users created 7 "Woogle"-pages concerning 4 topics (all forwards for synonymous queries)
    Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  • Agenda
    • Contributing to Social Software
    • Need-Driven Knowledge Sharing
    • Tool: Woogle4MediaWiki
    • Tool: Semantic Need
    • Summary & Outlook
    Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
    • SMW is a popular Semantic Web application that allows to annotate Wiki pages semantically
    • Semantic interpretation of the existing Wiki categories
    • Syntax extension for [[Wiki links]]
      • Relations to other pages: [[Capital::Abuja]]
      • Literals: [[Inhabitants::182418]]
    Semantic MediaWiki (SMW) Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  • SMW Query Result
    • {{#ask: [[Category:Country]] [[OnContinent::Africa]] |?area |?... }}
    Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London ??? … ?
  • What happend to „Nigeria“? Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London Info might be missing … not annotated properly Different property name Distributed data source not available
  • Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/limaoscarjuliet/ (licensed under cc-by)
  • Observation: Semantic Gaps
    • „ Semantic gap between supply and demand on the Semantic Web” [Mika09]
      • Due to the evolutionary nature of the (Semantic) Web (OWA)
    • What is missing? – i.e.:
      • KB: Axioms that are known (e.g. statements about Nigeria)
      • XKB: Axioms not yet known but people would like to know
    Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  • Identifying „Semantic Gaps“
    • Focus on
      • Conjuctive queries
      • Retrieving instances and their properties
    • Core elements
    • {{#ask: [[Category:Country]][[OfContinent::Africa]] |?hasArea |?population |?hasCapital |?Currency }}
    Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London Printout Statement Conditions
  • Semantic Gap Heuristic #1: Example
    • {{#ask: [[Category:Country]] [[OnContinent::Africa]] |?area |?... }}
    Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London Egypt 1.001.449 km2 83.082.869 Cairo Egyptian pound Lacks annotation [[OnContinent::Africa]]  „Near Match“
  • Semantic Gap Heuristic #2: Example Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London „ Missing Printout Values“
  • Public SMW Analysis: Do Semantic Gaps exist?
    • Analysis of 25 queries from 8 SMW instances
      • 35 queries per SMW on average
    • Printout-Values
      • In average, 16% of cells in a result set were empty due to missing annotations (up to 63% for certain queries)
      •  Allows for identifying a total of 296 missing printout values
    • Near matches
      • In average, 22% of all potential result pages of a query lack a selective annotation (up to 94% for certain queries)
      • Allows for identifying a total of 147 potentially missing annotations for “selective” properties
    Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  • How to close „Semantic Gaps“?
    • Extension:Semantic Need
      • Guide the creation of semantic annotations in SMW by Information Needs (i.e., structured queries)
    • Core features
      • Capture and store needs (i.e., #ask-queries)
      • Guide annotations by extending and modifying the SMW user interface based on information need heuristics (i.e., „near matches“ and „missing printout values“)
        • Global overview pages
        • Local (page-specific) overview pages („What Links Here“)
        • In-Page display of information needs
    Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  • Screenshot: In-Page Annotation Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London Hint Sources of need
  • Semantic Need Online Survey
    • 30 complete answers (out of 58)
    • Core Results
      • Problem patterns do occur
      • Usage of SMW differs (predefined vs. evolving data structure)
    • No systematic guidance & gardening of SMW knowledge bases
      • „ Methods & tools used to maintain semantic data“
        • (7: n.a.; due to given external data model)
        • 12: none
        • 5: „simple“
        • 7: „advanced“ (e.g. scripts, documentation, team decisions)
      • „ How to find missing annotations for a given page“
        • 6: Compare to similar pages („extensional“)
        • 7: Check schema („intensional“)
        • 4: Text analysis
        • 10: Use query
    Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  • Related Work
    • OMIS/AnswerGarden (Ackermann et al., UMichigan)
    • Raising participation to the MovieLens site (GroupLens, UMinnesota)
    • Directed Content Sharing/„Friend-sourcing“ (Bernstein/Karger, MIT)
    • BlogMuse: Topic Suggestions for Blog Writers (Geyer/Dugan, IBM Watson)
    • Collective Intelligence in Wikis (Chi et al., PARC)
    • Collaborative Information Seeking/Social Search (various)
    Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
    • Search engine for contribution opportunities to Wikipedia
    • http://de.intopedia.org
    Further Work
    • Guide the sharing of files from private folders based on information needs
    „ Inverse Search“ Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  • Bridging Gaps in Knowledge Sharing
    • Technical
    • Cognitive
    • Motivational
    Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London Explicit Implicit Semi-Explicit Information seeker Information provider Mediation Services Private information space Shared information space Mediation space
    • Knowledge sharing
    • need-driven („pull“, request)
    • pro-active („push“)
  • Summary
    • NKS mediates between info seekers & providers
      • Improved awareness about information needs
      • Improved guidance on what should (and could) be contributed
      • Woogle and Semantic Need are provide realizations for (Semantic) Wikis
    • Open Issues
      • Role of UI
      • Role of Incentives
      • Role of Anonymity
    • Q&A
      • How to enable the Social Semantic Web?
        • Federated Semantic Need-enabled SMW‘s
        • Express „needs“ on the Semantic Web?
        • “ Missing Linked Data”?
      • How to combine need-drivenness with incentives?
    Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  • Intopedia – Example Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London
  • References
    • http://www.globalise-projekt.de
    • Extension:Semantic Need
      • http://amazonas.fzi.de/semanticneed / (Demo Wiki)
      • http://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Extension:Semantic_Need
    • Extension:Woogle4MediaWiki (for non SMW-Wikis)
      • http://amazonas.fzi.de/wooglenative/ (Demo Wiki)
      • http://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Extension:Woogle4MediaWiki
    • Literature
      • [EC08] Evans, B. M. and Chi, E. H. 2008. Towards a model of understanding social search. In Proceedings of the ACM 2008 Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (San Diego, CA, USA, November 08 - 12, 2008). CSCW '08. ACM, New York, NY, 485-494.
      • [BHL01] Berners-Lee, T; Hendler, J.; Lassila, O.: The Semantic Web. Scientific American. 2001.
      • [Han05] Handschuh, Siegfried: Creating ontology-based metadata by annotation for the semantic web, Dissertation, 2005
      • [Hap08a] Hans-Jörg Happel: Growing the Semantic Web with Inverse Semantic Search. In Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Incentives for the Semantic Web (INSEMTIVE '08)
      • [Hap08b] Hans-Jörg Happel: Closing Information Gaps with Inverse Search. In Proceeedings of the 7th International Conference on Practical Aspects of Knowledge Management (PAKM2008)
      • [Hap09a] Hans-Jörg Happel: Woogle – On Why and How to Marry Wikis with Enterprise Search. In Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Integrated Knowledge Management Systems (IKMS2009)
      • [Hap09b] Hans-Jörg Happel: Towards Need-driven Knowledge Sharing in Distributed Teams. In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Knowledge Management (I-KNOW 2009)
      • [Hap09c] Hans-Jörg Happel: Social search and need-driven knowledge sharing in Wikis with Woogle. In Proceedings of the 5th international Symposium on Wikis and Open Collaboration (Orlando, Florida, October 25 - 27, 2009). WikiSym '09. ACM, New York, NY, 1-10.
      • [Hap10] Hans-Jörg Happel: Semantic Need: Guiding Metadata Annotations by Questions People #ask . International Semantic Web Conference (1) 2010: 321-336.
      • [KV+07] Markus Krötzsch, Denny Vrandecic, Max Völkel, Heiko Haller, Rudi Studer. Semantic Wikipedia. In Journal of Web Semantics 5/2007, pp. 251–261. Elsevier 2007.
      • [Mika09] Mika, P., Meij, E., Zaragoza, H.: Investigating the semantic gap through query log analysis. In: International Semantic Web Conference. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 5823, pp. 441–455. Springer (2009)
      • [Rom10] Ben Romberg, Hans-Jörg Happel (Betreuer) und Ulrich Bröckl (Betreuer): Intopedia: Personalisierte Beitragsempfehlungen für die Wikipedia. Bachelorarbeit, Hochschule Karlsruhe und FZI Forschungszentrum Informatik, September 2010.
      • [Smy05] Smyth, Barry ; Balfe, Evelyn ; Freyne, Jill ; Briggs, Peter ; Coyle, Maurice ; Boydell, Oisin: Exploiting Query Repetition and Regularity in an Adaptive Community-Based Web Search Engine. In: User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction 14 (2005), Nr. 5, S. 383–423.
      • [Tee06] Teevan, Jaime ; Adar, Eytan ; Jones, Rosie ; Potts, Michael: History repeats itself: repeat queries in Yahoo’s logs. In: SIGIR’06: Proceedings of the 29th annual international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in information retrieval. New York, NY, USA : ACM, 2006, S. 703–704.
      • [ZB08] Zacharias, Valentin ; Braun, Simone: Tackling the Curse of Prepayment - Collaborative Knowledge Formalization Beyond Lightweight. In Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Incentives for the Semantic Web (INSEMTIVE '08)
      • [Zha09] Zhang, Dell ; Lu, Jinsong: What queries are likely to recur in web search? In: SIGIR ’09: Proceedings of the 32nd international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in information retrieval. New York, NY, USA : ACM, 2009, S. 827–828.
    Hans-Jörg Happel (FZI) - What do you want to contribute today? - INSEMTIVE Meeting 2011-02, London