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  • 1. John Berger, Ways of Seeing, 1972“Men act and women appear. Men look at women. Women watch themselves being looked at. This determines not only most relations between men and women but also the relation of women to themselves.” Convention: “men active / women passive”http://employees.oneonta.edu/farberas/arth/arth200/gender.htmlhttp://www.facebook.com/topic.php?uid=50530369685&topic=7313http://www.facebook.com/topic.php?uid=50530369685&topic=7313#!/topic.php?ui d=50530369685&topic=7314http://www.mediaed.org/assets/products/238/studyguide_238.pdf
  • 2. Berger’s Gender OppositionsMale Female• Active (do) • Passive (talk)• Dominant • Submissive• Hard • Soft• Intelligent • Intuitive• (hard) muscles • (soft) curves• Rational • Emotional• Strong • Weak• thoughtful • impulsive
  • 3. Over-generalisation but…• Broad template for mainstream (mass) media to represent gender• Advertising reinforces these traditional (patriarchal) oppositions – unsurprisingly as it is central to the political economy of the media (and a form that articulates bourgeois- capitalist ideologies – reinforces the hegemony)