Rushworth (2009) has argued that the desired outcome of an entrepreneurship education program is not just that students show know things but they should be able to do things. This is another word for ‘capability’ (Stephenson, 1998) – ‘Capability depends much more on our confidence that we can effectively use and develop our skills in complex and changing cir-cumstances than on our mere possession of those skills. Our learners become capable people who have confidence in their ability to take action; explain what they are about; and continue to learn from their experiences.
Bloom's (1956) widely used Taxonomy classifies learning objectives into three 'domains': Cognitive, Affective and Psychomotor (sometimes loosely described as knowing/head, feel-ing/heart and doing/hands respectively). Within the domains, learning at the higher levels is dependent on having attained prerequisite knowledge and skills at lower levels.
How does this apply to teaching entrepreneurs? The problem is that Bloom does not distin-guish well between knowing how to and being able to. 'Knowledge . . . involves the recall of specifics and universals, the recall of methods and processes, or the recall of a pattern, structure or setting (Bloom, 1956, p. 201). Students may be able to compare, analyse, classify and categorise but this does not mean they have the confidence to act in the real world.
Rushworth (2011) believes that a more useful taxonomy for the teaching of capability is Fink’s taxonomy of significant learning (L. Dee Fink, 2003; L.D. Fink, 2003). Whereas Bloom’s taxonomy focuses on mastery of content, Fink’s focuses on application, relationships and on the process of learning.
We agree with Rushworth (2011), who says that entrepreneurship education should:
• be grounded in evidence-based theory (Fiet)
• aim at embedding capability rather than knowledge (Stephenson)
• teach through experiential learning (Kolb)
• teach in the form of significant learning experiences (Fink)
• apply theoretical concepts to problems students expect to encounter in practice (Fiet)
• ideally involving students in the design of these activities (Boyatzis, Cowen, & Kolb, 1995)
Bloom, B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives; the classification of educational goals (1st ed.). New York,: Longmans, Green.
Boyatzis, R. E., Cowen, S. S., & Kolb, D. A. (1995). Innovation in professional education : steps on a journey from teaching to learning : the story of change and invention at the Weatherhead School of Management (1st ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Fink, L. D. (2003). Creating significant learning experiences : an integrated approach to de-signing college courses (1st ed.). San Francisco, Calif.: Jossey-Bass.
Fink, L. D. (2003). A self-directed guide to designing courses for significant learning, 28, from http://www.cccu.org/filefolder/A_Self-Directed_Guide_to_Designing_Courses_for_Significant_Learning.pdf
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