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1Teaching EntrepreneursTeaching Entrepreneursthrough Experientialthrough ExperientialLearningLearning
Entrepreneurship & “personalenterprise”• “To boldly go where no [one] has gone before”• Attitude to life• Exploring, devel...
My journey• Babson College• London Business School• Monterrey Institute of Technology• Syracuse University• Indiana Univer...
EnterprisingbehavioursCross-disciplinaryentrepreneurshipsEntrepreneurialBusinessentrepreneurshipSocialentrepreneurshipAdde...
Entrepreneurship Education ImpactStudies• Studies have shown significant improvement onstandardized tests among students i...
Growth of the field• 120 refereed academic journals• 3,400 articles annually• Contending theories of entrepreneurship• Hea...
Wide range of educationalinterventions• Entrepreneurship minor andcertificate available to anyundergraduate student• Staff...
What unites all these techniques• Personal enterprise skills– Inner control/discipline; risk taker, innovation, changeorie...
Models of enterprise education• University-wide initiatives• Personal enterprise programmes or courses• Cross-disciplinary...
Biggest lessons• Unfulfilled demand• Not just business students• One of fastest growing fields ever• Need for qualified te...
Entrepreneurs learn differentlyTraditional learning Entrepreneurship learningLarge amounts of data Limited data, moreexper...
Objectives of “enterprisepedagogy”• Help those new to the teaching of entrepreneurship• Capture the experiences of those w...
Catalogue of pedagogies: The experientialtoolkit• Case study• Business plan• Structuredprojects/exercises• Apprenticeships...
My conclusions• Widest range of educational interventions• Perhaps fastest growing discipline in the world today• Entrepre...
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Teaching Entrepreneurs through Experiential Learning

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Rushworth (2009) has argued that the desired outcome of an entrepreneurship education program is not just that students show know things but they should be able to do things. This is another word for ‘capability’ (Stephenson, 1998) – ‘Capability depends much more on our confidence that we can effectively use and develop our skills in complex and changing cir-cumstances than on our mere possession of those skills. Our learners become capable people who have confidence in their ability to take action; explain what they are about; and continue to learn from their experiences.
Bloom's (1956) widely used Taxonomy classifies learning objectives into three 'domains': Cognitive, Affective and Psychomotor (sometimes loosely described as knowing/head, feel-ing/heart and doing/hands respectively). Within the domains, learning at the higher levels is dependent on having attained prerequisite knowledge and skills at lower levels.
How does this apply to teaching entrepreneurs? The problem is that Bloom does not distin-guish well between knowing how to and being able to. 'Knowledge . . . involves the recall of specifics and universals, the recall of methods and processes, or the recall of a pattern, structure or setting (Bloom, 1956, p. 201). Students may be able to compare, analyse, classify and categorise but this does not mean they have the confidence to act in the real world.
Rushworth (2011) believes that a more useful taxonomy for the teaching of capability is Fink’s taxonomy of significant learning (L. Dee Fink, 2003; L.D. Fink, 2003). Whereas Bloom’s taxonomy focuses on mastery of content, Fink’s focuses on application, relationships and on the process of learning.
We agree with Rushworth (2011), who says that entrepreneurship education should:
• be grounded in evidence-based theory (Fiet)
• aim at embedding capability rather than knowledge (Stephenson)
• teach through experiential learning (Kolb)
• teach in the form of significant learning experiences (Fink)
• apply theoretical concepts to problems students expect to encounter in practice (Fiet)
• ideally involving students in the design of these activities (Boyatzis, Cowen, & Kolb, 1995)
Bibliography
Bloom, B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives; the classification of educational goals (1st ed.). New York,: Longmans, Green.
Boyatzis, R. E., Cowen, S. S., & Kolb, D. A. (1995). Innovation in professional education : steps on a journey from teaching to learning : the story of change and invention at the Weatherhead School of Management (1st ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Fink, L. D. (2003). Creating significant learning experiences : an integrated approach to de-signing college courses (1st ed.). San Francisco, Calif.: Jossey-Bass.
Fink, L. D. (2003). A self-directed guide to designing courses for significant learning, 28, from http://www.cccu.org/filefolder/A_Self-Directed_Guide_to_Designing_Courses_for_Significant_Learning.pdf
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  • The word “enterprise” has had an interesting evolution. It often appears in the business context as a synonym for corporation or venture . But it also has a broader sense embodied in the Star Trek series as an “attitude to life, an attitude of exploring, of developing, of leading and of taking initiatives” (Bridge 1998: 21). Enterprise—as in an enterprising individual--is the process of identifying, developing and bringing a vision to life, be it an innovative idea or simply a better way of doing something . Enterprise applies not only to business ventures, but also to political decisions and social decisions. The English language is fortunate in having two contrasting words. Enterprising means “marked by imagination, initiative, and readiness to undertake new projects”. Entrepreneurial means “ willing to take risks in order to create value”. In this paper I use the word “enterprise” in its broadest sense of “enterprising human beings” and not only in the business sense. Whether in art or architecture, sport or health, we can educate students to be enterprising or to have an enterprising attitude. Our goal should be to instil that sense of personal enterprise best embodied by the motto: “I am the sole proprietor of the rest of my life.”
  • Research objectives and method With these thoughts in mind, with the support of Unitec research funds, I have undertaken research in North America and Europe to examine the increasing number of initiatives that aim to satisfy GenerationE’s needs. My particularly aim was to examine inter-disciplinary initiatives campuses that aim to break the study of entrepreneurship and personal enterprise out of the Business School and to integrate it across the campus . [SLIDE] I visited sixteen campuses to conduct in-depth interviews, attended important meetings where the leaders of this “movement” congregate, spoke to hundreds of people, and carried out Web research. [i] My aim is to classify and categorise best-practice models of enterprise education, focussing especially on cross-disciplinary non-business entrepreneurship and university-wide enterprise general education requirements. My purpose is to help Unitec New Zealand move toward more completely operationalising its “enterprise” brand value. As our Charter says, “Unitec fosters an institutional culture in which . . . enterprise [is] expected and rewarded”. The point is, however, how to make “enterprise” not just a core value but also a core operation in our educational mission? The paper summarises and reviews the literature and practice in the field and then categorises these data as “models of enterprise education”. It looks at the state of entrepreneurship education today in the leading universities around the world. Its aim is to look at how to accelerate the development of personal enterprise within individuals and to increase the supply of young New Zealand entrepreneurs who launch their own businesses and social enterprises. For it is people, not firms, who create economic and social wealth.
  • Let’s see if we can model these divergent yet complimentary perspectives. There are many types of enterprising behaviour of which entrepreneurship is but one. For the present we leave aside other enterprising traits such as ambition, aspiration and drive, which are also part of the enterprising individual. We only look at entrepreneur behaviour in this model. How to describe the enterprising individual? He or she is an opportunity spotter, niche filler, idea initiator, responsibility taker, influencer, planner and organiser. An enterprising individual is active, confident, purposeful--not passive, uncertain and dependent. Enterprising people have ideas and do something about them even when life is difficult and uncertain. In the business world, we may call this business entrepreneurship, but there are also social entrepreneurs as well as cross-disciplinary entrepreneurs such as arts entrepreneurs, sports entrepreneurs, design entrepreneurs and so forth. That is why we place enterprise as the superset. OECD definition: An enterprising individual has a positive, flexible and adaptable disposition toward change, seeing it as normal and as an opportunity rather than a problem. To see change in this way, an enterprising individual has a security born of self-confidence, and is at ease when dealing with insecurity, risks and the unknown. Business entrepreneurship: One well-known form of enterprising behaviour is business entrepreneurship, often defined as the process of creating or seizing an opportunity, and pursuing it regardless of the resources currently controlled. Social entrepreneurship: Social entrepreneurs have many of the same personality traits as business entrepreneurs. Social entrepreneurs tackle a wide range of social and environmental issues and operate in all parts of the economy. Where they differ is in the motive of individual self-maximisation. A social enterprise “is a business with primarily social objectives whose surpluses are principally reinvested We can summarise this by saying that like a business entrepreneur, the social entrepreneur identifies opportunities and designs business models. But the social entrepreneur emphasizes social improvement all the while balancing that with profitability and growth. Cross-disciplinary entrepreneurship Evidence suggests that: Many of the best venture ideas in business plan competitions come from non-business majors Many of the strongest contributors to entrepreneurship courses are non-business students Some of the most innovative entrepreneurial initiatives do not involve business schools This is the realm of arts and music entrepreneurship, nursing entrepreneurship, humanities entrepreneurship, biomedical entrepreneurship, personal enterprise, and so forth.
  • Evidence that the intervention works Serious attention is going into longitudinal and comparative research to see if the “enterprise intervention” actually works. Do students exposed to courses in enterprise and entrepreneurship actually differ from those who do not over the long term? What evidence of a longitudinal nature exists to show that entrepreneurship students make stronger and more successful business and social venture leaders? The literature increasingly supports the contention that if students--whether in primary or in tertiary education--have just one course in “Enterprise”, they are much more likely at some point to create their own business, become self-employed, or start a social venture. But the benefits are greater than just starting enterprises. Entrepreneurship education courses win praise from teachers and school administrators for helping students excel at academic subjects like English and mathematics. Studies have shown significant improvement on standardized tests among students involved in entrepreneurship programs. For example, Rasheed (2001) examined whether entrepreneurship education contributes to the development of entrepreneurial characteristics among youth and whether it contributes to improved student academic performance. Students receiving entrepreneurial training have a significantly higher motivation to achieve; a significantly higher sense of personal control; and higher self-esteem. Students who have entrepreneurship training were more innovative and had more personal control. Reading scores increased by 16.4%; language 15.0%; spelling 15.3%; math 18.7%; social studies 19.5%; science an astounding 39.0%. [SLIDE] The Entrepreneurship Education Impact Study set out to examine the return on investment that Entrepreneurship Education brings (University of Arizona 2004). The authors compared business school graduates at the University of Arizona who completed the Entrepreneurship Program to other University of Arizona business school graduates who were not involved in the Program. Their findings show that entrepreneurship education Produces self-sufficient, enterprising individuals Produces successful business and industry leaders Enhances a graduate's ability to create wealth Produces champions of innovation Leads to greater opportunities with advancing technologies Attracts substantial private-sector contributions
  • [SLIDE] The academic literature in the fields of enterprise and entrepreneurship is vast and deep with 44 dedicated refereed academic journals. Assuming 4 issues per year of eight articles, that means that there are about 1,400 new articles coming out annually. This does not include the mainstream management journals that are devoting more issues (some special issues) to entrepreneurship. Nor does it count the thousands of conference papers presented each year. The literature has long reached the point where it would be impossible for any individual to read all refereed journal articles. While we cannot say that the field has a unified theory—it is rather an interdiscipline—we can say that there are contending theories of entrepreneurship at the micro, macro and mid-levels, a healthy—some would say overbearing—empiricism, PhD programmes training the professors of the future, indeed all the hallmarks of, if not a discipline, then of an approach analogous to “leadership” or “strategy.” There are now respected conferences on how to teach entrepreneurship, especially Syracuse University’s ‘Experiential Classroom’, a national program that aims to increase the skills of those who teach entrepreneurship (Syracuse University 2004). We even now have our own historian of entrepreneurship education (Katz 2003). In 1970 there was one textbook, now there’s now a robust market for six comprehensive textbooks.
  • [SLIDE] In my travels and research I have found the widest range of interventions. More and more universities are offering an entrepreneurship minor or a certifricate taught by the Business School but available to any undergraduate student. To address the paucity of qualified staff bootcamp training courses are now offered to faculty who want to reorient their teaching toward enterprise. Jesuit Universities and others are specialising in social enterprise and sustainable entrepreneurship. Brigham Young and others are now sending entrepreneurship educators into the Third World. There’s now a bachelor’s degree in “country music entrepreneurship” in Nashville at Belmont University. Nursing schools help nurses understand that their careers need not be within corporate hospital environments. Nutrition entrepreneurship, sport entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship and human rights: The list is limited to the imagination. I have seen Humanities courses in “Literature of Entrepreneurship”, “History of Entrepreneurship”, and “Arts and Enterprise Culture”. There are now entire dormitories for student entrepreneurs, and alumni-driven fund-raising for entrepreneurship education. Business plan competitions and access to capital, student and staff incubators, commercialisation initiatives, “clinical professorships” of real-life entrepreneurs: All of these modalities are attempting to keep in step with the needs of enterprising students. Small rural campuses such as Ball State University in Indiana can distinguish themselves in the ranking as leading programs. The field is so hot that Cornell University has three competing Entrepreneurship Centres. Monterrey Institute of Technology since 1982 has required “Development of Entrepreneurs” of all undergraduates. One of the largest universities in the USA, Pennsylvania State University with 82,000 students, is working on a plan to offer a General Education Elective available to all students.
  • In my prospecting I have found the following models relevant to Unitec’s kaupapa that take entrepreneurship education beyond the business school: UNIVERSITY-WIDE INITIATIVES Interdisciplinary programmes that infuse entrepreneurship across the school or even university-wide. Examples include: Monterrey Institute of Technology university-wide “Development of Entrepreneurship” course; Syracuse University “University-Wide Program in Entrepreneurship”; Florida International University “Educational Entrepreneurship throughout University”; Babson College’s overall curricular emphasis. PERSONAL ENTERPRISE COURES Wichita State University Barton School of Business “Entrepreneurship and Personal Enterprise”; Cornell University “Entrepreneurship and Personal Enterprise Program”; MINORS OR CERTIFICATES Entrepreneurship minors for non-business majors. Here the approach is to give any student an overview of strategy, accounting, sales and marketing together with entrepreneurship courses in new venture creation and so forth. Examples: University of Wisconsin ”Undergraduate Entrepreneurship Certificate”; Oregon State University “Entrepreneurship Minor”; Indiana University “Minor in Entrepreneurship and Small Business Management”. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY (NON-BUSINESS) ENTREPRENEURSHIPS Entrepreneurship courses outside the business disciplines. Examples include: Temple University, “Entrepreneurship in the Arts, Entertainment and Leisure”; Belmont University’s College of Entertainment & Music Business; Chico State’s Humanities orientation; Indiana University’s emphasis on non-business majors in Arts and Sciences, Health, Physical Education and Recreation, Informatics, Journalism, Music, and Public and Environmental Affairs; TECHNICAL OR SCIENCE ENTREPRENEURSHIP for engineers and technologists. Numerous examples abound: Case Western’s Master of Science in Entrepreneurship, Master of Technology and Master of Bioscience Entrepreneurship; University of Central Florida (UCF) “Engineering Entrepreneurship Certificate”; Pennsylvania State University “Engineering Entrepreneurship Minor”; Georgia Institute of Technology “Program on Engineering Entrepreneurship”; Pennsylvania State’s Engineering Entrepreneurship Minor SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP Brigham Young’s focus on Third World entrepreneurship; Portland’s focus on social, environmental, and sustainable entrepreneurship; Fordham’s focus on Entrepreneurship and Human Rights; University of Arizona’s Rodel Social Entrepreneurship Initiative. FAMILY BUSINESS Courses and programmes focused on family business such as Fordham University “Family Businesses and Social Entrepreneurship”; Florida International’s Institute for Family Business; Fordham’s Center for Entrepreneurship focus on family business; CENTRES, INCUBATORS, AND OTHER INITIATIVES Examples abound that connect the Academic and Industry sides. There are more than 150 members of the National Consortium of Entrepreneurship Centers (including Unitec); Michigan Entrepreneurship Education Network (MEEN) connects institutions in Michigan; UAS Jena has incubated dozens of companies and created more than 900 jobs; OTHER Simmons College’s and Temple University’s focus on women’s entrepreneurship. Student residence halls for entrepreneurs. Faculty “boot camps” to train more junior staff such as the six Missouri colleges. Hawaii’s emphasis on Pacific Asian entrepreneurship. Belmont’s student-run DVD/CD store connected with the entrepreneurship programme. SINGLE COURSES FOR NON-BUSINESS STUDENTS Focused on how to start a business for non-business majors. San Francisco State University “Starting a Business (Non-entrepreneurship Majors)”; Brigham Young University Entrepreneurship courses for Non-business Majors; University of Notre Dame “Introduction to Entrepreneurship”.
  • This field research uncovered the widest range of educational interventions. More and more universities are offering entrepreneurship available to any undergraduate student. To address the paucity of qualified staff, training courses are now offered to faculty who want to reorient their teaching toward enterprise. Jesuit Universities and others are specialising in social enterprise and sustainable entrepreneurship. Brigham Young and others are now sending entrepreneurship educators into the Third World. One can now double-major in music business and entrepreneurship in Nashville at Belmont University. Nursing schools help nurses understand that their careers need not be within corporate hospital environments. Nutrition entrepreneurship, sport entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship and human rights: The list is limited only to the imagination. There are Humanities courses in “Literature of Entrepreneurship,” “History of Entrepreneurship,” and “Arts and Enterprise Culture.” There are now entire dormitories for student entrepreneurs, and alumni-driven fund-raising for entrepreneurship education. Business plan competitions and access to capital, student and staff incubators, commercialisation initiatives, “clinical professorships” of real-life entrepreneurs: Evangelical colleges are even offering religious entrepreneurship. All of these modalities are attempting to keep in step with the needs of enterprising students. Politically within the Business Academy, an interesting development is taking place. Entrepreneurship faculty are taking over leadership roles from their management and accounting colleagues, indeed they are moving up into the ranks of senior leadership. Notable entrepreneurship educators are moving up to more prestigious universities. Small rural campuses such as Ball State University in Indiana can distinguish themselves in the ranking as leading programs. The field is so hot that Cornell University has three competing Entrepreneurship Centres. Monterrey Institute of Technology since 1982 has required “Development of Entrepreneurs” of all undergraduates. One of the largest universities in the USA, Pennsylvania State University with 82,000 students, is working on a plan to offer a General Education Elective in entrepreneurship to all students. Here we examined entrepreneurship programs attempting to ingrain themselves within the broadest range of academic programs. These universities and colleges may well have enterprising cultures but the trick is infusing their academic programs with an enterprising structure. They use a variety of models to spark a university-wide focus on creating enterprising human beings within academic programs. All aim develop sustainable programs that transcend the traditional boundaries of entrepreneurship education within the business school by being truly interdisciplinary and involving other academic elements of the University. They all operate within the general definition of “enterprise”: An enterprising individual has a positive, flexible and adaptable disposition toward change, seeing it as normal and as an opportunity rather than a problem. To see change in this way, an enterprising individual has a security born of self-confidence, and is at ease when dealing with insecurity, risks and the unknown. (Ball 1989) Whether in art or architecture, sport or health, they encourage people who have the capacity to initiate creative ideas and formulate them into actionable visions. A person who steps forward and is anxious to take responsibility, is an effective communicator, negotiator, influencer, planner and organiser, is the kind of person who can teach entrepreneurship, whether in the business or social setting. I can only conclude by citing my good colleague Kevin Hindle (2004), who says: The aim in any entrepreneurship faculty should be for a well-balanced, well-mixed program team of committed, good teachers —not a search for universal perfection in every single teacher. This may mean a higher proportion of team-teaching and multiple presenters within the one subject. Students could greatly benefit from a sprinkling of well-chosen adjunct and sessional teachers whose presentations were based on commitment to balanced education not mortgaged to an ego-centric perspective of unanalysed personal experience. Bottom line is that the teacher should be an enterprising individual.
  • Transcript of "Teaching Entrepreneurs through Experiential Learning"

    1. 1. 1Teaching EntrepreneursTeaching Entrepreneursthrough Experientialthrough ExperientialLearningLearning
    2. 2. Entrepreneurship & “personalenterprise”• “To boldly go where no [one] has gone before”• Attitude to life• Exploring, developing, leading and takinginitiatives• Identifying, developing and bringing a vision tolife• “I am the sole proprietor of the rest of my life.”• What is entrepreneur in Malay and otherlanguages?
    3. 3. My journey• Babson College• London Business School• Monterrey Institute of Technology• Syracuse University• Indiana University• Cornell University• Universite Paris-Dauphine• Temple University• Seattle University• University of Portland• University of Applied Sciences Jena• Wuppertal University• University of Applied SciencesGelsenkirchen• University of Hohenheim• Florida International University• Florida Gulf Coast University• Pennsylvania State University• University of Southern California• University of Hawaii• Swinburne University of Technology• University of Southern Queensland• Waikato University• Otago University• Syracuse “Experiential Classroom”• Price-Babson Workshop forEntrepreneurship Educators• National Consortium ofEntrepreneurs Centres• German Entrepreneurship ResearchConsortium• Burapha University Thailand• Mahidol University Thailand
    4. 4. EnterprisingbehavioursCross-disciplinaryentrepreneurshipsEntrepreneurialBusinessentrepreneurshipSocialentrepreneurshipAdded-valueEconomicprofitSocialcapitalAmbitiousAspiringDrivenEt aliaTraditionalCorporationCorporatesocialresponsibilitySociallyResponsibleBusinessNon-profitEnterpriseNon-profit withsome earnedincomeTraditionalNon-profitEconomic Value Socio-Economic Value Social ValueEnterprise as the superset
    5. 5. Entrepreneurship Education ImpactStudies• Studies have shown significant improvement onstandardized tests among students involved inentrepreneurship programs.– Reading scores increased by 16.4%; language 15.0%;spelling 15.3%; math 18.7%; social studies 19.5%; sciencean astounding 39.0%.• Compared entrepreneurship majors to other businessmajors over four years– Unive rsity o f Arizo na / Kauffm ann Fo undatio n (20 0 4)• Entrepreneurship education outcomes– Produces self-sufficient, enterprising individuals– Produces successful business and industry leaders– Enhances a graduates ability to create wealth– Produces champions of innovation– Leads to greater opportunities with advancing technologies– Attracts substantial private-sector contributions
    6. 6. Growth of the field• 120 refereed academic journals• 3,400 articles annually• Contending theories of entrepreneurship• Healthy empiricism and innovative qualitativeapproaches• PhD programmes• Conferences on how to teach entrepreneurship• Accepted textbooks– Kuratko, Timmons, Baron, Allen, Kaplan, Hisrich,Kirby, Mariotti– North American dominated
    7. 7. Wide range of educationalinterventions• Entrepreneurship minor andcertificate available to anyundergraduate student• Staff bootcamps• Enterprise pedagogy• Social enterprise and sustainableentrepreneurship• Third World entrepreneurship• “Country music entrepreneurship”• Nursing entrepreneurship• Nutrition entrepreneurship, sportentrepreneurship,entrepreneurship and humanrights• Humanities entrepreneurship– “Literature of Entrepreneurship”– “History of Entrepreneurship”– “Arts and Enterprise Culture”• Student entrepreneurshipdormitories• Alumni-driven fund-raising forentrepreneurship education.• Business plan competitions• Student-organised funding• Student and staff incubators• Commercialisation initiatives• “Clinical professorships” ofreal-life entrepreneurs• Entrepreneurship 101 requiredof all students• Personal enterprise courses
    8. 8. What unites all these techniques• Personal enterprise skills– Inner control/discipline; risk taker, innovation, changeoriented, persistent, visionary leader, ability to managechange• Technical skills– Writing, oral communication, monitoring environment,technical business management, technology, interpersonal,listening, ability to organize, networking building,management style, coaching, being a team player.• Business management skills– Planning and goal setting, decision making, human relations,marketing, finance, accounting, management, control,negotiation, venture launch, managing growth
    9. 9. Models of enterprise education• University-wide initiatives• Personal enterprise programmes or courses• Cross-disciplinary (non-business) entrepreneurships• Technical or science entrepreneurship• Social entrepreneurship• Family business courses• Centres and incubators• Single courses for non-business students• Minors or certificates• Other initiatives
    10. 10. Biggest lessons• Unfulfilled demand• Not just business students• One of fastest growing fields ever• Need for qualified teachers– Entrepreneurs planning to return to the classroom to teachentrepreneurship courses– Staff from literally any discipline who are re-tooling so thatthey can teach entrepreneurship.– Adjunct staff teaching entrepreneurship on a part-time basis.• Lack of adequate teaching materials– North American dominance in curriculum and content– Culturally specific and relevant (e.g. for Asia-Pacific)– Mix of theory and practice
    11. 11. Entrepreneurs learn differentlyTraditional learning Entrepreneurship learningLarge amounts of data Limited data, moreexperienceVerify absolute truth bystudying all informationavailableMake decision based ontrust, intuition, not “right”answerSeek correct answer withtime to do itDevelop most appropriatesolution under pressureLearning in the classroom Learning while & throughdoingEvaluation through writtenassessmentEvaluation by judgmentthrough direct feedback
    12. 12. Objectives of “enterprisepedagogy”• Help those new to the teaching of entrepreneurship• Capture the experiences of those who came to theteaching of entrepreneurship from diversebackgrounds• Show them creative and effective experientialapproaches• Incorporate media appropriate for today’s students– Multimedia– Webstreaming– Podcasting– Blogs and wikis– Live Web cams
    13. 13. Catalogue of pedagogies: The experientialtoolkit• Case study• Business plan• Structuredprojects/exercises• Apprenticeships,internships• Games and simulations• Learning diaries• Play to learn• Experiential exams• Multimedia• Webstreaming• Podcasting• Blogs and wikis• Live Web cams• E-Newsletters• Global partnering
    14. 14. My conclusions• Widest range of educational interventions• Perhaps fastest growing discipline in the world today• Entrepreneurship faculty are taking over leadershiproles• Any campus can succeed / low threshold of success• Most exciting: infusing entire campuses with anenterprising structure• Need is for entrepreneurial teachers• Need for relevant materials specific to regional andcultural context.
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