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Tabulation of Data

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### Qt

1. 1. 1
2. 2. TABULATING AND GRAPHING DATA 2
3. 3. “Graphical excellence consists of the efficientcommunication of complex quantitative ideas.” 3
4. 4. TABULATIONAccording to Connor, "Tabulation involves the orderlyand systematic presentation of numerical data in a formdesigned to elucidate the problem under consideration.“ 4
5. 5. PARETO DIAGRAMS 45 120% 40 100% 35 30 80%Frequency 25 60% Frequency 20 Cumulative % 15 40% 10 20% 5 0 0% No Signature Illegible Current Customer No Address Other 5
6. 6. CONTENTS• What Is A Pareto Chart?• Why A Pareto Chart Be Used?• When Should A Pareto Chart Be Used?• How Is A Pareto Chart Constructed?• Steps To Construct A Pareto Chart Manually 6
7. 7. PARETO DIAGRAMSWHAT IS A PARETO CHART?The Pareto Chart is named after Vilfredo Pareto, a 19thcentury economist who postulated that a large share ofwealth is owned by a small percentage of thepopulation. 7
8. 8. Cont…A Pareto Chart is a series of bars whose heights reflectthe frequency or impact of problems. The bars arearranged in descending order of height from left toright.Pareto charts are extremely useful because they can beused to identify those factors that have the greatestcumulative effect on the system, and thus screen out theless significant factors in an analysis. 8
9. 9. WHY A PARETO CHART BE USED?• In most systems, quality related problems are owing to numerous factors, the Pareto Principle which states that 80% of the problems come from 20% of the Causes.• A Pareto Chart breaks a big problem down into smaller pieces, identifies the most significant factors, shows where to focus efforts, and allows better use of limited resources. 9
10. 10. WHEN SHOULD A PARETO CHART BEUSED?A Pareto Chart is a good tool to use when the processyou are investigating produces data that are brokendown into categories and you can count the number oftimes each category occurs.A Pareto diagram puts data in a hierarchicalorder, which allows the most significant problems to becorrected first. 10
11. 11. HOW IS A PARETO CHART CONSTRUCTED?• To construct a Pareto Chart, you need to start with meaningful data which you have collected and categorized.• You need to segment the range of the data into groups (also called segments or categories). 11
12. 12. Cont…For example, if your business was investigating the delayassociated with processing credit card applications, youcould group the data into the following categories: Nosignature, Residential address not valid, Non-legiblehandwriting, Current customer, and Other.You may either construct a Pareto Chart manually orwith Excel. 12
13. 13. STEPS TO CONSTRUCT A PARETO CHART MANUALLYRecord the raw data. List each category (i.e., Nosignature, Residential address not valid, Non-legiblehandwriting, Current customer, and Other) and itsassociated data count (how many times each categoryoccurred) and the place data in descending order. 13
14. 14. Delay in Processing Credit Card Application Category Frequency Percentage Cumulative %No SignatureNon-legiblehandwritingCurrent CustomerResidential addressnot validOther 14
15. 15. Delay in Processing Credit Card Application Category Frequency Percentage Cumulative %No Signature 40Non-legible 22handwritingCurrent Customer 15Residential address 9not validOther 8 94 15
16. 16. Delay in Processing Credit Card Application Category Frequency Percentage Cumulative %No Signature 40 43%Non-legible 22 23%handwritingCurrent Customer 15 16%Residential address 9 10%not validOther 8 9% 94 100 16
17. 17. Delay in Processing Credit Card Application Category Frequency Percentage Cumulative %No Signature 40 43% 43%Non-legible 22 23% 66%handwritingCurrent Customer 15 16% 82%Residential address 9 10% 91%not validOther 8 9% 100% 94 100 17
18. 18. Delay in Processing Credit Card Application 45 120% 40 100% 35 30 80%Frequency 25 60% 20 15 40% 10 20% 5 0 0% No Signature Illegible Current Residential Other Customer address not valid Frequency Cumulative % 18
19. 19. CONCLUSION• No matter how may data are categorized, they can be ranked and made into a Pareto diagram. Sometimes, no single bar is dramatically different from the others, and the Pareto Chart looks flat or gently sloping.• To attack the tall bar in that situation is no help. You need to look for another way to categorize the data. 19
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21. 21. • “There remain, however, many other considerations in the design of statistical graphics – not only of efficiency, but also of complexity, structure, density, and even beauty.” 21
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