Lesson Overview 4.5 Aquatic Ecosystems
Water Depth  <ul><ul><li>influences aquatic life because sunlight penetrates only a short distance through water. </li></u...
Water Depth  <ul><ul><li>Phytoplankton    Photosynthetic algae,  live in the photic zone.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zoo...
Water Depth  <ul><ul><li>aquatic organisms which live on, or in, rocks and sediments on the bottoms of lakes, streams, and...
Freshwater Ecosystems <ul><ul><li>Freshwater ecosystems include streams, lakes, and freshwater wetlands (bogs, swamps, and...
<ul><ul><li>Plankton    general term that includes both phytoplankton and zooplankton. </li></ul></ul>phytoplankton zoopl...
<ul><ul><li>Wetland    water either covers the soil or is present at or near the surface for at least part of the year. <...
Freshwater Wetlands  <ul><ul><li>Three main types:  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>freshwater bogs, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Estuaries <ul><ul><li>Also called  Saltwater wetlands   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>formed where a river meets the sea.  </...
Estuaries <ul><ul><li>One of the largest salt marshes in America surrounds the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland. </li></ul></ul>...
Marine Ecosystems <ul><ul><li>Oceans are divided into zones based on depth and distance from shore. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Intertidal Zone  <ul><ul><li>Organisms here are submerged in seawater at high tide and exposed to air and sunlight at low ...
Coastal Ocean  <ul><ul><li>Extends from the low-tide mark to the outer edge of the continental shelf—the relatively shallo...
Open Ocean  <ul><ul><li>begins at the edge of the continental shelf and extends outward.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More ...
The Open Ocean Photic Zone  <ul><ul><li>typically has low nutrient levels and supports only the smallest species of phytop...
The Open Ocean Aphotic Zone  <ul><ul><li>Permanently dark  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>includes the deepest parts of the oc...
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4.5 -- BIO

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Chapter 4
Lesson 5
Aquatic Ecosystems

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4.5 -- BIO

  1. 1. Lesson Overview 4.5 Aquatic Ecosystems
  2. 2. Water Depth <ul><ul><li>influences aquatic life because sunlight penetrates only a short distance through water. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>photic zone: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sunlit region near the surface where photosynthesis takes place. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may be as deep as 200m in tropical seas, but just a few meters deep or less in rivers and swamps. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Water Depth <ul><ul><li>Phytoplankton  Photosynthetic algae, live in the photic zone. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zooplankton—tiny free-floating animals—eat phytoplankton. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is the first step in many aquatic food webs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Below the photic zone is the dark aphotic zone , where photosynthesis cannot occur. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Water Depth <ul><ul><li>aquatic organisms which live on, or in, rocks and sediments on the bottoms of lakes, streams, and oceans are called the benthos , and their habitat is the benthic zone . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When the benthic zone is below the photic zone, chemosynthetic autotrophs are the only primary producers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of organisms depend on the nutrients available. </li></ul></ul>Benthic organisms
  5. 5. Freshwater Ecosystems <ul><ul><li>Freshwater ecosystems include streams, lakes, and freshwater wetlands (bogs, swamps, and marshes). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rivers, streams, creeks, and brooks often originate from underground water sources in mountains or hills. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lakes & ponds  food webs are based on a combination of plankton and attached algae and plants. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><ul><li>Plankton  general term that includes both phytoplankton and zooplankton. </li></ul></ul>phytoplankton zooplankton
  7. 7. <ul><ul><li>Wetland  water either covers the soil or is present at or near the surface for at least part of the year. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good for agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breeding grounds for many organisms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freshwater wetlands purify water by filtering pollutants and help to prevent flooding by absorbing large amounts of water and slowly releasing it. </li></ul></ul>Freshwater Ecosystems
  8. 8. Freshwater Wetlands <ul><ul><li>Three main types: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>freshwater bogs, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>freshwater marshes, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>freshwater swamps. </li></ul></ul>Saltwater wetlands  Freshwater Wetlands
  9. 9. Estuaries <ul><ul><li>Also called Saltwater wetlands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>formed where a river meets the sea. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contain a mixture of fresh water and salt water. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>spawning and nursery grounds for many ecologically and commercially important fish and shellfish species including bluefish, striped bass, shrimp, and crabs. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Estuaries <ul><ul><li>One of the largest salt marshes in America surrounds the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mangrove swamps are tropical estuaries that have several species of salt-tolerant trees, collectively called mangroves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The largest mangrove area in America is in Florida’s Everglades National Park. </li></ul></ul>Chesapeake Bay in Maryland Florida’s Everglades National Park
  11. 11. Marine Ecosystems <ul><ul><li>Oceans are divided into zones based on depth and distance from shore. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Starting with the shallowest and closest to land, marine ecosystems include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>intertidal zone, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>coastal ocean, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>open ocean. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Intertidal Zone <ul><ul><li>Organisms here are submerged in seawater at high tide and exposed to air and sunlight at low tide. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Barnacles and seaweed permanently attach themselves to the rocks. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Coastal Ocean <ul><ul><li>Extends from the low-tide mark to the outer edge of the continental shelf—the relatively shallow border that surrounds the continents. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly productive due to the supply of nutrients by freshwater runoff from land. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kelp forests and coral reefs are two important coastal communities. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Open Ocean <ul><ul><li>begins at the edge of the continental shelf and extends outward. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 90 percent of the world’s ocean. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depth ranges from 500 m along continental slopes to more than 10,000 m in ocean trenches. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>divided into two zones based on light penetration—the photic and aphotic. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. The Open Ocean Photic Zone <ul><ul><li>typically has low nutrient levels and supports only the smallest species of phytoplankton. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>because of its enormous area, most photosynthesis on Earth occurs in the sunlit top 100 meters of the open ocean. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The Open Ocean Aphotic Zone <ul><ul><li>Permanently dark </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>includes the deepest parts of the ocean. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food webs are based either on organisms that fall from the photic zone above, or on chemosynthetic organisms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep-sea vents, where superheated water boils out of cracks on the ocean floor, support chemosynthetic primary producers. </li></ul></ul>

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