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4.4 -- BIO
4.4 -- BIO
4.4 -- BIO
4.4 -- BIO
4.4 -- BIO
4.4 -- BIO
4.4 -- BIO
4.4 -- BIO
4.4 -- BIO
4.4 -- BIO
4.4 -- BIO
4.4 -- BIO
4.4 -- BIO
4.4 -- BIO
4.4 -- BIO
4.4 -- BIO
4.4 -- BIO
4.4 -- BIO
4.4 -- BIO
4.4 -- BIO
4.4 -- BIO
4.4 -- BIO
4.4 -- BIO
4.4 -- BIO
4.4 -- BIO
4.4 -- BIO
4.4 -- BIO
4.4 -- BIO
4.4 -- BIO
4.4 -- BIO
4.4 -- BIO
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4.4 -- BIO

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Chapter 4 …

Chapter 4
Lesson 4
Biomes

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  • 1. Lesson Overview 4.4 Biomes
  • 2. The Major Biomes <ul><ul><li>What abiotic and biotic factors characterize biomes? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>abiotic factors  climate and soil type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>biotic factors  plant and animal life. </li></ul></ul>
  • 3. Factors that affect global climate <ul><ul><li>Latitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>area’s proximity to an ocean or mountain range. </li></ul></ul>
  • 4. Defining Biomes <ul><ul><li>Biomes  Classification of Earth’s terrestrial ecosystems based on regional climate communities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major biomes include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tropical rain forest, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tropical dry forest, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tropical grassland/savanna/shrubland, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>desert, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>temperate grassland, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>temperate woodland and shrubland, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>temperate forest, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>northwestern coniferous forest, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>boreal forest, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tundra. </li></ul></ul>
  • 5. Defining Biomes <ul><ul><li>The map shows the locations of the major biomes. </li></ul></ul>
  • 6. TROPICAL RAIN FOREST <ul><ul><li>home to more species than all the other biomes combined. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>get at least 2 meters of rain a year! </li></ul></ul>
  • 7. TROPICAL RAIN FOREST <ul><ul><li>Canopy : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tall trees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dense, leafy covering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50 to 80 meters above the forest floor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understory : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>below the canopy, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shorter trees and vines </li></ul></ul>
  • 8. TROPICAL RAIN FOREST <ul><ul><li>Epiphytic plants grow on the branches of tall plants as opposed to soil. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This allows the epiphyte to take advantage of available sunlight while obtaining nutrients through its host. </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. TROPICAL RAIN FOREST Biotic Factors – Animal Life <ul><ul><li>active all year. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many use camouflage to hide from predators or to match their surroundings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animals that live in the canopy have adaptations for climbing, jumping, and/or flight. </li></ul></ul>Leaf Insects
  • 10. TROPICAL DRY FOREST <ul><ul><li>Abiotic Factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>warm year-round, with alternating wet and dry seasons. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rich soils which are subject to erosion. </li></ul></ul>
  • 11. TROPICAL DRY FOREST <ul><ul><li>Biotic Factors – Plant Life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptations: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>extra thick waxy layer on leaves to reduce water loss, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or they store water in their tissues. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>seasonal loss of leaves to survive the dry season. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A plant that sheds its leaves during a particular season is called deciduous. </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. TROPICAL DRY FOREST <ul><ul><li>Biotic Factors – Animal Life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptaions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emigration of animals in dry season </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reduce need for water by estivation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estivation  long period of inactivity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>similar to hibernation, but typically takes place during a dry season. </li></ul></ul>Snails in estivation
  • 13. TROPICAL GRASSLAND/SAVANNA/SHRUBLAND <ul><ul><li>Abiotic Factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>warm, with seasonal rainfall. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compact soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>frequent fires set by lightning. </li></ul></ul>
  • 14. TROPICAL GRASSLAND/SAVANNA/SHRUBLAND <ul><ul><li>Biotic Factors – Plant Life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>waxy leaf coverings to prevent water loss. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>seasonal leaf loss. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some grasses have a high silica content that makes them less appetizing to grazing herbivores. </li></ul></ul>
  • 15. TROPICAL GRASSLAND/SAVANNA/SHRUBLAND <ul><ul><li>Biotic Factors – Animal Life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptations: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Migration in dry season to search for water. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some smaller animals burrow and remain dormant during the dry season. </li></ul></ul>
  • 16. DESERT <ul><ul><li>Abiotic Factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>low precipitation and variable temperatures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Their soils are rich in minerals, but poor in organic material. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biotic Factors – Plant Life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptations : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants like cacti store water in their tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small leaf surface area to cut down on water loss. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cactus spines are actually modified leaves. </li></ul></ul>
  • 17. DESERT <ul><ul><li>Biotic Factors – Plant Life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modified photosynthesis--some plants leaf pores open only at night, so they can conserve moisture on hot, dry days. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biotic Factors – Animal Life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>get the water from the food they eat. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nocturnal—to avoid the day time heat. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large or elongated ears, many blood vessels close to the surface to help the animal lose body heat and regulate body temperature. </li></ul></ul>Long - eared Jerboa,
  • 18. Honey pot ants & Camels  Desert animals <ul><li>Get nectar from plants </li></ul><ul><li>The ants feed some particular ants in the colony with nectar until their whole abdomen swells up with honey. </li></ul><ul><li>During the drought, other ants will feed on the honey, and the ants' abdomens shrink back to its normal size. </li></ul><ul><li>The honey-pot ants save food in this way. </li></ul><ul><li>They are also a source of food supply for other desert animals, including humans! </li></ul>
  • 19. TEMPERATE GRASSLAND <ul><ul><li>Plains and prairies once covered vast areas of the midwestern and central United States. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Periodic fires and heavy grazing by herbivores. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abiotic Factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil is rich in nutrients and is ideal for growing crops. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>warm to hot summers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cold winters, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>moderate seasonal precipitation. </li></ul></ul>
  • 20. TEMPERATE GRASSLAND <ul><ul><li>Biotic Factors – Plant Life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grasses are resistant to grazing and fire. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind dispersal of seeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>grassland plants help establish and retain deep, rich, fertile topsoil. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biotic Factors – Animal Life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open, exposed environments make predation a constant threat for smaller animals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Camouflage and burrowing are two common protective adaptations. </li></ul></ul>
  • 21. TEMPERATE WOODLAND AND SHRUBLAND <ul><ul><li>Communities that are more shrubland than forest are known as chaparral. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abiotic Factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hot dry summers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cool moist winters. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>thin, nutrient-poor soils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>periodic fires. </li></ul></ul>
  • 22. TEMPERATE WOODLAND AND SHRUBLAND <ul><ul><li>Biotic Factors – Plant Life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tough waxy leaves that resist water loss. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some seeds are fire resistant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some seeds need fire to germinate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biotic Factors – Animal Life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>varied diets of grasses, leaves, shrubs etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>camouflage is common. </li></ul></ul>
  • 23. TEMPERATE FOREST <ul><ul><li>Biotic Factors – Plant Life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deciduous trees drop their leaves and go into a state of dormancy in winter. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conifers have needlelike leaves that minimize water loss in dry winter air. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biotic Factors – Animal Life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some animals hibernate, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others migrate to warmer climates. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animals that do not hibernate or migrate may be camouflaged to escape predation in the winter. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abiotic Factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cold to moderate winters and warm summers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>year-round precipitation and fertile soils. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The fertile soils are rich in humus  material formed from decaying leaves and other organic matter. </li></ul></ul>
  • 24. NORTHWESTERN CONIFEROUS FOREST <ul><ul><li>moist air from the Pacific Ocean influenced by the Rocky Mountains provides abundant rainfall to this biome. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to the lush vegetation it is sometimes called a “temperate rain forest.” </li></ul></ul>
  • 25. NORTHWESTERN CONIFEROUS FOREST <ul><ul><li>Abiotic Factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mild temperatures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>abundant precipitation in fall, winter, and spring. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summers  cool &dry. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soils  rocky & acidic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variation in seasonal temperature results in less diversity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biotic Factors – Plant Life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trees  among the world’s tallest. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biotic Factors – Animal Life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Camouflage helps insects and ground-dwelling mammals avoid predation. . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many animals eat a varied diet—an advantage in an environment where vegetation changes seasonally. </li></ul></ul>
  • 26. BOREAL FOREST <ul><ul><li>Also called taiga. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occurs mostly in the northern part of the Northern Hemisphere. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The word boreal comes from the Greek word for “north.” </li></ul></ul>
  • 27. BOREAL FOREST <ul><ul><li>Abiotic Factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>long cold winters and short mild summers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>moderate precipitation and high humidity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>soil is acidic and nutrient-poor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biotic Factors – Plant Life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>conical shape of conifers sheds snow, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wax-covered needlelike leaves prevent excess water loss. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dark green color of most conifers absorbs heat energy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biotic Factors – Animal Life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most have small extremities and extra insulation in the form of fat or downy feathers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Migrate in winter. </li></ul></ul>
  • 28. TUNDRA <ul><ul><li>characterized by permafrost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>permafrost  a layer of permanently frozen subsoil. </li></ul></ul>
  • 29. TUNDRA <ul><ul><li>Abiotic Factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>strong winds and low precipitation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>short and soggy summers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>long, cold, and dark winters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poorly developed soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biotic Factors – Plant Life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mosses and other low-growing plants. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seed dispersal by wind. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>legumes, which have symbiotic bacteria on their roots that fix nitrogen to the soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biotic Factors – Animal Life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some migrate to warm areas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Those that live here year-round display adaptations such as </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>natural antifreeze, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>small extremities that limit heat loss, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a varied diet. </li></ul></ul>
  • 30. Mountain Ranges <ul><ul><li>not easily classified into a biome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>exist on all continents and in many biomes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>temperature, precipitation, exposure to wind, and soil types all change with elevation, and so do organisms. </li></ul></ul>Yaks and Sherpas at the Foot of Himalayan Mountain Range
  • 31. Polar Ice Caps <ul><ul><li>not easily classified into a biome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>border the tundra and are cold year-round. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants are few, though some algae grow on snow and ice. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mosses and lichens may grow where ground is exposed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marine mammals, insects, and mites are the typical animals. </li></ul></ul>

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