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4.4 -- BIO
 

4.4 -- BIO

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Chapter 4

Chapter 4
Lesson 4
Biomes

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    4.4 -- BIO 4.4 -- BIO Presentation Transcript

    • Lesson Overview 4.4 Biomes
    • The Major Biomes
        • What abiotic and biotic factors characterize biomes?
        • abiotic factors  climate and soil type
        • biotic factors  plant and animal life.
    • Factors that affect global climate
        • Latitude
        • heat
        • area’s proximity to an ocean or mountain range.
    • Defining Biomes
        • Biomes  Classification of Earth’s terrestrial ecosystems based on regional climate communities.
        • Major biomes include:
        • tropical rain forest,
        • tropical dry forest,
        • tropical grassland/savanna/shrubland,
        • desert,
        • temperate grassland,
        • temperate woodland and shrubland,
        • temperate forest,
        • northwestern coniferous forest,
        • boreal forest,
        • tundra.
    • Defining Biomes
        • The map shows the locations of the major biomes.
    • TROPICAL RAIN FOREST
        • home to more species than all the other biomes combined.
        • get at least 2 meters of rain a year!
    • TROPICAL RAIN FOREST
        • Canopy :
        • Tall trees
        • dense, leafy covering
        • 50 to 80 meters above the forest floor.
        • Understory :
        • below the canopy,
        • shorter trees and vines
    • TROPICAL RAIN FOREST
        • Epiphytic plants grow on the branches of tall plants as opposed to soil.
        • This allows the epiphyte to take advantage of available sunlight while obtaining nutrients through its host.
    • TROPICAL RAIN FOREST Biotic Factors – Animal Life
        • active all year.
        • Many use camouflage to hide from predators or to match their surroundings.
        • Animals that live in the canopy have adaptations for climbing, jumping, and/or flight.
      Leaf Insects
    • TROPICAL DRY FOREST
        • Abiotic Factors
        • warm year-round, with alternating wet and dry seasons.
        • rich soils which are subject to erosion.
    • TROPICAL DRY FOREST
        • Biotic Factors – Plant Life
        • Adaptations:
        • extra thick waxy layer on leaves to reduce water loss,
        • or they store water in their tissues.
        • seasonal loss of leaves to survive the dry season.
        • A plant that sheds its leaves during a particular season is called deciduous.
    • TROPICAL DRY FOREST
        • Biotic Factors – Animal Life
        • Adaptaions:
        • Emigration of animals in dry season
        • reduce need for water by estivation.
        • Estivation  long period of inactivity.
        • similar to hibernation, but typically takes place during a dry season.
      Snails in estivation
    • TROPICAL GRASSLAND/SAVANNA/SHRUBLAND
        • Abiotic Factors
        • warm, with seasonal rainfall.
        • Compact soil
        • frequent fires set by lightning.
    • TROPICAL GRASSLAND/SAVANNA/SHRUBLAND
        • Biotic Factors – Plant Life
        • Adaptations
        • waxy leaf coverings to prevent water loss.
        • seasonal leaf loss.
        • Some grasses have a high silica content that makes them less appetizing to grazing herbivores.
    • TROPICAL GRASSLAND/SAVANNA/SHRUBLAND
        • Biotic Factors – Animal Life
        • Adaptations:
        • Migration in dry season to search for water.
        • Some smaller animals burrow and remain dormant during the dry season.
    • DESERT
        • Abiotic Factors
        • low precipitation and variable temperatures.
        • Their soils are rich in minerals, but poor in organic material.
        • Biotic Factors – Plant Life
        • Adaptations :
        • Plants like cacti store water in their tissues
        • Small leaf surface area to cut down on water loss.
        • Cactus spines are actually modified leaves.
    • DESERT
        • Biotic Factors – Plant Life
        • Modified photosynthesis--some plants leaf pores open only at night, so they can conserve moisture on hot, dry days.
        • Biotic Factors – Animal Life
        • get the water from the food they eat.
        • nocturnal—to avoid the day time heat.
        • Large or elongated ears, many blood vessels close to the surface to help the animal lose body heat and regulate body temperature.
      Long - eared Jerboa,
    • Honey pot ants & Camels  Desert animals
      • Get nectar from plants
      • The ants feed some particular ants in the colony with nectar until their whole abdomen swells up with honey.
      • During the drought, other ants will feed on the honey, and the ants' abdomens shrink back to its normal size.
      • The honey-pot ants save food in this way.
      • They are also a source of food supply for other desert animals, including humans!
    • TEMPERATE GRASSLAND
        • Plains and prairies once covered vast areas of the midwestern and central United States.
        • Periodic fires and heavy grazing by herbivores.
        • Abiotic Factors
        • Soil is rich in nutrients and is ideal for growing crops.
        • warm to hot summers
        • cold winters,
        • moderate seasonal precipitation.
    • TEMPERATE GRASSLAND
        • Biotic Factors – Plant Life
        • Grasses are resistant to grazing and fire.
        • Wind dispersal of seeds
        • grassland plants help establish and retain deep, rich, fertile topsoil.
        • Biotic Factors – Animal Life
        • Open, exposed environments make predation a constant threat for smaller animals.
        • Camouflage and burrowing are two common protective adaptations.
    • TEMPERATE WOODLAND AND SHRUBLAND
        • Communities that are more shrubland than forest are known as chaparral.
        • Abiotic Factors
        • hot dry summers
        • cool moist winters.
        • thin, nutrient-poor soils
        • periodic fires.
    • TEMPERATE WOODLAND AND SHRUBLAND
        • Biotic Factors – Plant Life
        • tough waxy leaves that resist water loss.
        • Some seeds are fire resistant
        • Some seeds need fire to germinate.
        • Biotic Factors – Animal Life
        • varied diets of grasses, leaves, shrubs etc.
        • camouflage is common.
    • TEMPERATE FOREST
        • Biotic Factors – Plant Life
        • Deciduous trees drop their leaves and go into a state of dormancy in winter.
        • Conifers have needlelike leaves that minimize water loss in dry winter air.
        • Biotic Factors – Animal Life
        • Some animals hibernate,
        • Others migrate to warmer climates.
        • Animals that do not hibernate or migrate may be camouflaged to escape predation in the winter.
        • Abiotic Factors
        • cold to moderate winters and warm summers.
        • year-round precipitation and fertile soils.
        • The fertile soils are rich in humus  material formed from decaying leaves and other organic matter.
    • NORTHWESTERN CONIFEROUS FOREST
        • moist air from the Pacific Ocean influenced by the Rocky Mountains provides abundant rainfall to this biome.
        • Due to the lush vegetation it is sometimes called a “temperate rain forest.”
    • NORTHWESTERN CONIFEROUS FOREST
        • Abiotic Factors
        • mild temperatures
        • abundant precipitation in fall, winter, and spring.
        • Summers  cool &dry.
        • Soils  rocky & acidic.
        • Variation in seasonal temperature results in less diversity.
        • Biotic Factors – Plant Life
        • Trees  among the world’s tallest.
        • Biotic Factors – Animal Life
        • Camouflage helps insects and ground-dwelling mammals avoid predation. .
        • Many animals eat a varied diet—an advantage in an environment where vegetation changes seasonally.
    • BOREAL FOREST
        • Also called taiga.
        • Occurs mostly in the northern part of the Northern Hemisphere.
        • The word boreal comes from the Greek word for “north.”
    • BOREAL FOREST
        • Abiotic Factors
        • long cold winters and short mild summers.
        • moderate precipitation and high humidity.
        • soil is acidic and nutrient-poor.
        • Biotic Factors – Plant Life
        • conical shape of conifers sheds snow,
        • wax-covered needlelike leaves prevent excess water loss.
        • dark green color of most conifers absorbs heat energy.
        • Biotic Factors – Animal Life
        • Most have small extremities and extra insulation in the form of fat or downy feathers.
        • Migrate in winter.
    • TUNDRA
        • characterized by permafrost
        • permafrost  a layer of permanently frozen subsoil.
    • TUNDRA
        • Abiotic Factors
        • strong winds and low precipitation.
        • short and soggy summers
        • long, cold, and dark winters
        • Poorly developed soil
        • Biotic Factors – Plant Life
        • mosses and other low-growing plants.
        • Seed dispersal by wind.
        • legumes, which have symbiotic bacteria on their roots that fix nitrogen to the soil
        • Biotic Factors – Animal Life
        • Some migrate to warm areas.
        • Those that live here year-round display adaptations such as
        • natural antifreeze,
        • small extremities that limit heat loss,
        • a varied diet.
    • Mountain Ranges
        • not easily classified into a biome
        • exist on all continents and in many biomes.
        • temperature, precipitation, exposure to wind, and soil types all change with elevation, and so do organisms.
      Yaks and Sherpas at the Foot of Himalayan Mountain Range
    • Polar Ice Caps
        • not easily classified into a biome
        • border the tundra and are cold year-round.
        • Plants are few, though some algae grow on snow and ice.
        • mosses and lichens may grow where ground is exposed
        • Marine mammals, insects, and mites are the typical animals.