4.4 -- BIO
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4.4 -- BIO

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Chapter 4

Chapter 4
Lesson 4
Biomes

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4.4 -- BIO 4.4 -- BIO Presentation Transcript

  • Lesson Overview 4.4 Biomes
  • The Major Biomes
      • What abiotic and biotic factors characterize biomes?
      • abiotic factors  climate and soil type
      • biotic factors  plant and animal life.
  • Factors that affect global climate
      • Latitude
      • heat
      • area’s proximity to an ocean or mountain range.
  • Defining Biomes
      • Biomes  Classification of Earth’s terrestrial ecosystems based on regional climate communities.
      • Major biomes include:
      • tropical rain forest,
      • tropical dry forest,
      • tropical grassland/savanna/shrubland,
      • desert,
      • temperate grassland,
      • temperate woodland and shrubland,
      • temperate forest,
      • northwestern coniferous forest,
      • boreal forest,
      • tundra.
  • Defining Biomes
      • The map shows the locations of the major biomes.
  • TROPICAL RAIN FOREST
      • home to more species than all the other biomes combined.
      • get at least 2 meters of rain a year!
  • TROPICAL RAIN FOREST
      • Canopy :
      • Tall trees
      • dense, leafy covering
      • 50 to 80 meters above the forest floor.
      • Understory :
      • below the canopy,
      • shorter trees and vines
  • TROPICAL RAIN FOREST
      • Epiphytic plants grow on the branches of tall plants as opposed to soil.
      • This allows the epiphyte to take advantage of available sunlight while obtaining nutrients through its host.
  • TROPICAL RAIN FOREST Biotic Factors – Animal Life
      • active all year.
      • Many use camouflage to hide from predators or to match their surroundings.
      • Animals that live in the canopy have adaptations for climbing, jumping, and/or flight.
    Leaf Insects
  • TROPICAL DRY FOREST
      • Abiotic Factors
      • warm year-round, with alternating wet and dry seasons.
      • rich soils which are subject to erosion.
  • TROPICAL DRY FOREST
      • Biotic Factors – Plant Life
      • Adaptations:
      • extra thick waxy layer on leaves to reduce water loss,
      • or they store water in their tissues.
      • seasonal loss of leaves to survive the dry season.
      • A plant that sheds its leaves during a particular season is called deciduous.
  • TROPICAL DRY FOREST
      • Biotic Factors – Animal Life
      • Adaptaions:
      • Emigration of animals in dry season
      • reduce need for water by estivation.
      • Estivation  long period of inactivity.
      • similar to hibernation, but typically takes place during a dry season.
    Snails in estivation
  • TROPICAL GRASSLAND/SAVANNA/SHRUBLAND
      • Abiotic Factors
      • warm, with seasonal rainfall.
      • Compact soil
      • frequent fires set by lightning.
  • TROPICAL GRASSLAND/SAVANNA/SHRUBLAND
      • Biotic Factors – Plant Life
      • Adaptations
      • waxy leaf coverings to prevent water loss.
      • seasonal leaf loss.
      • Some grasses have a high silica content that makes them less appetizing to grazing herbivores.
  • TROPICAL GRASSLAND/SAVANNA/SHRUBLAND
      • Biotic Factors – Animal Life
      • Adaptations:
      • Migration in dry season to search for water.
      • Some smaller animals burrow and remain dormant during the dry season.
  • DESERT
      • Abiotic Factors
      • low precipitation and variable temperatures.
      • Their soils are rich in minerals, but poor in organic material.
      • Biotic Factors – Plant Life
      • Adaptations :
      • Plants like cacti store water in their tissues
      • Small leaf surface area to cut down on water loss.
      • Cactus spines are actually modified leaves.
  • DESERT
      • Biotic Factors – Plant Life
      • Modified photosynthesis--some plants leaf pores open only at night, so they can conserve moisture on hot, dry days.
      • Biotic Factors – Animal Life
      • get the water from the food they eat.
      • nocturnal—to avoid the day time heat.
      • Large or elongated ears, many blood vessels close to the surface to help the animal lose body heat and regulate body temperature.
    Long - eared Jerboa,
  • Honey pot ants & Camels  Desert animals
    • Get nectar from plants
    • The ants feed some particular ants in the colony with nectar until their whole abdomen swells up with honey.
    • During the drought, other ants will feed on the honey, and the ants' abdomens shrink back to its normal size.
    • The honey-pot ants save food in this way.
    • They are also a source of food supply for other desert animals, including humans!
  • TEMPERATE GRASSLAND
      • Plains and prairies once covered vast areas of the midwestern and central United States.
      • Periodic fires and heavy grazing by herbivores.
      • Abiotic Factors
      • Soil is rich in nutrients and is ideal for growing crops.
      • warm to hot summers
      • cold winters,
      • moderate seasonal precipitation.
  • TEMPERATE GRASSLAND
      • Biotic Factors – Plant Life
      • Grasses are resistant to grazing and fire.
      • Wind dispersal of seeds
      • grassland plants help establish and retain deep, rich, fertile topsoil.
      • Biotic Factors – Animal Life
      • Open, exposed environments make predation a constant threat for smaller animals.
      • Camouflage and burrowing are two common protective adaptations.
  • TEMPERATE WOODLAND AND SHRUBLAND
      • Communities that are more shrubland than forest are known as chaparral.
      • Abiotic Factors
      • hot dry summers
      • cool moist winters.
      • thin, nutrient-poor soils
      • periodic fires.
  • TEMPERATE WOODLAND AND SHRUBLAND
      • Biotic Factors – Plant Life
      • tough waxy leaves that resist water loss.
      • Some seeds are fire resistant
      • Some seeds need fire to germinate.
      • Biotic Factors – Animal Life
      • varied diets of grasses, leaves, shrubs etc.
      • camouflage is common.
  • TEMPERATE FOREST
      • Biotic Factors – Plant Life
      • Deciduous trees drop their leaves and go into a state of dormancy in winter.
      • Conifers have needlelike leaves that minimize water loss in dry winter air.
      • Biotic Factors – Animal Life
      • Some animals hibernate,
      • Others migrate to warmer climates.
      • Animals that do not hibernate or migrate may be camouflaged to escape predation in the winter.
      • Abiotic Factors
      • cold to moderate winters and warm summers.
      • year-round precipitation and fertile soils.
      • The fertile soils are rich in humus  material formed from decaying leaves and other organic matter.
  • NORTHWESTERN CONIFEROUS FOREST
      • moist air from the Pacific Ocean influenced by the Rocky Mountains provides abundant rainfall to this biome.
      • Due to the lush vegetation it is sometimes called a “temperate rain forest.”
  • NORTHWESTERN CONIFEROUS FOREST
      • Abiotic Factors
      • mild temperatures
      • abundant precipitation in fall, winter, and spring.
      • Summers  cool &dry.
      • Soils  rocky & acidic.
      • Variation in seasonal temperature results in less diversity.
      • Biotic Factors – Plant Life
      • Trees  among the world’s tallest.
      • Biotic Factors – Animal Life
      • Camouflage helps insects and ground-dwelling mammals avoid predation. .
      • Many animals eat a varied diet—an advantage in an environment where vegetation changes seasonally.
  • BOREAL FOREST
      • Also called taiga.
      • Occurs mostly in the northern part of the Northern Hemisphere.
      • The word boreal comes from the Greek word for “north.”
  • BOREAL FOREST
      • Abiotic Factors
      • long cold winters and short mild summers.
      • moderate precipitation and high humidity.
      • soil is acidic and nutrient-poor.
      • Biotic Factors – Plant Life
      • conical shape of conifers sheds snow,
      • wax-covered needlelike leaves prevent excess water loss.
      • dark green color of most conifers absorbs heat energy.
      • Biotic Factors – Animal Life
      • Most have small extremities and extra insulation in the form of fat or downy feathers.
      • Migrate in winter.
  • TUNDRA
      • characterized by permafrost
      • permafrost  a layer of permanently frozen subsoil.
  • TUNDRA
      • Abiotic Factors
      • strong winds and low precipitation.
      • short and soggy summers
      • long, cold, and dark winters
      • Poorly developed soil
      • Biotic Factors – Plant Life
      • mosses and other low-growing plants.
      • Seed dispersal by wind.
      • legumes, which have symbiotic bacteria on their roots that fix nitrogen to the soil
      • Biotic Factors – Animal Life
      • Some migrate to warm areas.
      • Those that live here year-round display adaptations such as
      • natural antifreeze,
      • small extremities that limit heat loss,
      • a varied diet.
  • Mountain Ranges
      • not easily classified into a biome
      • exist on all continents and in many biomes.
      • temperature, precipitation, exposure to wind, and soil types all change with elevation, and so do organisms.
    Yaks and Sherpas at the Foot of Himalayan Mountain Range
  • Polar Ice Caps
      • not easily classified into a biome
      • border the tundra and are cold year-round.
      • Plants are few, though some algae grow on snow and ice.
      • mosses and lichens may grow where ground is exposed
      • Marine mammals, insects, and mites are the typical animals.