Creative Commons: How to Spread Your Ideas Using CC Licenses


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This is a presentation to help any creators of text, video, images, art or anything creative share their ideas and spread their name using Creative Commons licenses. Using a CC license does not mean that you give up copyright. It just means that you give prior permission to users.

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  • Original theory of change we developed in 2002
    Focus on content – quickly realized that we needed to address barriers to use (Creative Commons) and understand and stimulate use –
    we seeded many projects to begin to understand the space and the traction of the space
    Explicit goal – equalizing access – level the playing field
  • First and second bullet address the issue of access – level the playing field
    Third and fourth address potential transformative impact on teaching and learning
    Third, personalization – addressing unique norms and cultures, creates efficiencies – don’t always need to start from scratch
    Fourth, allows for the wisdom on the masses, and rapid prototype development.
    Unique added value -- these two characteristics are fundamental to Open Education Resources.
  • In phase two – making explicit that what was originally implicit –
    Goal of Open Educational Resources is to impact teaching and learning
    For 2008 we have selected three strands to focus on – open gaming, open textbooks and participatory learning and– in 2009 will add teacher training
    Infrastructure – provides the base for that to happen – but beyond infrastructure – need innovation and feedback what we learn from the innovation to both rapidly prototype on the innovation and to further support infrastructure
    Note feedback loops
  • Many players
    higher education institutions
    many different types of content, one size does not fit all
    Across continents
  • European schoolnet – 19 countries
    Col – virutal university of the small states
    Wgbh – teachers domain
    Teacher ed in sub saharan africa – portal literacy, numeracy, life skills
  • CM portfolio of online courses
    Statistics course – random experiment last spring
    Students took online stats course available 24/7 outperform students who took the traditional lecture course and
    accelerated their learning – completed the course in 8 weeks vis-à-vis the traditional 15 week course.
    What does this tell us about how and when students learn best? Need to be repeated to be generalizable to students beyond Carnegie Mellon
  • Open code to content
    Immersive and engaging
    Balance ability and challenge
    Build a theoretical framework for open game-based learning
  • Creative Commons: How to Spread Your Ideas Using CC Licenses

    1. 1. Global Education Conference 2010 Esther Wojcicki, Creative Commons, Vice Chair Head of CC Education How to Spread Your Ideas Globally Using Creative Commons Licenses
    2. 2. CC is a nonprofit corporation dedicated to making it easier for people to share and build upon the works of others consistent with copyright. We provide free licenses to enable sharing What is Creative Commons?
    3. 3. CC is Dedicated to Helping teachers artists creators everyone share their ideas with the world All Rights Reserved locks up your ideas
    4. 4. U.S.Copyright laws Everything you write is copyrighted automatically for your lifetime + 70 years
    5. 5. Similar laws exist in all countries
    6. 6. CC licenses allow people to share ideas while crediting the creator
    7. 7. No one has to write to ask for your permission Permission is pre-authorized
    8. 8. CC licenses empower the spread of your ideas and your name more easily
    9. 9. It is like having thousands of people help you spread your ideas and your name
    10. 10. CC empowers educators and students to share their ideas globally
    11. 11. CC empowers the open movement
    12. 12. CC Mission Our mission is to minimize barriers to sharing and reuse of educational materials — legal barriers, technical barriers, and social barriers.
    13. 13. What is an “open” resource? The ability to: • Access • Share — Copy, Distribute, Display • Adapt — Perform, Translate • Derive — Remix The openness of a resource increases with the permissions given. Allow more permissions= More open.
    14. 14. CC & OER can change the world • Education is a public good worldwide • But the quality of education varies. — By region — By school — By class • Open Educational Resources (OER) change this, by promoting (e)quality education around the world. The internet is a universal medium. It can be accessed by anyone.
    15. 15. Hewlett’s OER Theory of Change – Phase IEQUALIZE ACCESS TO KNOWLEDGE Remove Barriers High-Quality Open Content Understand and Stimulate Use High-Quality Open Content GOALS OF OER
    16. 16. T CC helps eliminate legal barriers to sharing Nancy cbn
    17. 17. Expression is often restricted. • Because expression can be, and often is, fully copyrighted. • Copyrighted material cannot be shared, adapted, derived, or even accessed... without express permission by the owner of the copyright. • But when people, especially educators, put things on the web, it is usually for the express purpose of making it freely available. • Unfortunately, copyright overrules this intent. And if you don’t license your work to be open, it automatically defaults to all rights reserved copyright.
    18. 18. CC licenses build on copyright. • CC Licenses are a form of copyright. They do not replace copyright, but instead grant a priori permissions for certain uses that would otherwise be disallowed. • So the author still retains their rights to a work; they simply choose to modify those rights they do not need or want. • This makes perfect sense in education especially, since most people want to share and build off of each other’s work.
    19. 19. CC offers an easy way to share materials, vs the murky interpretations of fair use in copyright law. openDemocracy cba
    20. 20. CC Licenses support Interoperability CC wants education to be here: “All rights reserved” Public Domain Attribution Only BY CC BY are clear, comprehensible and coLIatible LICENSES CONDITIONS ATTRIBUTION NO DERIVATES NON COMMERCIAL SHARE ALIKE
    21. 21. CC Licenses Which License should I use when?
    22. 22. CC-BY Attribution Only
    23. 23. We encourage use of CC BY ... • Allows the most freedoms without giving up attribution, which is important for credibility in education and for spreading your ideas • Is compatible with every other CC license, allowing the most room for innovation via collaboration BY • Does not encroach on the freedom of potential users by enforcing a specified use
    24. 24. CC BY Attribution Only Lets others distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon your work, even commercially, as long as they credit you for the original creation. BY Consider • You are a creator of a work, be it a • But as a professional in your field, you want to be recognized for your work. • Basically, you want your stuff to be used widely—by the most people possible. This is a great case for CC BY. play, a love song, a cookbook or an educational video game.
    25. 25. CC BY Attribution Only Lets others distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon your work, even commercially, as long as they credit you for the original creation. BY But what if • Someone takes my stuff and locks it away, defeating the purpose of making it open? • Someone uses my stuff inappropriately, while my name is attached to it? That’s impossible with digital content. Even if someone remixed the work and re-licensed it under full copyright, your original work is still available, free for anybody to use. • CC BY specifically states that you do not endorse any works derived from yours. • So it doesn’t matter; non-endorsement clause and moral rights allow you to request a take-down and seek damages anyway. Boo! Hurray!
    26. 26. Remember: CC BY • Allows the most freedoms with attribution (important for credibility in education) • Is compatible with every other CC license, so... BY • All the while NOT encroaching on the freedom of potential users by enforcing a specified use i.e. CC BY-NC-SA might not allow print versions of your work to be given away for even a small recovery cost. New and creative uses can develop that were not possible before!
    27. 27. ND • No Derivates license means users can not make any changes to the work
    28. 28. CC BY-ND Attribution No Derivatives Allows for redistribution, commercial and non- commercial, as long as it is passed along unchanged and in whole, with credit to you. ND Consider • You are part of a group of experts that has finally finished a protocol for data curation. • Every word was carefully considered, and it took months of meetings to complete. • You and the group want to share it, and you don’t particularly care how it is used... ... AS LONG AS it does not get altered in any way. For this purpose, CC BY-ND is appropriate.
    29. 29. CC BY-ND Attribution No Derivatives Allows for redistribution, commercial and non- commercial, as long as it is passed along unchanged and in whole, with credit to you. ND But consider too • Foreign colleagues want to translate the protocol. They must seek permission before they can do so. ? • Any time someone would like to adapt your work, the group’s permission is required— Even for the simple purposes of technical and social interoperability. • A fellow expert wants to adapt the work for display on PDAs. He must also seek permission. ?
    30. 30. Share Alike SA • Share Alike means if you remix or create a new creative work, you must share it the same way it was shared with you. It does not obligate you to create something.
    31. 31. CC BY-NC- SA Attribution Non-commercial Share Alike Lets others: • remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially. • download and redistribute your work. • translate, remix, and produce new stories based on your work. All new work based on yours will carry the same license, so any derivatives will also be licensed non- commercial. SA Consider • A university decides to release course content openly. Hurray! • However, much of the content is third-party material. • It is difficult to get rights-holders to give them content without the NC term. This is a case where the university may want to adopt CC BY-NC-SA, since it is necessary to reach an agreement with all their rights-holders.
    32. 32. Non-Commercial--NC • Non-Commercial license means others can remix, tweak, and build upon your work as long as it is not for commercial use. •
    33. 33. But what if • Rights holders are willing to give materials to the university without the NC restriction. Hurray! • So the university applies the NC term. This is a bad reason to use NC because: • However, the university doesn’t want anyone selling content without their permission. Boo! • People only buy content if they can’t access the free version, or if they want to access it differently. i.e. A publishing co. decides to make hardcopies available at minimal prices (to recover printing costs) … to students in Bangladesh! CC BY-NC- SA But they can’t, because it is NC licensed. And they don’t want to go through the red tape of negotiations.
    34. 34. CC combination license • Users can use any combination of the licenses. Check the Creative Commons website at • Here is an example:
    35. 35. Public Domain • Two licenses exist the public domain
    36. 36. Language and supporting materials more appropriate for the educational context What are the different CC licenses and what do they mean? Choosing a CC license for educational materials Point of departure for understanding the bigger issues and hopes in education EASY TO LICENSE YOUR WORK EASY TO LICENSE YOUR WORK
    37. 37. CC licenses support OER Without CC licenses, it is not clear what is open
    38. 38. Open high quality digitized educational content, tools and communities Available anytime, anywhere for free Localizable and re-mixable Allows for collective improvement and feedback Open Educational Resources
    39. 39. As educators • We need to encourage teachers/students worldwide to share their ideas and cultures • We need to help students be Email-Pals with kids from other parts of the world to promote understanding • We need need to share our lesson plans and our ideas to help one another
    40. 40. OER Strategy Infrastructure Impact Teaching and Learning Innovation R & D
    41. 41. OER IS WORLDWIDE Higher Education
    42. 42. Journals, Books, Videos, Data, Games…
    43. 43. K-12
    45. 45. Transform Teaching and Learning: Open Game Based Environments Open Language Learning InitiativeThis work is licensed under aCreative Commons Attribution 3.
    46. 46. How to Find OER? How to Find OER? A few ideas. A few ideas.
    47. 47. Search on CC
    48. 48. One way is using a Google Custom Search Engine • So far this OER Beta Search only includes 20 universities but more will be added. • Here is the link • More information will be available in January 2011
    49. 49. GOER Search for Higher Education Resources
    50. 50. OOCW has a federated search 0f 3947 courses
    51. 51. Social Barriers to OER Technical Unfamiliarity Workload Organizational Pressures Agency Cultural Awareness, Misconceptions Standardized Curricula Tenure Standards Developed World Developing World My stuff vs Commons vs Noncommercial Term Resources World Teacher Education Socioeconomic factors Time Management Teacher Salary (Bissell and Boyle)
    52. 52. Technical Pluses & Minuses CC licenses are visible to search engines • CC Licenses specify licensing restrictions on works in metadata •Much OER is NOT picked up by search engines such as Google, Yahoo and Bing Reference for this and later slides (where noted): Towards a Global Learning Commons: ccLearn. Bissell, Ahrash and James Boyle. Educational Technology 4(6). Nov-Dec 2007. Pages 5-9.
    53. 53. Other Technical Concerns Incompatibility of: • Encryption protocols • Video formats • Streaming technologies So that even though OER may be licensed openly, they are prevented from being used openly, negating the point of openness. A great deal of “open educational resources” are encased in technology not easily translatable to more universal, interoperable standards. David Tames cbna (Bissell and Boyle)
    54. 54. DiscoverEd - "Discover the Universe of Open Educational Resources" Jorum - "free learning and teaching resources, created and contributed by teaching staff from UK Further and Higher Education Institutions" OCWFinder - "search, recommend, collaborate, remix" OER Commons - "Find Free-to-Use Teaching and Learning Content from around the World. Organize K-12 Lessons, College Courses, and more.” Temoa - "a knowledge hub that eases a public and multilingual catalog of Open Educational Resources (OER) which aims to support the education community to find those resources and materials that meet their needs for teaching and learning through a specialized and collaborative search system and social tools." University Learning = OCW+OER = Free custom search engine - a meta-search engine incorporating many different OER repositories uses Google Custom Search XPERT - "a JISC funded rapid innovation project (summer 2009) to explore the potential of delivering and supporting a distributed repository of e-learning resources created and seamlessly published through the open source e-learning development tool called Xerte Online Toolkits. The aim of XPERT is to progress the vision of a distributed architecture of e-learning resources for sharing and re-use." OER Dynamic Search Engine - a wiki page of OER sites with accompanied search engine (powered by Google Custom Search) The UNESCO OER Toolkit links to further useful, annotated resources and repositories. JISC Digital Media maintain guidance on finding video, audio and images online, including those licensed as Creative Commons. SEARCH RESOURCES
    55. 55. You can help OER & CC • Tell all your educators friends about OER • Try using it yourself • Create some OER and share • Tell educators about CC licensing • Send feedback to Creative Commons at this link
    56. 56. Thanks •Thank you for coming to this presentation •You can find it on SlideShare. • Esther Wojcicki
    57. 57. Except where otherwise noted, this slideshow is licensed CC BY .