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  • Original theory of change we developed in 2002 Focus on content – quickly realized that we needed to address barriers to use (Creative Commons) and understand and stimulate use – we seeded many projects to begin to understand the space and the traction of the space Explicit goal – equalizing access – level the playing field
  • First and second bullet address the issue of access – level the playing field Third and fourth address potential transformative impact on teaching and learning Third, personalization – addressing unique norms and cultures, creates efficiencies – don’t always need to start from scratch Fourth, allows for the wisdom on the masses, and rapid prototype development. Unique added value -- these two characteristics are fundamental to Open Education Resources.
  • In phase two – making explicit that what was originally implicit – Goal of Open Educational Resources is to impact teaching and learning For 2008 we have selected three strands to focus on – open gaming, open textbooks and participatory learning and– in 2009 will add teacher training Infrastructure – provides the base for that to happen – but beyond infrastructure – need innovation and feedback what we learn from the innovation to both rapidly prototype on the innovation and to further support infrastructure Note feedback loops
  • Many players higher education institutions many different types of content, one size does not fit all Across continents
  • European schoolnet – 19 countries Col – virutal university of the small states Wgbh – teachers domain Teacher ed in sub saharan africa – portal literacy, numeracy, life skills
  • ‹ #› 12 CM portfolio of online courses Statistics course – random experiment last spring Students took online stats course available 24/7 outperform students who took the traditional lecture course and accelerated their learning – completed the course in 8 weeks vis-à-vis the traditional 15 week course. What does this tell us about how and when students learn best? Need to be repeated to be generalizable to students beyond Carnegie Mellon
  • Open code to content Immersive and engaging Balance ability and challenge Incentives Extensible Build a theoretical framework for open game-based learning


  • 1. Global Education Conference 2010 Esther Wojcicki, Creative Commons, Vice Chair Head of CC Education How to Spread Your Ideas Globally Using Creative Commons Licenses
  • 2. CC is a nonprofit corporation dedicated to making it easier for people to share and build upon the works of others consistent with copyright. We provide free licenses to enable sharing What is Creative Commons?
  • 3. CC is Dedicated to Helping teachers artists creators everyone share their ideas with the world
    • All Rights Reserved locks up your ideas
  • 4. U.S.Copyright laws
    • Everything you write is copyrighted automatically for your lifetime + 70 years
  • 5. Similar laws exist in all countries
  • 6. CC licenses allow people to share ideas while crediting the creator
  • 7. No one has to write to ask for your permission
    • Permission is pre-authorized
  • 8. CC licenses empower the spread of your ideas and your name more easily
  • 9. It is like having thousands of people help you spread your ideas and your name
  • 10. CC empowers educators and students to share their ideas globally
  • 11. CC empowers the open movement
  • 12. CC Mission
    • Our mission is to minimize barriers to sharing and reuse of educational materials — legal barriers, technical barriers, and social barriers.
  • 13. What is an “open” resource? Text
    • The ability to:
        • • Access
      • • Share — Copy, Distribute, Display
      • • Adapt — Perform, Translate
      • • Derive — Remix
    The openness of a resource increases with the permissions given. Allow more permissions= More open.
  • 14. CC & OER can change the world Text • Education is a public good worldwide • But the quality of education varies.
      • — By region
      • — By school
      • — By class
    • Open Educational Resources (OER) change this, by promoting (e)quality education around the world. The internet is a universal medium. It c an be a cc essed by anyone .
  • 15. Hewlett’s OER Theory of Change – Phase I GOALS OF OER EQUALIZE ACCESS TO KNOWLEDGE Remove Barriers High-Quality Open Content Understand and Stimulate Use High-Quality Open Content
  • 16. Text CC helps eliminate legal barriers to sharing Nan c y cbn http://flickr.com/photos/pugno_muliebriter/1384247192/
  • 17. Expression is often restri c ted. Text • Because expression can be, and often is, fully copyrighted. • Copyrighted material cannot be shared, adapted, derived, or even accessed... without express permission by the owner of the copyright. • But when people, especially educators, put things on the web, it is usually for the express purpose of making it freely available. • Unfortunately, copyright overrules this intent. And if you don’t li c ense your work to be open, it automati c ally defaults to all rights reserved copyright.
  • 18. CC licenses build on copyright. Text • CC Licenses are a form of copyright. They do not replace copyright, but instead grant a priori permissions for certain uses that would otherwise be disallowed. • So the author still retains their rights to a work; they simply choose to modify those rights they do not need or want. • This makes perfect sense in education especially, since most people want to share and build off of each other’s work.
  • 19. CC offers an easy way to share materials, vs the murky interpretations of fair use in c opyright law. openDemo c ra c y cba http://flickr.com/photos/opendemocracy/542303769/
  • 20. Text Text CC Li c enses support Interoperability CC wants education to be here: “ All rights reserved” Publi c Domain Attribution Only are clear, comprehensible and coLIatible LICENSE S CONDITIONS ATTRIBUTION NO DERIVATES NON COMMERCIAL SHARE ALIKE BY CC BY
  • 21. CC Li c enses Whi c h Li c en s e should I use when?
  • 22. Attribution Only CC-BY
  • 23. We encourage use of CC BY ... Text • Allows the most freedoms without giving up attribution , which is important for credibility in education and for spreading your ideas • Is compatible with every other CC license, allowing the most room for innovation via collaboration BY • Does not encroach on the freedom of potential users by enforcing a specified use
  • 24. CC BY Attribution Only Lets others distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon your work, even commercially, as long as they credit you for the original creation. BY Consider • You are a creator of a work, be it a • But as a professional in your field, you want to be recognized for your work. • Basically, you want your stuff to be used widely—by the most people possible. This is a great case for CC BY. play, a love song, a cookbook or an educational video game.
  • 25. CC BY Attribution Only Lets others distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon your work, even commercially, as long as they credit you for the original creation. BY But what if • Someone takes my stuff and locks it away, defeating the purpose of making it open? • Someone uses my stuff inappropriately, while my name is attached to it? That’s impossible with digital content. Even if someone remixed the work and re-licensed it under full copyright, your original work is still available, free for anybody to use. • CC BY specifically states that you do not endorse any works derived from yours. • So it doesn’t matter; non-endorsement clause and moral rights allow you to request a take-down and seek damages anyway. Boo! Hurray!
  • 26. Remember: CC BY Text • Allows the most freedoms with attribution (important for credibility in education) • Is compatible with every other CC license, so... BY New and creative uses can develop that were not possible before! • All the while NOT encroaching on the freedom of potential users by enforcing a specified use i.e. CC BY-NC-SA might not allow print versions of your work to be given away for even a small recovery cost.
  • 27.
    • No Derivates license means users can not make any changes to the work
  • 28. CC BY-ND Attribution No Derivatives Allows for redistribution, commercial and non-commercial, as long as it is passed along unchanged and in whole, with credit to you. ND Consider • You are part of a group of experts that has finally finished a protocol for data curation. • Every word was carefully considered, and it took months of meetings to complete. • You and the group want to share it, and you don’t particularly care how it is used... ... AS LONG AS it does not get altered in any way. For this purpose, CC BY-ND is appropriate.
  • 29. CC BY-ND Attribution No Derivatives Allows for redistribution, commercial and non-commercial, as long as it is passed along unchanged and in whole, with credit to you. ND But consider too • Foreign colleagues want to translate the protocol. They must seek permission before they can do so. ? • Any time someone would like to adapt your work, the group’s permission is required— Even for the simple purposes of technical and social interoperability. • A fellow expert wants to adapt the work for display on PDAs. He must also seek permission. ?
  • 30.
    • Share Alike means if you remix or create a new creative work, you must share it the same way it was shared with you. It does not obligate you to create something.
    Share Alike SA
  • 31. CC BY-NC-SA Attribution Non-commercial Share Alike Lets others: • remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially. • download and redistribute your work. • translate, remix, and produce new stories based on your work. All new work based on yours will carry the same license, so any derivatives will also be licensed non-commercial. SA Consider • A university decides to release course content openly. • However, much of the content is third-party material. • It is difficult to get rights-holders to give them content without the NC term. Hurray! This is a case where the university may want to adopt CC BY-NC-SA, since it is necessary to reach an agreement with all their rights-holders.
  • 32.
    • Non-Commercial license means others can remix, tweak, and build upon your work as long as it is not for commercial use.
  • 33. But what if • Rights holders are willing to give materials to the university without the NC restriction. • So the university applies the NC term. This is a bad reason to use NC because: • However, the university doesn’t want anyone selling content without their permission. • People only buy content if they can’t access the free version, or if they want to access it differently. i.e. A publishing co. decides to make hardcopies available at minimal prices (to recover printing costs) … to students in Bangladesh! CC BY-NC-SA But they can’t, because it is NC licensed. And they don’t want to go through the red tape of negotiations. Hurray! Boo!
  • 34.
    • Users can use any combination of the licenses. Check the Creative Commons website at www.creativecommons.org
    • Here is an example:
    CC combination license
  • 35.
    • Two licenses exist the public domain
    Public Domain
  • 36. Language and supporting materials more appropriate for the educational context What are the different CC licenses and what do they mean? Choosing a CC license for educational materials Point of departure for understanding the bigger issues and hopes in education EASY TO LICENSE YOUR WORK
  • 37.
    • Without CC licenses, it is not clear what is open
    CC licenses support OER
  • 38. Open Educational Resources Open high quality digitized educational content, tools and communities Available anytime, anywhere for free Localizable and re-mixable Allows for collective improvement and feedback
  • 39. As educators
    • We need to encourage teachers/students worldwide to share their ideas and cultures
    • We need to help students be Email-Pals with kids from other parts of the world to promote understanding
    • We need need to share our lesson plans and our ideas to help one another
  • 40. OER Strategy Infrastructure Impact Teaching and Learning Innovation R & D
  • 41. OER IS WORLDWIDE Higher Education
  • 42. Journals, Books, Videos, Data, Games …
  • 43. K-12
  • 45. Transform Teaching and Learning: Open Game Based Environments Open Language Learning Initiative This work is licensed under aCreative Commons Attribution 3.0 License
  • 46. How to Find OER? A few ideas.
  • 47. Search on CC
  • 48. One way is using a Google Custom Search Engine
    • So far this OER Beta Search only includes 20 universities but more will be added.
    • Here is the link
    • More information will be available in January 2011
  • 49. G OER Search for Higher Education Resources
  • 50. O OCW has a federated search 0f 3947 courses
  • 51. Text Social Barriers to OER Standardized Curricula Standardized Curricula Cultural Cultural Standardized Curricula Tenure Standards Developed World Developing World My stuff vs Commons vs Noncommercial Term Resources Developed World Teacher Education Socioeconomic factors Time Management Teacher Salary (Bissell and Boyle) Technical Unfamiliarity Workload Organizational Pressures Agency Cultural Awareness, Misconceptions
  • 52. Technical Pluses & Minuses Text CC licenses are visible to search engines
      • • CC Licenses specify licensing restrictions
      • on works in metadata
    Reference for this and later slides (where noted): Towards a Global Learning Commons: ccLearn . Bissell, Ahrash and James Boyle. Educational Technology 4(6). Nov-Dec 2007. Pages 5-9. • Much OER is NOT picked up by search engines such as Google, Yahoo and Bing
  • 53. Other Te c hni c al Concerns Text Incompatibility of: • Encryption protocols
      • • Video formats
    • Streaming technologies So that even though OER may be licensed openly, they are prevented from being used openly, negating the point of openness. A great deal of “open educational resources” are encased in technology not easily translatable to more universal, interoperable standards. David Tames cbna http://flickr.com/photos/kino-eye/354623704/ (Bissell and Boyle)
  • 54. DiscoverEd - "Discover the Universe of Open Educational Resources" Jorum - "free learning and teaching resources, created and contributed by teaching staff from UK Further and Higher Education Institutions" OCWFinder - "search, recommend, collaborate, remix" OER Commons - "Find Free-to-Use Teaching and Learning Content from around the World. Organize K-12 Lessons, College Courses, and more.” Temoa - "a knowledge hub that eases a public and multilingual catalog of Open Educational Resources (OER) which aims to support the education community to find those resources and materials that meet their needs for teaching and learning through a specialized and collaborative search system and social tools." University Learning = OCW+OER = Free custom search engine - a meta-search engine incorporating many different OER repositories uses Google Custom Search XPERT - "a JISC funded rapid innovation project (summer 2009) to explore the potential of delivering and supporting a distributed repository of e-learning resources created and seamlessly published through the open source e-learning development tool called Xerte Online Toolkits. The aim of XPERT is to progress the vision of a distributed architecture of e-learning resources for sharing and re-use." OER Dynamic Search Engine - a wiki page of OER sites with accompanied search engine (powered by Google Custom Search) The UNESCO OER Toolkit links to further useful, annotated resources and repositories. JISC Digital Media maintain guidance on finding video, audio and images online, including those licensed as Creative Commons . SEARCH RESOURCES
  • 55.
    • Tell all your educators friends about OER
    • Try using it yourself
    • Create some OER and share
    • Tell educators about CC licensing
    • Send feedback to Creative Commons at this link
    You can help OER & CC
  • 56.
    • Thank you for coming to this presentation
    • You can find it on SlideShare .
    • Esther Wojcicki
  • 57. Ex cept where otherwise noted, this slideshow is li c ensed CC BY .