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FISHES AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS
 

FISHES AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS

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PREPARED BY A STU. OF IIT KGP.......FOR HIS AQUA SEMINOR CLASSES.......

PREPARED BY A STU. OF IIT KGP.......FOR HIS AQUA SEMINOR CLASSES.......

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    FISHES AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS FISHES AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS Presentation Transcript

    • RAJNEESH SINGH
    •  INTRODUCTION CLASSIFICATION TERMINOLOGY ANATOMY MORPHOLOGY CHARACTERISTICS CONCLUSION
    •  A fish is an organism that consist of all gill- bearing aquatic craniates animals that lack limbs with digits Most fish are ectodermic("cold-blooded"), allowing their body temperatures to vary as ambient temperatures change 32,000 species, fish exhibit greater species diversity than any other group of vertebrates Many people mistakenly group whales and dolphins into the fish family but they are actually mammals. (They are warm-blooded, feed their babies with milk from their bodies and breathe air into lungs)
    •  Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Sub Phylum Vertebrata Classes- -Agnatha -Chondrichthyes -Osteichthyes
    • AGNATHA (jawless fishes) Parasitic bloodsuckers Lamprey - Sucker-like mouths -Attach to another fish, scrape away flesh and then suck blood. Hagfish -Slit-like, toothed mouth -Drills holes and sucks blood of dead or dying fish
    •  CHONDRICHYTHYES (Cartilaginous fish)  Entire skeleton is made of cartilage  Living fossils  Include -Sharks -RaysFlat bodied (rays and skates) -SkatesBroad pectoral fins on sidesGlide by flapping fins
    •  OSTIECHYTHES (Bony Fishes) aquatic vertebrates typically Ectotherms (cold-blooded) Covered with scales Has a gill cover called an OPERCULUM Minimal Protective Mucus, nonselective defense against bacteria Multiple sets of paired fins and unpaired fins
    • Definition of terms: Anterior (cranial) toward the head Posterior (caudal) toward the tail Cranial head region Caudal pertaining to the tail region Dorsal toward the back of the animal Ventral toward the belly of the animal Medial toward the median line Distal away from the center or origin Proximal toward the center or origin
    •  Gills Two-chambered heart Sexual reproduction fins Sensory systems Scales Separate flexible vertebrae Swim Bladders
    •  Feathery gill filaments Contains tiny blood vessels Water enters mouth, passes over gills and out through slits at side. O2/CO2 exchanged in capillaries.
    •  One chamber receives deoxygenated blood from body The other pumps blood to the gills, where it picks up oxygen and releases CO2.
    •  Most have external fertilization Female lays a large number of eggs and then male deposits sperm on top of them Adult male and female fishes spawn together in gravel beds of rivers and streams. Using sweeping movements of her tail, the female salmon digs out a gravel nest, called a redd. The male fertilizes the eggs as the female deposits them. Spawning is the process of fertilizing eggs. Baby fish are called FRY
    • Some (sharks) haveinternal fertilization. eggs hatch inside the mother and then are born The cichlid scoops eggs, and later, babies into mouth to protect from danger
    •  Fan-shaped membranes attached to endoskeleton Used for balance, swimming and steering Fins are of two types- -unpaired or median (caudal, anal & dorsal ) -paired(pectoral & pelvic)
    • - Fluid filled canals along sides of fish that detect movement and vibrations in water- Sharks can use smell to follow a trail of blood for several km- Over 2/3 of a shark’s brain is dedicated to smell
    •  Thin bony plates formed from skin Growth rings can indicate age Top: Broadnose shark, Bottom: Florida gar
    • Internal sac that fills with oxygen and/or nitrogen and controls depth through the regulation of gases in bladder.
    •  Fish were the first to develop a backbone with vertebrae. Vertebrae provide support and flexibility
    • One of the goals of aquaculture is increased fishproduction within a pond, raceway, or tank. Buthigher production does not come without itsproblems. These problems might somehowcorrelates with their physical and biologicalcharacteristics or greatly influenced by them. Ageneral understanding is needed to study andhaving some knowledge about fishes and theircharacteristics. This presentation addresses someof those issues.