20th Century Architecture REPORTED BY: LUBIANO, KEZIA
BACKGROUND RAPID ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT URBANIZATION INCREASED ARCHITECTURE WAS AFFECTED BY POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC EVENTS ADVANCE IN TECHNOLOGY CUES FOR NEW ARTISTIC FORM, SPACE AND TIME
MODERNISM ( MODERNIST ARCHITECTURE )• EMPHASIZES FUNCTION• ATTEMPTS TO PROVIDE FOR SPECIFIC NEEDS RATHER THAN IMITATE NATUREFEATURES OF MODERN ARCHITECTURE: LITTLE OR NO ORNAMENTATION FACTORY-MADE PARTS MAN-MADE MATERIALS SUCH AS METAL AND CONCRETE REBELLION ON TRADITIONAL STYLES
STYLISTIC IDEAS OF MODERNISM: STRUCTURALISM CONSTRUCTIVISM FORMALISM BAUHAUS THE INTERNATIONAL STYLE DE STIJL BRUTALISM MINIMALISM
STRUCTURALISMbased on the idea that all things are built from a system of signs (these signs are made up of opposites: male/female, hot/cold, old/young, etc.) a process of searching for the relationship between elements STRUCTURE IS MORE IMPORTANT THAN FUNCTION.
European Space Centre ESTEC (European Space Centre ESTEC in Noordwijk, restaurant conference-hall library, (Aldo van Eyck and Hannie van Eyck)
Nakagin Capsule Tower Nakagin Capsule Tower in Tokyo, (Kisho Kurokawa)
Peter Eisenman (known for being a Structuralist with his designs) designed an innovative facade for the University of Phoenix Stadium in Arizona
CONSTRUCTIVISM combined engineering and technology with political ideology most famous work of constructivist architecture was never actually built MOST FEATURES OF CONSTRUCTIVISM INCLUDE:glass and steelabstract geometric shapestechnological details such as antennae, signs, and projection screens
Tatlins Tower Russian architect Vladimir Tatlin launched the constructivist movement when he proposed the futuristic, glass-and-steel Tatlins Tower.
Constructivist Architects Vladimir Tatlin Konstantin Melnikov Nikolai Milyutin Aleksandr Vesnin Leonid Vesnin Viktor Vesnin El Lissitzky Vladimir Krinsky Iakov Chernikhov
FORMALISM emphasizes form interested in visual relationships between the building parts and the work as a whole SHAPE, often on a monumental scale, is the FOCUS OF ATTENTION. LINES and RIGID GEOMETRIC SHAPES dominate Formalism.
Bank of China Tower Architect Ieoh Ming Pei has been praised for the "elegant formalism" of his Bank of China Tower
BAUHAUS German expression meaning house for building based on functionalism and simplicity rejected "bourgeois" details such as cornices, eaves, and decorative details use principles of Classical architecture in their most pure form: without ornamentation of any kind
FEATURES OF BAUHUS BUILDINGS flat roofs smooth facades cubic shapes Common colors used are white, gray, beige, or black. Floor plans are open and furniture is functional.
The Bauhaus Gropius House in Lincoln, Massachusetts Architect Walter Gropius used Bauhaus ideas when he built his monochrome home in Lincoln, Massachusetts.
THE INTERNATIONAL STYLE term often used to describe Bauhaus architecture in the United States. became a symbolism of Capitalism favored architecture for office buildings, and is also found in upscale homes built for the rich adapted the International Style to the warm climate and dry terrain, creating an elegant yet informal style known as Desert Modernism.
Williams Tower (formerly the Transco Tower) Formerly the Transco Tower, the Williams Tower in Houston, Texas is one of the worlds tallest buildings not in a central business district. Architect: Philip Johnson and John Burgee
The United Nations Secretariat Originally designed by an international team of architects including Le Corbusier, Oscar Niemeyer, and Wallace Harrison. The smooth glass-sided slab, one of the first uses of curtain-wall cladding on a tall building.
Architects Inspired by the Bauhaus and International Movement Walter Gropius Le Corbusier Richard Neutra Philip Johnson Mies van der Rohe Marcel Breuer
DE STIJL movement started in Netherlands; also known as Neoplasticism it is a response to World War I destruction and the loss of individualism abstraction, precision, geometry, striving towards artistic purity and austerity, studying the laws of nature advocate materialism and functionalism using only straight horizontal and vertical lines and rectangular forms
The Rietveld Schröder HouseRietveldSchröderHouse byarchitectGerritThomasRietveld,Netherlands (circa2005)
DESERT MODERNISM a mid-twentieth century approach to modernism capitalized on the sunny skies and warm climate of southern California and American Southwest Rocks, trees, and other landscape features were often incorporated into the design.
Characteristics of Desert Modernism Expansive glass walls and windows Dramatic rooflines Wide overhangs Steel and plastic combined with wood and stone Open floor plans Outdoor living spaces incorporated into the overall design
Architects Associated With Desert Modernism William F. Cody Albert Frey John Lautner Richard Neutra Donald Wexler E. Stewart Williams
Kaufmann House Kaufmann House in Palm Springs, California by Richard Neutra
BRUTALISM rugged reinforced concrete construction or Béton Brut meaning raw concrete heavy and angular; can be constructed quickly and economically COMMON FEATURES: Precast concrete slabs Rough, unfinished surfaces Exposed steel beams Massive, sculptural shapes
The Paulo Mendes da Rocha Residence The Paulo Mendes da Rocha Residence in São Paulo, Brazil by Paulo Mendes da Rocha
MINIMALISM• also known as reductivist design meaning tending to reduce to a minimum or to simplify in an extreme way• Buildings are stripped of all but the most essential elements• Emphasis is placed on the outline, or frame, of the structure• Interior walls are eliminated; floor plans are open.• Lighting is used to dramatize lines and planes.• The negative spaces around the structure are part of the overall design.
Minimalist Luis Barragan HouseThe MinimalistLuis BarraganHouse, or Casade LuisBarragán, wasthe home andstudio ofMexicanarchitect LuisBarragán.This building is a classicexample of the PritzkerPrize Laureates use oftexture, bright colors,and diffused light.
Architects Known for Minimalist Designs Ludwig Mies van der Rohe Tadao Ando Luis Barragan Yoshio Taniguchi Richard Gluckman
FAMOUS MODERN ARCHITECTS:Louis Henry Sullivan an American architect, and has been called the “father of skyscrapers” and “prophet of modern architecture” conceived the most famous phrase ever to come out of his profession, “form follows function” Sullivan’s architecture is a mixture of plain geometry and undisguised massing punctuated with elaborate pockets of ornamentation in stone, wood and terra cotta.
Wainwright State Office Building The Wainwright Building is among the first skyscrapers in the 10-story red brick office world. building
FAMOUS MODERN ARCHITECTS:Frank Lloyd Wright never attended architecture school; Wright studied engineering apprenticed with J.L. Silsbee and Louis Sullivan designed more than 1,000 structures and completed 532 works believed in designing structures which were in harmony with humanity and its environment, a philosophy he called organic architecture
Fallingwater Considered by some as the most famous private house ever built, Fallingw ater epitomizes man living in harmony with nature.
FAMOUS MODERN ARCHITECTS:Ludwig Mies van der Rohe along with Le Corbusier, Alvar Aalto, and Frank Lloyd Wright, he is widely regarded as one of the pioneering masters of modern architecture called his buildings "skin and bones" architecture associated with the aphorisms, "less is more" and "God is in the details"
Seagram BuildingConstructed withtravertine, marble, and 1,500 tons ofbronze, theSeagram Buildingwas the mostexpensiveskyscraper of itstime.
FAMOUS MODERN ARCHITECTS: Charles-Édouard Jeanneret better known as Le Corbusier laid the foundation for what became the Bauhaus Movement or the International Style innovative urban planner; best known for his low income housing ; dedicated to providing better living conditions for the residents of crowded cities quoted "By law, all buildings should be white.“ because he believed stark, unornamented buildings he designed would contribute to clean, bright, healthy cities
Villa Savoye The villa is representative of the bases of modern architecture, and is one of the most easily recognizable and renowned examples of the International style.
FAMOUS MODERN ARCHITECTS:Hugo Alvar Henrik Aalto famous for both his buildings and his furniture designs passion for painting led to the development of his unique architectural style, cubism and collage Aalto used color, texture, and light to create collage-like architectural landscapes.
Baker House The Baker House by Alvar Aalto overlooks a busy street, but the rooms remain relatively quiet because the windows face the traffic at a diagonal.
QUIZ: MARCH 6, 2013 (10 ITEMS)1-3.) Give 3 Stylistic Ideas of Modernism.4.) Who is the “father of skyscrapers”?5.) _________ based on the idea that allthings are built from a system of signs.6.) Also known as reductivist design.7-10.) Name 4 famous modern architects.
Answers:1.-3) 7-10.) STRUCTURALISM Louis Henry Sullivan CONSTRUCTIVISM Frank Lloyd Wright FORMALISM Ludwig Mies van der Rohe BAUHAUS Hugo Alvar Henrik Aalto THE INTERNATIONAL STYLE Le Corbusier or Charles-Édouard DE STIJL Jeanneret BRUTALISM MINIMALISM4.) Louis Henry Sullivan5.) Structuralism6.) Minimalism