My Horse University and eXtension’s HorseQuest  welcome you to this live Webcast. Why Won’t my Mare Get Pregnant? Kathy An...
Meet our presenter: <ul><li>Kathy Anderson </li></ul><ul><li>University of Nebraska-Lincoln </li></ul>
Factors Affecting Getting Mares “Settled” <ul><li>Is she normal? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cycling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Is She Cycling?
Seasonality of the Mare
Normal Estrus/Heat Cycle <ul><li>21 day cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Estrus/heat period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3- 4 days </li></...
Estrus Detection <ul><li>Signs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urinate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Squatting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Estrus Detection <ul><li>Tease scores </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0 = out of heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 = passive </li></...
Estrus Detection Video
Foal Heat Mares <ul><ul><li>Occurs 7 – 9 days after foaling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fertile estrus period </li></ul></u...
Foal Heat Mares <ul><li>Slightly lower conception rates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be selective and screen mares </li></ul></ul...
Foal Heat Mares <ul><li>Uterine lavage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flush out uterus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Day 2 – 4 or ...
Foal Heat Mares <ul><li>Short cycle mare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PGF 6 – 7 day following ovulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
Lactational Anestrus <ul><li>Postpartum mare which do not show estrus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May or may not ovulate </li></...
Is She Healthy?
Body Condition and Reproductive Performance <ul><li>5 or below </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced reproductive performance </li...
Body Condition and Reproductive Performance <ul><li>5 or above </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved reproductive performance </l...
Body Condition and Reproductive Performance <ul><li>Lactating mare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Below condition score of 5 </li><...
Stress, Soundness
Is Her Reproductive Anatomy Normal?
Vulva Anatomy <ul><li>Problems : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor seal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tipped </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Vulva <ul><li>External structure </li></ul><ul><li>Cyclic changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Estrus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul>...
Vulva Anatomy <ul><ul><li>Caslick’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sutures lips closed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li...
Is She Fertile?
Early Embryonic Loss Prior to Day 40 <ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maternal factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>...
Influence of Mare’s Age on Reproductive Efficiency TABLE 1. 3-8 Years 9-13 Years 14-18 Years >18 Years TOTAL No. Mares 386...
Clean Reproductive Practices
Uterine Environment  Examinations & Tests <ul><ul><li>Rectal palpation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ultrasound examination <...
Uterine Environment <ul><li>Low grade endometritis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low grade infection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fl...
Uterine Environment <ul><li>Cysts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More common as mares age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May or may not...
Uterine Environment <ul><li>Problem breeder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retains fluid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor conception...
Twinning <ul><li>Placental insufficiency to carry multiples </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>60 – 70% abort </li></ul></ul></ul><...
Twinning in Mares All twin pregnancies 60% Live single Foal 9% Carry both twins to term 31% Abort both 64.5% 2 stillborn 2...
Is He Fertile?
Factors Determining Sperm Output <ul><li>Testicular size </li></ul><ul><ul><li># of spermatozoa produced depends largely o...
Frequency of Ejaculation <ul><li>Increasing the frequency of ejaculation from 1 to 2 times/day does NOT result in increase...
Seasonality and the Stallion <ul><ul><li>Use of artificial lights on stallions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Shift” of ...
Factors Determining Sperm Output <ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sperm reserves of sexually rested stallions increased w...
Factors Determining Sperm Output <ul><li>2 collections, 1 hour apart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Second collection will be ½ of ...
Evaluate Stallion’s Semen <ul><li>Volume </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Motility </li></ul><ul><li>% ab...
The Bottom Line <ul><li>Make sure she is cycling </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure she is in correct body condition </li></ul><u...
Give us your feedback! <ul><li>You will receive a survey by email in 1-2 days. Please take a few minutes to give us your f...
Upcoming Webcasts <ul><li>Nutritional Supplements for Horses </li></ul><ul><li>December 15, 2009 | 7:00 pm EST </li></ul>
Thank you for attending this live web presentation! For more information about  My Horse University please visit us at: ww...
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Why Wont My Mare Get Pregnant (Anderson)

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Why Won't My Mare Get Pregnant?
Dr. Kathy Anderson, Recorded: November 2009

For More Information:
http://myhorseuniversity.com/
http://www.extension.org/horses

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  • These are the various signs most mares will show during estrus or while in heat. Mares are very consistent in what they do from cycle to cycle. Some mares will always tease up to a 4, whereas others be most they will show is a 2. A good manager becomes familiar with their mares, and knows what each one will do.
  • Foal heat mares may have slightly lower conception rates, so it is a good idea to be selective and screen mares. Mares should be screened for difficult parturition, retained placenta, and condition. A uterine lavage can be used to flush out the uterus 2-5 days post parturition to stimulate uterine involution and improve conception rates. To short cycle a mare, give PGF 6-7 days following ovulation, which will shorten the interval from foaling to rebreeding about 10 days.
  • During lactation, lactational anestrus may occur in some mares. A postpartum mare that does not show estrus may or may not ovulate. Her body condition score and if she foaled earlier in the year should be considered. Restrictive nursing can also be implemented by separating the mare and foal and only allowing nursing 4-6 times per day. Another treatment for lactational anestrus is regumate treatment.
  • Mares at a CS of 5 or below took longer to cycle than other mares. This was generally until they were up to a CS of around 5. Furthermore they took more cycles to be bred, and if remained thin, had an increase in early embryonic loss
  • CS 5+ cycled earlier in the year, took fewer cycles to settle, had an overall higher PG rate and improve PG maintenance
  • Why Wont My Mare Get Pregnant (Anderson)

    1. 1. My Horse University and eXtension’s HorseQuest welcome you to this live Webcast. Why Won’t my Mare Get Pregnant? Kathy Anderson University of Nebraska-Lincoln
    2. 2. Meet our presenter: <ul><li>Kathy Anderson </li></ul><ul><li>University of Nebraska-Lincoln </li></ul>
    3. 3. Factors Affecting Getting Mares “Settled” <ul><li>Is she normal? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cycling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproductive anatomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fertility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uterine environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is he normal? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fertility </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Is She Cycling?
    5. 5. Seasonality of the Mare
    6. 6. Normal Estrus/Heat Cycle <ul><li>21 day cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Estrus/heat period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3- 4 days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual variation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seasons </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Estrus Detection <ul><li>Signs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urinate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Squatting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tail raising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Winking of vulva </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swelling, relaxation of vulva area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Much variation between mares </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Estrus Detection <ul><li>Tease scores </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0 = out of heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 = passive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 = slightly interested </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May be coming in or going out </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 = urinates, winking, greater interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 = intense behavioral signs </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Estrus Detection Video
    10. 10. Foal Heat Mares <ul><ul><li>Occurs 7 – 9 days after foaling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fertile estrus period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May last 3 – 5 days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May not show estrus, but will ovulate </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Foal Heat Mares <ul><li>Slightly lower conception rates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be selective and screen mares </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult parturition? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Retained placenta? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Condition of mare? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time of year? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Foal Heat Mares <ul><li>Uterine lavage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flush out uterus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Day 2 – 4 or 5 post parturition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved conception rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulate uterine involution </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Foal Heat Mares <ul><li>Short cycle mare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PGF 6 – 7 day following ovulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shorten interval from foaling to rebreeding about 10 days </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Lactational Anestrus <ul><li>Postpartum mare which do not show estrus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May or may not ovulate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Body condition score? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Foaled early in year? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Restrictive nursing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Separate foals and only allow nursing 4 – 6 times per day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regumate treatment </li></ul>
    15. 15. Is She Healthy?
    16. 16. Body Condition and Reproductive Performance <ul><li>5 or below </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced reproductive performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased embryonic loss </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Body Condition and Reproductive Performance <ul><li>5 or above </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved reproductive performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cycle earlier in the year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer cycles per conception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher pregnancy rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved pregnancy maintenance rate </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Body Condition and Reproductive Performance <ul><li>Lactating mare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Below condition score of 5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May not cycle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses energy for milk production </li></ul></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Stress, Soundness
    20. 20. Is Her Reproductive Anatomy Normal?
    21. 21. Vulva Anatomy <ul><li>Problems : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor seal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tipped </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind sucker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pool urine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relaxed </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Vulva <ul><li>External structure </li></ul><ul><li>Cyclic changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Estrus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In “heat” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loose, relaxed, winking when in heat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diestrus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Out of heat” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tight, closed </li></ul></ul></ul>Estrus
    23. 23. Vulva Anatomy <ul><ul><li>Caslick’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sutures lips closed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used in mares with poor conformation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used sometimes in other situations </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Is She Fertile?
    25. 25. Early Embryonic Loss Prior to Day 40 <ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maternal factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Endocrine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low progesterone </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oviductal environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poor transport </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uterine environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Endometritis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid w/n uterus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Periglandular fibrosis </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uterine cysts </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lactation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poor body condition </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Delayed uterine involution </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>External factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inadequate nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Embryonic factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chromosomal abnormalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced viability </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Influence of Mare’s Age on Reproductive Efficiency TABLE 1. 3-8 Years 9-13 Years 14-18 Years >18 Years TOTAL No. Mares 386 214 118 50 768 No. Estrus Cycles 592 328 190 95 1205 Day 15 Preg./Cycle 64.7 65.5 60.0 44.2 62.6 Day 40 Preg/Cycle 60.8 58.5 50.5 34.7 56.5 % Preg. Lost Days 15-40 6.0 10.7 15.8 21.4 9.7 % Preg. Lost Day 40-Foaling 8.4 8.3 16.0 15.2 9.8 % Mares Produced Live Foal 84.7 82.2 66.9 56.0 79.4
    27. 27. Clean Reproductive Practices
    28. 28. Uterine Environment Examinations & Tests <ul><ul><li>Rectal palpation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ultrasound examination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uterine culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endometrial biopsy </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Uterine Environment <ul><li>Low grade endometritis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low grade infection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flush </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antibiotic infusion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scaring </li></ul>
    30. 30. Uterine Environment <ul><li>Cysts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More common as mares age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May or may not cause fertility problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Post-breeding inflammatory response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lavage between breedings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common with: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Frozen semen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using extender </li></ul></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Uterine Environment <ul><li>Problem breeder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retains fluid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor conception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Systemic Oxytocin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>12 hr post-breeding </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Empty uterus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Twinning <ul><li>Placental insufficiency to carry multiples </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>60 – 70% abort </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8 – 11 months most abort </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Overlapping placenta devoid of uterine attachment </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased nutrition for multiple fetuses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Retarded growth of one </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mummified fetus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Cause of nearly 20% - 30% all pregnancy losses </li></ul>
    33. 33. Twinning in Mares All twin pregnancies 60% Live single Foal 9% Carry both twins to term 31% Abort both 64.5% 2 stillborn 21% 1 live, 1 stillborn 14.5% 2 live twins
    34. 34. Is He Fertile?
    35. 35. Factors Determining Sperm Output <ul><li>Testicular size </li></ul><ul><ul><li># of spermatozoa produced depends largely on amount of FUNCTIONAL testicular tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testes size is heritable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scrotal circumference should be greater than 80 mm </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Frequency of Ejaculation <ul><li>Increasing the frequency of ejaculation from 1 to 2 times/day does NOT result in increased sperm output </li></ul><ul><li>Ejaculation frequency has little to no effect on fertility of individual spermatozoa </li></ul><ul><li>No scientific evidence to support the common belief that if ejaculation occurs too frequently the stallion will ejaculate immature spermatozoa </li></ul>
    37. 37. Seasonality and the Stallion <ul><ul><li>Use of artificial lights on stallions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Shift” of breeding season from summer to fall </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No increase in total sperm produced/season </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Will have increased sperm production in winter months </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased sperm production in summer months </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    38. 38. Factors Determining Sperm Output <ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sperm reserves of sexually rested stallions increased with advancing age (due to a much larger storage capacity for spermatozoa) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testicular size increases with age>> increased DSP </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. Factors Determining Sperm Output <ul><li>2 collections, 1 hour apart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Second collection will be ½ of the first </li></ul></ul>
    40. 40. Evaluate Stallion’s Semen <ul><li>Volume </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Motility </li></ul><ul><li>% abnormal/normal </li></ul><ul><li>Best test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does he get mares pregnant?? </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. The Bottom Line <ul><li>Make sure she is cycling </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure she is in correct body condition </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce stress </li></ul><ul><li>Have her reproductive status evaluated </li></ul><ul><li>Use the most fertile stallion </li></ul><ul><li>Good luck!! </li></ul>
    42. 42. Give us your feedback! <ul><li>You will receive a survey by email in 1-2 days. Please take a few minutes to give us your feedback on this webcast. It will help us to better serve you! </li></ul>
    43. 43. Upcoming Webcasts <ul><li>Nutritional Supplements for Horses </li></ul><ul><li>December 15, 2009 | 7:00 pm EST </li></ul>
    44. 44. Thank you for attending this live web presentation! For more information about My Horse University please visit us at: www.myhorseuniversity.com info@myhorseuniversity.com | www.myhorseuniversity.com | 517-353-3123
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