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Weaning Management Christine Skelly, Ph.D.  Michigan State University Extension Please note: This presentation is intended...
Preparation for Weaning <ul><li>Health Care </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccinations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deworming </li><...
Health Care - Vaccinations <ul><li>If mare was vaccinated 4-6 weeks before foaling, then foal’s vaccinations begin 5 – 6 m...
Deworming <ul><li>Begin at 2 m </li></ul><ul><li>Deworm for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ascarids, strongyles, bots, and threadw...
<ul><li>Begin early – first few weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Small window of time for corrective trimming </li></ul>Hoof Care
Nutritional Requirements for Growing Horse Average Foal Growth Curve for 1100 lb Stock Horse
Energy in Mare’s Milk
Developmental Orthopedic Diseases <ul><li>Genetic  </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritional </li></ul><ul><li>Biomechanical </li></ul>
Growing Horse Nutrient Requirements (NRC, 2007) <ul><li>Nutrients balanced with energy  </li></ul><ul><li>Protein quality ...
Expected Feed Consumption by Horses (% body weight) NRC, 1989 Forage Concentrate Total Nursing Foal 0 1.0 – 2.0 2.5 – 3.5 ...
Creep Feed Ration  (for not less 6% CF or 3% Fat) <ul><li>16% CP </li></ul><ul><li>.70% Lysine </li></ul><ul><li>.80% Ca <...
Corner Creep Feeder
4 Sided Creep Feeder
Stall Creep Feeder
When to Wean? <ul><li>Mare health, disposition </li></ul><ul><li>Foal health, disposition </li></ul><ul><li>Farm managemen...
Mare-Foal Bond <ul><li>Care seeking  </li></ul><ul><li>Care giving </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritional bond </li></ul><ul><li>Se...
Abrupt Weaning & Mare-Foal Bond <ul><li>Care seeking  </li></ul><ul><li>Care giving </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritional bond </l...
Gradual Weaning and the Mare-Foal Bond <ul><li>Care seeking  </li></ul><ul><li>Care giving </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritional b...
Housing  <ul><li>Outdoors </li></ul><ul><li>Group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peers grouped by age and sex </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Exercise <ul><li>Exercise related to bone development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free exercise best </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Training Goals <ul><li>Lead by body position </li></ul><ul><li>Respond to “Whoa” </li></ul><ul><li>Move away from pressure...
Training Strategies <ul><li>Short training sessions  </li></ul><ul><li>(5 – 10 min) </li></ul><ul><li>Reward small success...
Training: Zig Zag <ul><li>Start in small enclosure </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure and release on halter </li></ul><ul><li>Shor...
Training: Butt Rope <ul><li>Start in narrow alley  </li></ul><ul><li>2 ropes required </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lead rope </li...
Castration <ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Health/Stress level </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery </li></ul>
Summary <ul><li>Practice good health care </li></ul><ul><li>Creep feed </li></ul><ul><li>Use gradual weaning system  </li>...
Recommended Resources <ul><li>Feeding a Growing Horse – eXtension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// www.extension.org/pages/Fe...
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Weaning A Foal (Skelly)

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  • If the dam has been vaccinated during pregnancy, the foal’s vaccinations should not start until it is five to six months old. If a mare has not been vaccinated during pregnancy, the foal should be vaccinated at three to four months. A young foal will need to receive booster shots at three- to four-week intervals. Following are some suggested recommendations for foal vaccinations, based on the dam being vaccinated in late gestation: four months : equine herpesvirus 1 and 4 six months : tetanus, western equine encephalitis, and eastern equine encephalitis nine months : influenza Talk with your veterinarian about other recommended vaccinations.
  • Daily dewormers – sale horses Fecals – determine infestation load
  • Halter and handle feet often – let farrier see foal when trimming dam. Work with both veterinarian and farrier on corrective trimming
  • Nutritional needs of the Foal
  • Foal’s will milk 70 times per day When to wean – 4 – 6 m No nutritional advantage to waiting…. If mare is poor, wean at 3 m
  • Good nutrition and management to decrease incidents of DOD
  • Nutrients balanced with NRG
  • Forage – legume or mixed hay Quality pasture
  • 14 % CP with added synthetic lysine Soybean excellent protein source Feed 1lb / month of age Pellets prevent sorting
  • Easiest 8 X 8 ft min Add 2 ft for each additional horse…. Height for stock horse – 4 ‘ high Openings – 2 ‘ wide Check daily - clean
  • Easier escape for large groups Watch herd dynamics
  • Easier escape for large groups Watch herd dynamics
  • Transcript of "Weaning A Foal (Skelly)"

    1. 1. Weaning Management Christine Skelly, Ph.D. Michigan State University Extension Please note: This presentation is intended for users with high-speed internet connections. Unfortunately, we cannot offer support for dial-up users at this time.
    2. 2. Preparation for Weaning <ul><li>Health Care </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccinations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deworming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hoof care </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creep Feed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Weaning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abrupt vs Gradual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Housing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>Castration </li></ul>
    3. 3. Health Care - Vaccinations <ul><li>If mare was vaccinated 4-6 weeks before foaling, then foal’s vaccinations begin 5 – 6 m </li></ul><ul><li>If mare wasn’t vaccinated during pregnancy, then foal should begin vaccinations at 3 – 4 m </li></ul><ul><li>Booster shots required for young foals at 3 – 4 week intervals </li></ul><ul><li>Consult veterinarian on vaccination schedule </li></ul>
    4. 4. Deworming <ul><li>Begin at 2 m </li></ul><ul><li>Deworm for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ascarids, strongyles, bots, and threadworms </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Begin early – first few weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Small window of time for corrective trimming </li></ul>Hoof Care
    6. 6. Nutritional Requirements for Growing Horse Average Foal Growth Curve for 1100 lb Stock Horse
    7. 7. Energy in Mare’s Milk
    8. 8. Developmental Orthopedic Diseases <ul><li>Genetic </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritional </li></ul><ul><li>Biomechanical </li></ul>
    9. 9. Growing Horse Nutrient Requirements (NRC, 2007) <ul><li>Nutrients balanced with energy </li></ul><ul><li>Protein quality important </li></ul><ul><li>Ca:P ratio 2:1 </li></ul><ul><li>Micro nutrients (Zn and Cu) </li></ul>
    10. 10. Expected Feed Consumption by Horses (% body weight) NRC, 1989 Forage Concentrate Total Nursing Foal 0 1.0 – 2.0 2.5 – 3.5 Weanling, 6 m 0.5 -1.0 1.5 – 3.0 2.0 – 3.5 Yearling, 12 m 1.0 – 1.5 1.0 – 2.0 2.0 – 3.0 18 m 1.0 – 1.5 1.0 -1.5 2.0 – 2.5 2 yr 1.0 – 1.5 1.0 -1.5 1.75 – 2.5
    11. 11. Creep Feed Ration (for not less 6% CF or 3% Fat) <ul><li>16% CP </li></ul><ul><li>.70% Lysine </li></ul><ul><li>.80% Ca </li></ul><ul><li>.50% P </li></ul><ul><li>1400 kcal DE/lb </li></ul>
    12. 12. Corner Creep Feeder
    13. 13. 4 Sided Creep Feeder
    14. 14. Stall Creep Feeder
    15. 15. When to Wean? <ul><li>Mare health, disposition </li></ul><ul><li>Foal health, disposition </li></ul><ul><li>Farm management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group VS Individual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of weaning system </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Mare-Foal Bond <ul><li>Care seeking </li></ul><ul><li>Care giving </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritional bond </li></ul><ul><li>Senses used </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Touch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seeing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hearing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smelling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tasting </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Abrupt Weaning & Mare-Foal Bond <ul><li>Care seeking </li></ul><ul><li>Care giving </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritional bond </li></ul><ul><li>Senses used </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Touch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seeing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hearing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smelling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tasting </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Gradual Weaning and the Mare-Foal Bond <ul><li>Care seeking </li></ul><ul><li>Care giving </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritional bond </li></ul><ul><li>Senses used </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Touch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seeing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hearing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smelling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tasting </li></ul></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Housing <ul><li>Outdoors </li></ul><ul><li>Group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peers grouped by age and sex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chaperone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Older horse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Another species </li></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Exercise <ul><li>Exercise related to bone development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free exercise best </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Housing outdoors optimum </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Training Goals <ul><li>Lead by body position </li></ul><ul><li>Respond to “Whoa” </li></ul><ul><li>Move away from pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxed & willing </li></ul><ul><li>Sacked out to various stimuli </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grooming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blankets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handling legs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eliminate dangerous behaviors </li></ul>
    22. 22. Training Strategies <ul><li>Short training sessions </li></ul><ul><li>(5 – 10 min) </li></ul><ul><li>Reward small successes </li></ul><ul><li>Limit oral behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No treats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t pet face </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Work both sides </li></ul><ul><li>End on a good note </li></ul>
    23. 23. Training: Zig Zag <ul><li>Start in small enclosure </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure and release on halter </li></ul><ul><li>Short daily training periods 5 – 10 min </li></ul><ul><li>End relaxed </li></ul>
    24. 24. Training: Butt Rope <ul><li>Start in narrow alley </li></ul><ul><li>2 ropes required </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lead rope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Butt rope </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Encourage forward motion by gentle tugs on butt rope and clucking </li></ul>
    25. 25. Castration <ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Health/Stress level </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery </li></ul>
    26. 26. Summary <ul><li>Practice good health care </li></ul><ul><li>Creep feed </li></ul><ul><li>Use gradual weaning system </li></ul><ul><li>Feed a balanced diet including a high-quality forage </li></ul><ul><li>Provide free exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Train in short effective bouts </li></ul>
    27. 27. Recommended Resources <ul><li>Feeding a Growing Horse – eXtension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// www.extension.org/pages/Feeding_a_Growing_Horse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Texas A&M University Equine Extension Publications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// animalscience.tamu.edu/main/academics/equine/pubs.html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Designs and Use of Creep Feeders for Foals by Pete Gibbs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feeding Young Horses for Sound Development by Gary Potter and Pete Gibbs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The University of Tennessee Extension Horse Publications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.utextension.utk.edu/publications/animals/default.asp#horses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weaning Management for Foals by Doyle Meadows and John Henton </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Nutrient Requirements of Horses: 6 th Revised Edition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11653 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Guidelines for the Vaccination of Horses – American Association of Equine Practitioners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.aaep.org/vaccination_guidelines.htm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why Should I Castrate My Equid? – MSU College of Veterinary Medicine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://cvm.msu.edu/alumni-friends/information-for-animal-owners/why-should-i-castrate-my-equid/ </li></ul></ul>
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