Vaccinating Your Horse (Marteniuk)


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  • Late spring – because mosquito season starts at that time and duration of protection time is still under investigation.
  • Vaccinating Your Horse (Marteniuk)

    1. 1. Dr. Judy Marteniuk Michigan State University Please note: This presentation is intended for users with high-speed internet connections. Unfortunately, we cannot offer support for dial-up users at this time. Contact us! [email_address] (517) 353-3123 Welcome to this live web presentation featuring:
    2. 2. Judy Marteniuk, DVM Equine Medicine and Extension Michigan State University Vaccinating Your Horse
    3. 3. Preventive Program <ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Housing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pasture/Fencing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vaccinations </li></ul><ul><li>Parasite control </li></ul><ul><li>Farrier </li></ul><ul><li>Dental </li></ul>
    4. 4. How do I decide on a Vaccination Program? <ul><li>What does the disease do? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mortality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Down time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prevalence of the disease in the area? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited vector season versus continuous vectors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What do the horses do? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pleasure/show/race </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What age are the horses? </li></ul>
    5. 5. How do I decide on a Vaccination Program? <ul><li>Cost of the vaccine </li></ul><ul><li>Risk Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Horse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Isolated versus travel/exposure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccine reaction - benefits versus risk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human health risk - Zoonotic disease (passed from animal to people - Rabies) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vaccine concerns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No vaccine is 100% - prevents or reduces severity of disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The vaccinated animal may still be a vector for disease </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must follow protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Timing of vaccination –seasonality, age </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time to protection after vaccination/booster </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Vaccination Considerations <ul><li>Initial series of injections is needed if vaccination status is negative or unknown </li></ul><ul><li>If available, use combination vaccines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4-way, 5-way = a ‘generic name’ – doesn’t reveal contents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot assume anything – know what is given! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do not administer more than 2 or 3 injections at a time. If more injections are needed to complete a vaccination program, wait a week between injections </li></ul>
    7. 7. Vaccination Sites What determines vaccination site to be used? - Preference of veterinarian/owner - Temperament of horse - Risks of area versus safety Vaccines are primarily administered IM, but not always (strangles, influenza) KNOW YOUR VACCINE NEVER inject in the neck of a Nursing foal
    8. 8. Vaccines available: <ul><li>• Encephalomyelitis ** • Strangles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EEE/WEE/VEE • Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>West Nile Virus • Rotavirus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>• Tetanus ** • Botulism </li></ul><ul><li>• Rabies ** • Anthrax </li></ul><ul><li>• Influenza </li></ul><ul><li>• Equine Herpes (Rhinopneumonitis) (E H V 1 & 4) </li></ul><ul><li>• Potomac Horse Fever </li></ul>** Core Vaccines
    9. 9. Core Vaccines
    10. 10. Tetanus <ul><li>Bacterial disease - Clostridium tetani </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spore forming organism producing toxins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in intestinal tract as well as soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present on all horse facilities - worldwide </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incidence is low, but mortality is nearly 100% </li></ul><ul><li>Tetanus toxoid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term protection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tetanus antitoxin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short-term protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Associated with Serum hepatitis (Theiler’s Disease) in horses over 1 year of age </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Tetanus <ul><li>Vaccine very effective and cheap </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical signs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General stiffness (saw horse stance) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ears pricked forward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>React to sudden noise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As disease progresses: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unable to eat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lateral recumbancy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Death </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Occurs after injury or surgery </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Booster? Depends on age and last vaccination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TAT concerns </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Encephalomyelitis (EEE, WEE, VEE, WNV) <ul><li>Viral disease </li></ul><ul><li>Transmitted by mosquitoes </li></ul><ul><li>Birds are the reservoirs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can over-winter in birds/mosquitoes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Horses and humans are dead-end hosts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VEE may be an exception </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disease of mid-to-late summer/fall in Michigan </li></ul><ul><li>VEE is rarely a problem in USA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central/South America </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Encephalomyelitis
    14. 14. Encephalomyelitis <ul><li>Clinical signs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neurologic - circling, head pressing, uncoordinated, depressed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recumbency (laying down) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Morbidity/Mortality </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EEE, WEE, VEE - very high, especially young/old </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>West Nile - 30 - 40% die </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Immune system status important </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Survival </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>West Nile - horses normal or only slight residue effects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EEE, WEE, VEE - rarely normal, if survive </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Encephalomyelitis <ul><li>Vaccines are very effective and cheap </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WNV is currently more expensive then EEE, WEE, VEE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WNV is currently available from your veterinarian (Fort Dodge, Merial and Intervet) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fort Dodge has a combination vaccine that has WNV present </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intervet has protection after one dose </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccines should be given in the late spring or twice a year in warm climates (EEE,WEE,VEE, WNV) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>VEE not necessary in northern areas </li></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 18. Rabies <ul><li>Viral disease </li></ul><ul><li>Zoonotic disease - can be spread to other species </li></ul><ul><li>Fatal disease </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical signs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neurological - presentation can vary greatly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vaccination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>use approved product – annual vaccination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>check the dosage – 1cc to 2cc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>effective vaccine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Veterinarian – document usage </li></ul></ul>
    17. 19. Other Vaccine Considerations
    18. 20. Equine Influenza <ul><li>Common viral equine disease </li></ul><ul><li>2 most common strains (A1 & A2) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>subject to antigenic drift, A2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vaccine immunity is short-lived </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Killed product – need to select the most recent strain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modified live vaccine – seems to be more protective, Intranasal vaccine; not available in combination product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Re-vaccinate ?? times/yr (vaccine dependent/ use of horse, but usually 1-2X/year) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research – start foals later </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccinated dam – 9, 10, 11 mo. (aaep changes) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non vaccinated dam – 6, 7, 8 mo. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    19. 21. Equine Influenza <ul><li>Clinical signs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily concerned with down time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 - 3 day incubation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elevated temp (up to 1050F) for up to 5 days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can cause loss of appetite and dullness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry cough that can last for several weeks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nasal discharge – initially clear > cloudy (secondary bacterial infection?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low secondary complications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Severe pneumonia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Death </li></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 22. Equine Rhinopneumonitis Equine Herpes Virus ( EHV 1 & 4) <ul><li>Viral disease </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical presentations vary depending on virus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respiratory disease – EHV 1 & 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproductive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Late-term abortions – EHV 1 & ocassionally EHV 4 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Equine Colital Exanthema – EHV 3 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(venereal) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keratoconjunctivitis – EHV 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neurological – EHV 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily due to viral mutation, but not all </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 23. Equine Rhinopneumonitis <ul><li>Clinical signs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to influenza for respiratory disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concerns: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Down time (respiratory) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quarantine of facilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abortion of fetus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Severe neurological disease and possible death/euthanasia </li></ul></ul></ul>
    22. 24. Equine Rhinopneumonitis <ul><li>Vaccine available (EHV 1 & 4) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immunity short-lived </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modified live vaccine - use in performance horses only! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Killed vaccine - use in pregnant mares / performance horses ([3],5,7,&9 months gestation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccination does not prevent the neurological form, but may reduce the amount and time the virus is shed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foals – may want to start later as with influenza </li></ul></ul>
    23. 26. Strangles <ul><li>Bacterial disease - Streptococcus equi </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical Signs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily respiratory with swollen draining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lymph nodes and purulent nasal discharge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incubation: 3 - 10 days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression/reduced appetite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Normally recover from uncomplicated form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bastard Strangles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Purpura Hemorragica(vascular changes – oozing legs) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pneumonia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Persistent infection (Nasal Discharge) - Chondroids </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 27. Strangles <ul><li>Treatment antibiotics ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Penicillin drug </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Varies by veterinarian/owner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncomplicated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>+/- of choice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need at least 10 -14 days treatment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complicated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Antibiotics: long-term </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supportive care: tracheotomy, surgical drainage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Immunity: long-term </li></ul><ul><li>Disease of young/naïve horses </li></ul><ul><li>Disease outbreak usually lasts about 3 months on a farm </li></ul>
    25. 28. Strangles <ul><li>Extremely contagious </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccine available </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccinate? Consider risk factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Killed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>M protein </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Efficacy is about 50% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use in broodmares to provide colostral antibodies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modified live intranasal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Efficacy appears to be better </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Should not be given at same time as any IM injections - ABSCESSES </li></ul></ul></ul>
    26. 29. Potomac Horse Fever <ul><li>Caused by Ehrlichia risticii (Neorichetsia risticii) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple strains now known </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission involves snails, trematodes and flying aquatic insects (eaten on pasture) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Associated with water, warm and humid/wet weather </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clinical Signs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ADR (ain’t doin right) and decreased appetite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fever – may miss initial fever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diarrhea – immediate attention required when 1st noticed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible laminitis, can be mild to severe, may require euthanasia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abortion </li></ul></ul>
    27. 30. Potomac Horse Fever <ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain hydration-drinking/oral/IV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxytetracycline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Banamine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laminitis treatment - if occurs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outcome depends on keeping horse hydrated and laminitis if it occurs; severity? </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Move horses if in endemic areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn off barn light to reduce insect attraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccine available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only to one strain, efficacy is questionable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccinate in spring and booster?? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can contract disease even if vaccinated </li></ul></ul></ul>
    28. 31. Anthrax <ul><li>Use in endemic areas only </li></ul><ul><li>Consult with your veterinarian </li></ul><ul><li>Initially two doses subcutaneously, then annually </li></ul><ul><li>Do not use in pregnant mares or foals </li></ul><ul><li>Live vaccine – human health risk </li></ul>
    29. 32. Broodmares
    30. 33. Rotavirus <ul><li>Treatment is primarily supportive: IV fluids, oral feeding </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccination of the mare prior to foaling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing the foal with colostrum from vaccinated mare at birth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean mare and stall before foaling </li></ul></ul>
    31. 34. Equine Viral Arteritis <ul><li>Viral disease </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical signs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Edema/swelling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early embryonic death/abortion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Potential for mare to be infected from carrier stallion semen </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccinate mare before being bred to a carrier stallion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccinate young colts that are potential stallion prospects before sexual maturity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>International considerations for vaccinated horses </li></ul>
    32. 35. Botulism <ul><li>Bacterial disease - Clostridium botulinum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spore forming and produces toxins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not a major problem in the midwest </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical signs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neuromuscular weakness/paralysis - mild to severe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neurologically bright and alert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affects horses of all ages </li></ul></ul>
    33. 36. Botulism <ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antitoxin - expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supportive care – long-term needed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccine available (B toxin) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>efficacy is good, but other toxins (8) with no vaccines or cross protection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Initially, 3 doses for broodmare or foal, then annually </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consideration, if traveling to endemic areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kentucky, mid-atlantic areas </li></ul></ul></ul>
    34. 37. What is best for my farm? <ul><li>Work with your veterinarian </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What vaccines should I use? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When is the best time to give them? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How many doses are needed to give adequate protection initially? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do all horses develop protection? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How often do they need to be boostered - once, twice or more per year? </li></ul></ul>
    35. 38. General Vaccination Program Considerations <ul><li>Young foal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccinated Dam: Do not begin foal vaccinations until at least 5 - 6 mo of age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-vaccinated dam: Begin foal vaccinations at 3 - 4 mo of age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Booster at 3 - 4 week interval(s) – 2 vs 3 boosters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adult horse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unknown vaccination status – requires boosters as for foal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annually (minimally) after initial series – disease and local considerations </li></ul></ul>
    36. 39. General Vaccination Program Considerations <ul><li>Broodmares </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To prevent abortion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EHV vaccine is given multiple times during gestation (killed products only) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EVA vaccine is given in high risk situations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotavirus vaccine: multiple boosters (8, 9, 10 mo) before foaling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annual vaccines to mare 4 - 6 weeks before foaling to boost colostral immunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional boosters may be needed, especially if foaling early </li></ul></ul>
    37. 40. Vaccination Guidelines <ul><li> </li></ul>
    38. 41. Questions
    39. 42. Thank you for attending this live web presentation! For more information about My Horse University and its online program, Please visit us at: My Horse University is a national online program based at Michigan State University in partnership with eXtension and Equisearch . Contact us! [email_address] (517) 353-3123