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Vaccinating Your Horse (Marteniuk)
Vaccinating Your Horse (Marteniuk)
Vaccinating Your Horse (Marteniuk)
Vaccinating Your Horse (Marteniuk)
Vaccinating Your Horse (Marteniuk)
Vaccinating Your Horse (Marteniuk)
Vaccinating Your Horse (Marteniuk)
Vaccinating Your Horse (Marteniuk)
Vaccinating Your Horse (Marteniuk)
Vaccinating Your Horse (Marteniuk)
Vaccinating Your Horse (Marteniuk)
Vaccinating Your Horse (Marteniuk)
Vaccinating Your Horse (Marteniuk)
Vaccinating Your Horse (Marteniuk)
Vaccinating Your Horse (Marteniuk)
Vaccinating Your Horse (Marteniuk)
Vaccinating Your Horse (Marteniuk)
Vaccinating Your Horse (Marteniuk)
Vaccinating Your Horse (Marteniuk)
Vaccinating Your Horse (Marteniuk)
Vaccinating Your Horse (Marteniuk)
Vaccinating Your Horse (Marteniuk)
Vaccinating Your Horse (Marteniuk)
Vaccinating Your Horse (Marteniuk)
Vaccinating Your Horse (Marteniuk)
Vaccinating Your Horse (Marteniuk)
Vaccinating Your Horse (Marteniuk)
Vaccinating Your Horse (Marteniuk)
Vaccinating Your Horse (Marteniuk)
Vaccinating Your Horse (Marteniuk)
Vaccinating Your Horse (Marteniuk)
Vaccinating Your Horse (Marteniuk)
Vaccinating Your Horse (Marteniuk)
Vaccinating Your Horse (Marteniuk)
Vaccinating Your Horse (Marteniuk)
Vaccinating Your Horse (Marteniuk)
Vaccinating Your Horse (Marteniuk)
Vaccinating Your Horse (Marteniuk)
Vaccinating Your Horse (Marteniuk)
Vaccinating Your Horse (Marteniuk)
Vaccinating Your Horse (Marteniuk)
Vaccinating Your Horse (Marteniuk)
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Vaccinating Your Horse (Marteniuk)

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  • Late spring – because mosquito season starts at that time and duration of protection time is still under investigation.
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    • 1. Dr. Judy Marteniuk Michigan State University Please note: This presentation is intended for users with high-speed internet connections. Unfortunately, we cannot offer support for dial-up users at this time. Contact us! [email_address] www.myhorseuniversity.com (517) 353-3123 Welcome to this live web presentation featuring:
    • 2. Judy Marteniuk, DVM Equine Medicine and Extension Michigan State University Vaccinating Your Horse
    • 3. Preventive Program <ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Housing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pasture/Fencing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vaccinations </li></ul><ul><li>Parasite control </li></ul><ul><li>Farrier </li></ul><ul><li>Dental </li></ul>
    • 4. How do I decide on a Vaccination Program? <ul><li>What does the disease do? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mortality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Down time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prevalence of the disease in the area? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited vector season versus continuous vectors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What do the horses do? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pleasure/show/race </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What age are the horses? </li></ul>
    • 5. How do I decide on a Vaccination Program? <ul><li>Cost of the vaccine </li></ul><ul><li>Risk Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Horse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Isolated versus travel/exposure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccine reaction - benefits versus risk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human health risk - Zoonotic disease (passed from animal to people - Rabies) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vaccine concerns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No vaccine is 100% - prevents or reduces severity of disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The vaccinated animal may still be a vector for disease </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must follow protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Timing of vaccination –seasonality, age </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time to protection after vaccination/booster </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 6. Vaccination Considerations <ul><li>Initial series of injections is needed if vaccination status is negative or unknown </li></ul><ul><li>If available, use combination vaccines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4-way, 5-way = a ‘generic name’ – doesn’t reveal contents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot assume anything – know what is given! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do not administer more than 2 or 3 injections at a time. If more injections are needed to complete a vaccination program, wait a week between injections </li></ul>
    • 7. Vaccination Sites What determines vaccination site to be used? - Preference of veterinarian/owner - Temperament of horse - Risks of area versus safety Vaccines are primarily administered IM, but not always (strangles, influenza) KNOW YOUR VACCINE NEVER inject in the neck of a Nursing foal
    • 8. Vaccines available: <ul><li>• Encephalomyelitis ** • Strangles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EEE/WEE/VEE • Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>West Nile Virus • Rotavirus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>• Tetanus ** • Botulism </li></ul><ul><li>• Rabies ** • Anthrax </li></ul><ul><li>• Influenza </li></ul><ul><li>• Equine Herpes (Rhinopneumonitis) (E H V 1 & 4) </li></ul><ul><li>• Potomac Horse Fever </li></ul>** Core Vaccines aaep.org
    • 9. Core Vaccines
    • 10. Tetanus <ul><li>Bacterial disease - Clostridium tetani </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spore forming organism producing toxins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in intestinal tract as well as soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present on all horse facilities - worldwide </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Incidence is low, but mortality is nearly 100% </li></ul><ul><li>Tetanus toxoid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term protection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tetanus antitoxin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short-term protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Associated with Serum hepatitis (Theiler’s Disease) in horses over 1 year of age </li></ul></ul>
    • 11. Tetanus <ul><li>Vaccine very effective and cheap </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical signs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General stiffness (saw horse stance) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ears pricked forward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>React to sudden noise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As disease progresses: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unable to eat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lateral recumbancy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Death </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Occurs after injury or surgery </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Booster? Depends on age and last vaccination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TAT concerns </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 12. Encephalomyelitis (EEE, WEE, VEE, WNV) <ul><li>Viral disease </li></ul><ul><li>Transmitted by mosquitoes </li></ul><ul><li>Birds are the reservoirs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can over-winter in birds/mosquitoes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Horses and humans are dead-end hosts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VEE may be an exception </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disease of mid-to-late summer/fall in Michigan </li></ul><ul><li>VEE is rarely a problem in USA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central/South America </li></ul></ul>
    • 13. Encephalomyelitis
    • 14. Encephalomyelitis <ul><li>Clinical signs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neurologic - circling, head pressing, uncoordinated, depressed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recumbency (laying down) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Morbidity/Mortality </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EEE, WEE, VEE - very high, especially young/old </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>West Nile - 30 - 40% die </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Immune system status important </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Survival </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>West Nile - horses normal or only slight residue effects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EEE, WEE, VEE - rarely normal, if survive </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 15. Encephalomyelitis <ul><li>Vaccines are very effective and cheap </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WNV is currently more expensive then EEE, WEE, VEE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WNV is currently available from your veterinarian (Fort Dodge, Merial and Intervet) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fort Dodge has a combination vaccine that has WNV present </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intervet has protection after one dose </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccines should be given in the late spring or twice a year in warm climates (EEE,WEE,VEE, WNV) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>VEE not necessary in northern areas </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 16.  
    • 17.  
    • 18. Rabies <ul><li>Viral disease </li></ul><ul><li>Zoonotic disease - can be spread to other species </li></ul><ul><li>Fatal disease </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical signs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neurological - presentation can vary greatly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vaccination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>use approved product – annual vaccination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>check the dosage – 1cc to 2cc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>effective vaccine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Veterinarian – document usage </li></ul></ul>
    • 19. Other Vaccine Considerations
    • 20. Equine Influenza <ul><li>Common viral equine disease </li></ul><ul><li>2 most common strains (A1 & A2) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>subject to antigenic drift, A2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vaccine immunity is short-lived </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Killed product – need to select the most recent strain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modified live vaccine – seems to be more protective, Intranasal vaccine; not available in combination product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Re-vaccinate ?? times/yr (vaccine dependent/ use of horse, but usually 1-2X/year) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research – start foals later </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccinated dam – 9, 10, 11 mo. (aaep changes) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non vaccinated dam – 6, 7, 8 mo. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 21. Equine Influenza <ul><li>Clinical signs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily concerned with down time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 - 3 day incubation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elevated temp (up to 1050F) for up to 5 days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can cause loss of appetite and dullness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry cough that can last for several weeks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nasal discharge – initially clear > cloudy (secondary bacterial infection?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low secondary complications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Severe pneumonia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Death </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 22. Equine Rhinopneumonitis Equine Herpes Virus ( EHV 1 & 4) <ul><li>Viral disease </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical presentations vary depending on virus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respiratory disease – EHV 1 & 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproductive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Late-term abortions – EHV 1 & ocassionally EHV 4 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Equine Colital Exanthema – EHV 3 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(venereal) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keratoconjunctivitis – EHV 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neurological – EHV 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily due to viral mutation, but not all </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 23. Equine Rhinopneumonitis <ul><li>Clinical signs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to influenza for respiratory disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concerns: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Down time (respiratory) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quarantine of facilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abortion of fetus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Severe neurological disease and possible death/euthanasia </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 24. Equine Rhinopneumonitis <ul><li>Vaccine available (EHV 1 & 4) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immunity short-lived </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modified live vaccine - use in performance horses only! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Killed vaccine - use in pregnant mares / performance horses ([3],5,7,&9 months gestation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccination does not prevent the neurological form, but may reduce the amount and time the virus is shed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foals – may want to start later as with influenza </li></ul></ul>
    • 25.  
    • 26. Strangles <ul><li>Bacterial disease - Streptococcus equi </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical Signs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily respiratory with swollen draining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lymph nodes and purulent nasal discharge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incubation: 3 - 10 days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression/reduced appetite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Normally recover from uncomplicated form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bastard Strangles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Purpura Hemorragica(vascular changes – oozing legs) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pneumonia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Persistent infection (Nasal Discharge) - Chondroids </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 27. Strangles <ul><li>Treatment antibiotics ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Penicillin drug </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Varies by veterinarian/owner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncomplicated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>+/- of choice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need at least 10 -14 days treatment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complicated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Antibiotics: long-term </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supportive care: tracheotomy, surgical drainage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Immunity: long-term </li></ul><ul><li>Disease of young/naïve horses </li></ul><ul><li>Disease outbreak usually lasts about 3 months on a farm </li></ul>
    • 28. Strangles <ul><li>Extremely contagious </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccine available </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccinate? Consider risk factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Killed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>M protein </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Efficacy is about 50% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use in broodmares to provide colostral antibodies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modified live intranasal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Efficacy appears to be better </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Should not be given at same time as any IM injections - ABSCESSES </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 29. Potomac Horse Fever <ul><li>Caused by Ehrlichia risticii (Neorichetsia risticii) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple strains now known </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission involves snails, trematodes and flying aquatic insects (eaten on pasture) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Associated with water, warm and humid/wet weather </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clinical Signs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ADR (ain’t doin right) and decreased appetite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fever – may miss initial fever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diarrhea – immediate attention required when 1st noticed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible laminitis, can be mild to severe, may require euthanasia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abortion </li></ul></ul>
    • 30. Potomac Horse Fever <ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain hydration-drinking/oral/IV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxytetracycline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Banamine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laminitis treatment - if occurs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outcome depends on keeping horse hydrated and laminitis if it occurs; severity? </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Move horses if in endemic areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn off barn light to reduce insect attraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccine available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only to one strain, efficacy is questionable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccinate in spring and booster?? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can contract disease even if vaccinated </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 31. Anthrax <ul><li>Use in endemic areas only </li></ul><ul><li>Consult with your veterinarian </li></ul><ul><li>Initially two doses subcutaneously, then annually </li></ul><ul><li>Do not use in pregnant mares or foals </li></ul><ul><li>Live vaccine – human health risk </li></ul>
    • 32. Broodmares
    • 33. Rotavirus <ul><li>Treatment is primarily supportive: IV fluids, oral feeding </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccination of the mare prior to foaling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing the foal with colostrum from vaccinated mare at birth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean mare and stall before foaling </li></ul></ul>
    • 34. Equine Viral Arteritis <ul><li>Viral disease </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical signs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Edema/swelling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early embryonic death/abortion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Potential for mare to be infected from carrier stallion semen </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccinate mare before being bred to a carrier stallion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccinate young colts that are potential stallion prospects before sexual maturity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>International considerations for vaccinated horses </li></ul>
    • 35. Botulism <ul><li>Bacterial disease - Clostridium botulinum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spore forming and produces toxins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not a major problem in the midwest </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical signs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neuromuscular weakness/paralysis - mild to severe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neurologically bright and alert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affects horses of all ages </li></ul></ul>
    • 36. Botulism <ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antitoxin - expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supportive care – long-term needed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prevention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccine available (B toxin) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>efficacy is good, but other toxins (8) with no vaccines or cross protection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Initially, 3 doses for broodmare or foal, then annually </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consideration, if traveling to endemic areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kentucky, mid-atlantic areas </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 37. What is best for my farm? <ul><li>Work with your veterinarian </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What vaccines should I use? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When is the best time to give them? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How many doses are needed to give adequate protection initially? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do all horses develop protection? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How often do they need to be boostered - once, twice or more per year? </li></ul></ul>
    • 38. General Vaccination Program Considerations <ul><li>Young foal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccinated Dam: Do not begin foal vaccinations until at least 5 - 6 mo of age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-vaccinated dam: Begin foal vaccinations at 3 - 4 mo of age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Booster at 3 - 4 week interval(s) – 2 vs 3 boosters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adult horse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unknown vaccination status – requires boosters as for foal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annually (minimally) after initial series – disease and local considerations </li></ul></ul>
    • 39. General Vaccination Program Considerations <ul><li>Broodmares </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To prevent abortion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EHV vaccine is given multiple times during gestation (killed products only) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EVA vaccine is given in high risk situations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotavirus vaccine: multiple boosters (8, 9, 10 mo) before foaling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annual vaccines to mare 4 - 6 weeks before foaling to boost colostral immunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional boosters may be needed, especially if foaling early </li></ul></ul>
    • 40. Vaccination Guidelines <ul><li>http://www.aaep.org/vaccination_guidelines.htm </li></ul>
    • 41. Questions
    • 42. Thank you for attending this live web presentation! For more information about My Horse University and its online program, Please visit us at: www.myhorseuniversity.com My Horse University is a national online program based at Michigan State University in partnership with eXtension and Equisearch . Contact us! [email_address] www.myhorseuniversity.com (517) 353-3123

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