Nutritional Supplements For Horses Williams
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    Nutritional Supplements For Horses Williams Nutritional Supplements For Horses Williams Presentation Transcript

    • My Horse University and eXtension’sHorseQuestwelcome you to this live Webcast.
      Supplements,
      Choosing Them
      Wisely
      Carey Williams, PhD
      Equine Extension Specialist
      University of Minnesota
    • Meet our presenter:
      Dr. Carey Williams
      Equine Extension Specialist
      Rutgers University
    • Current Use of Supplements
      Multi-million dollar market
      Before 1 page in catalogues,now 20 pages
      ~70% horses receive sometype of supplement
    • Why Use a Supplement?
      Something missing fromnormal diet
      Improve a problem
      Improve performance
      Prevent performance failure
      Cover all bases
    • Do We Need to Supplement
      Not if normal horse with well-balanced diet
      What is a well-balanced diet?
      • Minimum feeding rate forcommercial feed
      • Appropriate feed
      • Quality forage
      What is a normal horse?
      • Wear & tear
    • Balanced Diet
      Red = forage
      Yellow = pellet
      Blue = salt
      Nutrients meet or
      Exceed requirements
    • Dietary Supplement
      A product that contains one or more of the following dietary ingredients
      • Vitamin
      • Mineral
      • Herb or other botanical
      • Amino acid (protein)
    • Nutraceutical
      Any non-toxic food component that has scientifically proven health benefits, including disease treatment and prevention
      “nutra” = nutrient
      • Nourishing food or food component
      “ceutical” = pharmaceutical
      • Nourishing food or food component
      “nutraceutical” = food that acts like drug
    • Nutraceuticals
      Enzymes
      • Super oxide dismutase
      • Catalase
      Fatty acids
      • Eicosanoids
      Amino Acids
      • Creatine
      • L-Carnatine
      • Glutamine
      Glucosamines/CS/HA
      MSM/
      HMB
      Coenzyme Q10
      DMG
      Vitamin F
      (Herbs)
    • Herbal Supplements
      Not true nutraceutical
      Many have drug action
      • More than one active component
      • Possible interactions
      No regulation in herbal products for horses
      Some testing done in humans and lab animals
      • More studies done in Germany
      Warn people to read as much as they can on the herb before supplementing
      • Consult with vet if they are on any medications
    • Herbal Supplements
      Devil’s Claw – anti-inflammatory effect
      Echinecea– anti-inflam. And antioxidant effect
      • In horses, found to have immune stim. effect
      Garlic – anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-fungal, and anti-parasitical
      • In horses, freeze dried garlic fed at > 0.4 g/kg/d developed symptoms of Heinz body anaemia
      Ginger – anti-thrombitic, antioxidant, anti-inflam., and anti-bacterial properties
      • In horses, reduced cardio recovery after exercise, but increased inflam. cytokines
    • Herbal Supplements
      Ginseng – immunostimulating, anti-inflam., and antioxidant properties
      Valerian Root – sedative, anti-spasmodic effects
      • Found in many ‘calming aids’
      Yucca – anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-spasmodic effect
      • Used to reduce pain and inflam. of arthritis
      • Found in many joint supplements
      Etc…
      • Flaxseed, liquorice, cranberry, horse chestnut, green and black tea, etc.
    • Oral Joint Supplements
      Two major goals
      • Unsound to Sound
      • “Heal”
      • Prevention
      • “Resistant”
      Research slow to prove effectiveness
      Expectations fueled by testimonials and ads
    • Abnormal Joints
      Training hard on joints
      • Swelling
      • Soreness
      Inflammation
      • Acute vs. Chronic
      Caused by:
      • Mechanical Stress (injury, poor conformation)
      • Chemical Stress (bacterial)
      Result = Osteoarthritis
    • Chondroitin Sulfate
      Is part of the natural body lubricants called glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)
      Elements of connective tissue and cartilage
      • Help with cartilage damage
      • Replace proteoglycan
      • Anti-inflammatory effect
      • Inhibit enzyme destruction
      Absorption by gut – 32%
      • Large molecule
      • Broken down and reassembled?
    • Glucosamine
      Makes up ½ of the hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate molecules
      Helps form proteoglycans that lubricate and protect cartilage
      • Precursor to GAG
      • Is the “rate-limiting” step in production of GAGs
      • Anti-inflammatory effect
      Absorption documents – 2.5%
      Most supplements don’t have adequate amount
    • Hyaluronic Acid
      Component of joint fluid
      Produced by synovial membrane
      • Lubricates joint
      • Cushions cartilage
      • Protects synovial membranes
      Supplemental HA helps lubricatejoints with arthritis
      One of the most abundant GAGs in the body
    • MSM
      “Methylsulfonylmethane”
      Source of elemental SULFUR
      Component of collagen
      • Protein structures (hair, nails andconnective tissues)
      No research to back claims
      Found in low levels in foods
    • Manganese
      Trace mineral
      Required as co-factor for synthesisof GAG
      Added to make sure enough Mnavailable for synthesis
      Nutrient requirement vs. intake
      • Little danger
    • Manganese
      Supplemented as Ascorbate orAscorbic acid
      Co-factor for formation of collagen
      Horses produce their ownVitamin C
      More = better?
    • Joint Supplements
      OVERALL: Found to be only beneficial in treating an existing joint problem
      Not used as a preventive measure
    • Antioxidants
      Antioxidant supplements:
      Vitamin E (most common)
      Vitamin C
      Beta-Carotene
      Glutathione
      Lipoic Acid
      Selenium
      Cysteine
    • Antioxidant Action
      Oxidation
      Antioxidant
      Free Radicals
      Stable Chemical
      Stable Chemicals
    • Oxidative Stress in Horses
      Inflammation
      Reproduction
      UV Rays
      OtherStresses
      Viral Infection
      Rapid Growth
      Environmental Toxins
      Poor Nutrition
      Protozoa
      Exercise
    • Vitamin A
      Precursor is Beta Carotene
      Risk of:
      • Cancer
      • Cardiovascular disease
      • Macular degeneration
      Deficiency
      • Night blindness
      • Sever joint lesions
    • Vitamin A & Vitamin E
      Normally supplied in fresh pasture
      Poor pasture may have low vitamin levels
      (Greiwe-Crandell et al., 1995)
    • Vitamin E & C
      Vitamin C may spare vitamin E by reducing radicals and restoring vitamin E activity
      Polo ponies at high exercise intensities benefited from Vitamins E + C supplementation
    • Vitamin E & Se
      Se is a cofactor for GPx, an antioxidant enzyme
      • Most commercial feeds have additional Se
      • Soil content varies throughout the country
      • Can be toxic!
      • Blind staggers = weight loss, anorexia, excessive salivation, jaundice or necrosis of heart and liver
      Required = 0.3 mg/kg diet (about 3 mg/day)
      • Toxic = about 18 mg/day
      Se + E can potentate the antioxidant effects
    • Water & Electrolytes
      Exercise:  heat production
      Dissipated in sweat and respiratory tract
       losses of electrolytes
      Dehydration results in  performance
      • Accompanied by coldness, fatigue, muscular tremors, colic, thumps, appetite
    • Electrolytes
      Carry an electrical charge
      Endurance horses can lose upto 6-8% of their BW as water
      Largest portion of horse sweat is Na, Cl, K
      • These increase 3-, 7-, 6-fold
      • Small amounts of Ca and P
      Na, K, Mg, Ca, Cl
    • Electrolytes
      Not all electrolytes are created equal
      Look for % sugar or ingredient listing
      • Dextrose
      • Sucrose
      1st ingredient should be salt (sodiumchloride)
      If it doesn’t taste like salt it will not do much for your horse
    • Electrolytes for Competition
      Preloading
      • In feed
      • In water
      • Dose
      Preloading
      • 1-2 oz. at every vet check
      Dose supplementation
      • Applesauce/Yogurt
      • Corn syrup
      • Maylox
    • Hoof Supplements
      Experiments with positive results on:
      • Biotin – therapeutic quantities
      • Zinc
      May help poor feet
      • Dependant on problem
      Won’t help good feet
      Good balanced diet may be moreeffective than hoof supplement
    • Major Nutrients for Hooves
      Biotin
      • B Vitamin activates production of keratin
      Iodine
      • Essential for thyroid hormones that develop all tissues
      Methionine
      • Responsible for keratin within the hoof
      Zinc
      • Contributes to the health of the hoof & reactions controlling metabolism
    • Recommended Dosages
      Biotin: 20 mg/day
      Iodine: 1 mg/day
      Methionine: Not known
      Zinc: 175-250 mg/day
      Cost comparison; checkdaily dose size!
    • Coat Conditioner
      Nutrients that help hoofquality, help coat
      High fat diets
      • Essential fatty acids
      • Omega 3 & 6
      • Flax/linseed
      Elbow grease
    • Calming Aids
      Supplements for the nervous horse
      Vitamin B’s – Thiamine is the one that is commonly used to calm a nervous horse
      • Water soluble they will not be toxic at these supplemented levels
      Tryptophan (amino acid)
      Magnesium
      • Make sure you are not overdoing the Mg
      • If you are on another mineral supplement I would stop feeding it with the calming aid
    • Digestive Aids
      Probiotics
      • Naturally occurring live organisms
      • Produce digestive enzymes, B-vitamins and growth inhibitors help break down nutrients
      • Used after antibiotic treatment, illness or surgery, or other stresses
      Yeast  fiber digestion
      • Normalize problem feces, including diarrhea
      • Stabilize gut pH
      • Decrease disease-causing bacteria
    • Other Supplements
      Muscle builders
      • Amino acids
      • Lysine and threonine are limiting
      • Gamma oryzanol
      • Extracted from rice bran
      Weight builders (fats)
      • Omega-3 fatty acids
      • Found in fish oil and flax seed
    • Other Supplements
      Help with anhidrosis
      • Based on the theory of an imbalance of dopamine to the nor-adrenaline/adrenaline complex
      Stop a horse from chewing wood
      • High in fiber
      Immune stimulatory
      • Many herbal products
      • Antioxidants
    • Summary
      Herbal supplements are NOT always safe
      Joint supplements are NOT the magic drug
      Electrolytes are NOT needed as a daily supplement
      Digestive aids will NOT help a normal horse
      Hoof supplements will NOT improve hooves overnight
      Read labels before purchasing supplements!
      Be an educated buyer!
    • Give us your feedback!
      You will receive a survey by email in 1-2 days. Please take a few minutes to give us your feedback on this webcast. It will help us to better serve you!
    • Upcoming Webcasts
      Horse Health Series
      Colic: Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention | Jan. 19
      Respiratory Disease: Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention | Feb. 16
      Lameness in the Performance Horse | March 16
      Rehabilitating the Lame Horse | March 23
      Equine Emergency First Aid | April 20
      All Webcasts will be at 7PM ET
    • Thank you!
      Thank you for attending this live Web presentation!
      For more information about
      My Horse University, please visit us at:
      www.myhorseuniversity.com
      info@myhorseuniversity.com | www.myhorseuniversity.com | 517-353-3123