Nutritional Supplements For Horses Williams


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Nutritional Supplements For Horses Williams

  1. 1. My Horse University and eXtension’sHorseQuestwelcome you to this live Webcast.<br />Supplements,<br />Choosing Them<br />Wisely<br />Carey Williams, PhD<br />Equine Extension Specialist<br />University of Minnesota<br />
  2. 2. Meet our presenter:<br />Dr. Carey Williams<br />Equine Extension Specialist<br />Rutgers University<br />
  3. 3. Current Use of Supplements<br />Multi-million dollar market<br />Before 1 page in catalogues,now 20 pages<br />~70% horses receive sometype of supplement<br />
  4. 4. Why Use a Supplement?<br />Something missing fromnormal diet<br />Improve a problem<br />Improve performance<br />Prevent performance failure<br />Cover all bases<br />
  5. 5. Do We Need to Supplement<br />Not if normal horse with well-balanced diet<br />What is a well-balanced diet?<br /><ul><li>Minimum feeding rate forcommercial feed
  6. 6. Appropriate feed
  7. 7. Quality forage</li></ul>What is a normal horse?<br /><ul><li>Wear & tear</li></li></ul><li>Balanced Diet<br />Red = forage<br />Yellow = pellet<br />Blue = salt<br />Nutrients meet or<br />Exceed requirements<br />
  8. 8. Dietary Supplement<br />A product that contains one or more of the following dietary ingredients<br /><ul><li>Vitamin
  9. 9. Mineral
  10. 10. Herb or other botanical
  11. 11. Amino acid (protein)</li></li></ul><li>Nutraceutical<br />Any non-toxic food component that has scientifically proven health benefits, including disease treatment and prevention<br />“nutra” = nutrient<br /><ul><li>Nourishing food or food component</li></ul>“ceutical” = pharmaceutical<br /><ul><li>Nourishing food or food component</li></ul>“nutraceutical” = food that acts like drug<br />
  12. 12. Nutraceuticals<br />Enzymes<br /><ul><li>Super oxide dismutase
  13. 13. Catalase</li></ul>Fatty acids<br /><ul><li>Eicosanoids</li></ul>Amino Acids<br /><ul><li>Creatine
  14. 14. L-Carnatine
  15. 15. Glutamine</li></ul>Glucosamines/CS/HA<br />MSM/<br />HMB<br />Coenzyme Q10<br />DMG<br />Vitamin F<br />(Herbs)<br />
  16. 16. Herbal Supplements<br />Not true nutraceutical<br />Many have drug action<br /><ul><li>More than one active component
  17. 17. Possible interactions</li></ul>No regulation in herbal products for horses<br />Some testing done in humans and lab animals<br /><ul><li>More studies done in Germany</li></ul>Warn people to read as much as they can on the herb before supplementing<br /><ul><li>Consult with vet if they are on any medications</li></li></ul><li>Herbal Supplements<br />Devil’s Claw – anti-inflammatory effect<br />Echinecea– anti-inflam. And antioxidant effect<br /><ul><li>In horses, found to have immune stim. effect</li></ul>Garlic – anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-fungal, and anti-parasitical<br /><ul><li>In horses, freeze dried garlic fed at > 0.4 g/kg/d developed symptoms of Heinz body anaemia</li></ul>Ginger – anti-thrombitic, antioxidant, anti-inflam., and anti-bacterial properties<br /><ul><li>In horses, reduced cardio recovery after exercise, but increased inflam. cytokines</li></li></ul><li>Herbal Supplements<br />Ginseng – immunostimulating, anti-inflam., and antioxidant properties<br />Valerian Root – sedative, anti-spasmodic effects<br /><ul><li>Found in many ‘calming aids’</li></ul>Yucca – anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-spasmodic effect<br /><ul><li>Used to reduce pain and inflam. of arthritis
  18. 18. Found in many joint supplements</li></ul>Etc…<br /><ul><li>Flaxseed, liquorice, cranberry, horse chestnut, green and black tea, etc.</li></li></ul><li>Oral Joint Supplements<br />Two major goals<br /><ul><li>Unsound to Sound
  19. 19. “Heal”
  20. 20. Prevention
  21. 21. “Resistant”</li></ul>Research slow to prove effectiveness<br />Expectations fueled by testimonials and ads<br />
  22. 22. Abnormal Joints<br />Training hard on joints<br /><ul><li>Swelling
  23. 23. Soreness</li></ul>Inflammation<br /><ul><li>Acute vs. Chronic</li></ul>Caused by:<br /><ul><li>Mechanical Stress (injury, poor conformation)
  24. 24. Chemical Stress (bacterial)</li></ul>Result = Osteoarthritis<br />
  25. 25. Chondroitin Sulfate<br />Is part of the natural body lubricants called glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)<br />Elements of connective tissue and cartilage <br /><ul><li>Help with cartilage damage
  26. 26. Replace proteoglycan
  27. 27. Anti-inflammatory effect
  28. 28. Inhibit enzyme destruction</li></ul>Absorption by gut – 32%<br /><ul><li>Large molecule
  29. 29. Broken down and reassembled?</li></li></ul><li>Glucosamine<br />Makes up ½ of the hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate molecules<br />Helps form proteoglycans that lubricate and protect cartilage<br /><ul><li>Precursor to GAG
  30. 30. Is the “rate-limiting” step in production of GAGs
  31. 31. Anti-inflammatory effect</li></ul>Absorption documents – 2.5%<br />Most supplements don’t have adequate amount<br />
  32. 32. Hyaluronic Acid<br />Component of joint fluid<br />Produced by synovial membrane<br /><ul><li>Lubricates joint
  33. 33. Cushions cartilage
  34. 34. Protects synovial membranes</li></ul>Supplemental HA helps lubricatejoints with arthritis<br />One of the most abundant GAGs in the body<br />
  35. 35. MSM<br />“Methylsulfonylmethane”<br />Source of elemental SULFUR<br />Component of collagen<br /><ul><li>Protein structures (hair, nails andconnective tissues)</li></ul>No research to back claims<br />Found in low levels in foods<br />
  36. 36. Manganese<br />Trace mineral<br />Required as co-factor for synthesisof GAG<br />Added to make sure enough Mnavailable for synthesis<br />Nutrient requirement vs. intake<br /><ul><li>Little danger</li></li></ul><li>Manganese<br />Supplemented as Ascorbate orAscorbic acid<br />Co-factor for formation of collagen<br />Horses produce their ownVitamin C<br />More = better?<br />
  37. 37. Joint Supplements<br />OVERALL: Found to be only beneficial in treating an existing joint problem<br />Not used as a preventive measure<br />
  38. 38. Antioxidants<br />Antioxidant supplements:<br />Vitamin E (most common)<br />Vitamin C<br />Beta-Carotene<br />Glutathione<br />Lipoic Acid<br />Selenium<br />Cysteine<br />
  39. 39. Antioxidant Action<br />Oxidation<br />Antioxidant<br />Free Radicals<br />Stable Chemical<br />Stable Chemicals<br />
  40. 40. Oxidative Stress in Horses<br />Inflammation<br />Reproduction<br />UV Rays<br />OtherStresses<br />Viral Infection<br />Rapid Growth<br />Environmental Toxins<br />Poor Nutrition<br />Protozoa<br />Exercise<br />
  41. 41. Vitamin A<br />Precursor is Beta Carotene<br />Risk of:<br /><ul><li>Cancer
  42. 42. Cardiovascular disease
  43. 43. Macular degeneration</li></ul>Deficiency<br /><ul><li>Night blindness
  44. 44. Sever joint lesions</li></li></ul><li>Vitamin A & Vitamin E<br />Normally supplied in fresh pasture<br />Poor pasture may have low vitamin levels<br />(Greiwe-Crandell et al., 1995)<br />
  45. 45. Vitamin E & C<br />Vitamin C may spare vitamin E by reducing radicals and restoring vitamin E activity<br />Polo ponies at high exercise intensities benefited from Vitamins E + C supplementation<br />
  46. 46. Vitamin E & Se<br />Se is a cofactor for GPx, an antioxidant enzyme <br /><ul><li>Most commercial feeds have additional Se
  47. 47. Soil content varies throughout the country
  48. 48. Can be toxic!
  49. 49. Blind staggers = weight loss, anorexia, excessive salivation, jaundice or necrosis of heart and liver</li></ul>Required = 0.3 mg/kg diet (about 3 mg/day)<br /><ul><li>Toxic = about 18 mg/day</li></ul>Se + E can potentate the antioxidant effects<br />
  50. 50. Water & Electrolytes<br />Exercise:  heat production<br />Dissipated in sweat and respiratory tract<br /> losses of electrolytes<br />Dehydration results in  performance<br /><ul><li>Accompanied by coldness, fatigue, muscular tremors, colic, thumps, appetite</li></li></ul><li>Electrolytes<br />Carry an electrical charge<br />Endurance horses can lose upto 6-8% of their BW as water<br />Largest portion of horse sweat is Na, Cl, K<br /><ul><li>These increase 3-, 7-, 6-fold
  51. 51. Small amounts of Ca and P</li></ul>Na, K, Mg, Ca, Cl<br />
  52. 52. Electrolytes<br />Not all electrolytes are created equal<br />Look for % sugar or ingredient listing<br /><ul><li>Dextrose
  53. 53. Sucrose</li></ul>1st ingredient should be salt (sodiumchloride)<br />If it doesn’t taste like salt it will not do much for your horse<br />
  54. 54. Electrolytes for Competition<br />Preloading<br /><ul><li>In feed
  55. 55. In water
  56. 56. Dose</li></ul>Preloading<br /><ul><li>1-2 oz. at every vet check</li></ul>Dose supplementation<br /><ul><li>Applesauce/Yogurt
  57. 57. Corn syrup
  58. 58. Maylox</li></li></ul><li>Hoof Supplements<br />Experiments with positive results on:<br /><ul><li>Biotin – therapeutic quantities
  59. 59. Zinc</li></ul>May help poor feet<br /><ul><li>Dependant on problem</li></ul>Won’t help good feet<br />Good balanced diet may be moreeffective than hoof supplement<br />
  60. 60. Major Nutrients for Hooves<br />Biotin<br /><ul><li>B Vitamin activates production of keratin</li></ul>Iodine<br /><ul><li>Essential for thyroid hormones that develop all tissues</li></ul>Methionine<br /><ul><li>Responsible for keratin within the hoof</li></ul>Zinc<br /><ul><li>Contributes to the health of the hoof & reactions controlling metabolism</li></li></ul><li>Recommended Dosages<br />Biotin: 20 mg/day<br />Iodine: 1 mg/day<br />Methionine: Not known<br />Zinc: 175-250 mg/day<br />Cost comparison; checkdaily dose size!<br />
  61. 61. Coat Conditioner<br />Nutrients that help hoofquality, help coat<br />High fat diets<br /><ul><li>Essential fatty acids
  62. 62. Omega 3 & 6
  63. 63. Flax/linseed</li></ul>Elbow grease<br />
  64. 64. Calming Aids<br />Supplements for the nervous horse<br />Vitamin B’s – Thiamine is the one that is commonly used to calm a nervous horse<br /><ul><li>Water soluble they will not be toxic at these supplemented levels</li></ul>Tryptophan (amino acid)<br />Magnesium<br /><ul><li>Make sure you are not overdoing the Mg
  65. 65. If you are on another mineral supplement I would stop feeding it with the calming aid</li></li></ul><li>Digestive Aids<br />Probiotics<br /><ul><li>Naturally occurring live organisms
  66. 66. Produce digestive enzymes, B-vitamins and growth inhibitors help break down nutrients
  67. 67. Used after antibiotic treatment, illness or surgery, or other stresses</li></ul>Yeast  fiber digestion<br /><ul><li>Normalize problem feces, including diarrhea
  68. 68. Stabilize gut pH
  69. 69. Decrease disease-causing bacteria</li></li></ul><li>Other Supplements<br />Muscle builders<br /><ul><li>Amino acids
  70. 70. Lysine and threonine are limiting
  71. 71. Gamma oryzanol
  72. 72. Extracted from rice bran</li></ul>Weight builders (fats)<br /><ul><li>Omega-3 fatty acids
  73. 73. Found in fish oil and flax seed</li></li></ul><li>Other Supplements<br />Help with anhidrosis<br /><ul><li>Based on the theory of an imbalance of dopamine to the nor-adrenaline/adrenaline complex</li></ul>Stop a horse from chewing wood<br /><ul><li>High in fiber</li></ul>Immune stimulatory<br /><ul><li>Many herbal products
  74. 74. Antioxidants</li></li></ul><li>Summary<br />Herbal supplements are NOT always safe<br />Joint supplements are NOT the magic drug<br />Electrolytes are NOT needed as a daily supplement<br />Digestive aids will NOT help a normal horse<br />Hoof supplements will NOT improve hooves overnight<br />Read labels before purchasing supplements!<br />Be an educated buyer!<br />
  75. 75. Give us your feedback!<br />You will receive a survey by email in 1-2 days. Please take a few minutes to give us your feedback on this webcast. It will help us to better serve you!<br />
  76. 76. Upcoming Webcasts<br />Horse Health Series<br />Colic: Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention | Jan. 19<br />Respiratory Disease: Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention | Feb. 16<br />Lameness in the Performance Horse | March 16<br />Rehabilitating the Lame Horse | March 23<br />Equine Emergency First Aid | April 20<br />All Webcasts will be at 7PM ET<br />
  77. 77. Thank you!<br />Thank you for attending this live Web presentation!<br />For more information about<br />My Horse University, please visit us at:<br /><br /> | | 517-353-3123<br />