Nutritional Supplements For Horses Williams

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  • 1. My Horse University and eXtension’sHorseQuestwelcome you to this live Webcast.
    Supplements,
    Choosing Them
    Wisely
    Carey Williams, PhD
    Equine Extension Specialist
    University of Minnesota
  • 2. Meet our presenter:
    Dr. Carey Williams
    Equine Extension Specialist
    Rutgers University
  • 3. Current Use of Supplements
    Multi-million dollar market
    Before 1 page in catalogues,now 20 pages
    ~70% horses receive sometype of supplement
  • 4. Why Use a Supplement?
    Something missing fromnormal diet
    Improve a problem
    Improve performance
    Prevent performance failure
    Cover all bases
  • 5. Do We Need to Supplement
    Not if normal horse with well-balanced diet
    What is a well-balanced diet?
    • Minimum feeding rate forcommercial feed
    • 6. Appropriate feed
    • 7. Quality forage
    What is a normal horse?
    • Wear & tear
  • Balanced Diet
    Red = forage
    Yellow = pellet
    Blue = salt
    Nutrients meet or
    Exceed requirements
  • 8. Dietary Supplement
    A product that contains one or more of the following dietary ingredients
    • Vitamin
    • 9. Mineral
    • 10. Herb or other botanical
    • 11. Amino acid (protein)
  • Nutraceutical
    Any non-toxic food component that has scientifically proven health benefits, including disease treatment and prevention
    “nutra” = nutrient
    • Nourishing food or food component
    “ceutical” = pharmaceutical
    • Nourishing food or food component
    “nutraceutical” = food that acts like drug
  • 12. Nutraceuticals
    Enzymes
    • Super oxide dismutase
    • 13. Catalase
    Fatty acids
    • Eicosanoids
    Amino Acids
    Glucosamines/CS/HA
    MSM/
    HMB
    Coenzyme Q10
    DMG
    Vitamin F
    (Herbs)
  • 16. Herbal Supplements
    Not true nutraceutical
    Many have drug action
    • More than one active component
    • 17. Possible interactions
    No regulation in herbal products for horses
    Some testing done in humans and lab animals
    • More studies done in Germany
    Warn people to read as much as they can on the herb before supplementing
    • Consult with vet if they are on any medications
  • Herbal Supplements
    Devil’s Claw – anti-inflammatory effect
    Echinecea– anti-inflam. And antioxidant effect
    • In horses, found to have immune stim. effect
    Garlic – anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-fungal, and anti-parasitical
    • In horses, freeze dried garlic fed at > 0.4 g/kg/d developed symptoms of Heinz body anaemia
    Ginger – anti-thrombitic, antioxidant, anti-inflam., and anti-bacterial properties
    • In horses, reduced cardio recovery after exercise, but increased inflam. cytokines
  • Herbal Supplements
    Ginseng – immunostimulating, anti-inflam., and antioxidant properties
    Valerian Root – sedative, anti-spasmodic effects
    • Found in many ‘calming aids’
    Yucca – anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-spasmodic effect
    • Used to reduce pain and inflam. of arthritis
    • 18. Found in many joint supplements
    Etc…
    • Flaxseed, liquorice, cranberry, horse chestnut, green and black tea, etc.
  • Oral Joint Supplements
    Two major goals
    Research slow to prove effectiveness
    Expectations fueled by testimonials and ads
  • 22. Abnormal Joints
    Training hard on joints
    Inflammation
    • Acute vs. Chronic
    Caused by:
    • Mechanical Stress (injury, poor conformation)
    • 24. Chemical Stress (bacterial)
    Result = Osteoarthritis
  • 25. Chondroitin Sulfate
    Is part of the natural body lubricants called glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)
    Elements of connective tissue and cartilage
    • Help with cartilage damage
    • 26. Replace proteoglycan
    • 27. Anti-inflammatory effect
    • 28. Inhibit enzyme destruction
    Absorption by gut – 32%
    • Large molecule
    • 29. Broken down and reassembled?
  • Glucosamine
    Makes up ½ of the hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate molecules
    Helps form proteoglycans that lubricate and protect cartilage
    • Precursor to GAG
    • 30. Is the “rate-limiting” step in production of GAGs
    • 31. Anti-inflammatory effect
    Absorption documents – 2.5%
    Most supplements don’t have adequate amount
  • 32. Hyaluronic Acid
    Component of joint fluid
    Produced by synovial membrane
    • Lubricates joint
    • 33. Cushions cartilage
    • 34. Protects synovial membranes
    Supplemental HA helps lubricatejoints with arthritis
    One of the most abundant GAGs in the body
  • 35. MSM
    “Methylsulfonylmethane”
    Source of elemental SULFUR
    Component of collagen
    • Protein structures (hair, nails andconnective tissues)
    No research to back claims
    Found in low levels in foods
  • 36. Manganese
    Trace mineral
    Required as co-factor for synthesisof GAG
    Added to make sure enough Mnavailable for synthesis
    Nutrient requirement vs. intake
    • Little danger
  • Manganese
    Supplemented as Ascorbate orAscorbic acid
    Co-factor for formation of collagen
    Horses produce their ownVitamin C
    More = better?
  • 37. Joint Supplements
    OVERALL: Found to be only beneficial in treating an existing joint problem
    Not used as a preventive measure
  • 38. Antioxidants
    Antioxidant supplements:
    Vitamin E (most common)
    Vitamin C
    Beta-Carotene
    Glutathione
    Lipoic Acid
    Selenium
    Cysteine
  • 39. Antioxidant Action
    Oxidation
    Antioxidant
    Free Radicals
    Stable Chemical
    Stable Chemicals
  • 40. Oxidative Stress in Horses
    Inflammation
    Reproduction
    UV Rays
    OtherStresses
    Viral Infection
    Rapid Growth
    Environmental Toxins
    Poor Nutrition
    Protozoa
    Exercise
  • 41. Vitamin A
    Precursor is Beta Carotene
    Risk of:
    • Cancer
    • 42. Cardiovascular disease
    • 43. Macular degeneration
    Deficiency
    • Night blindness
    • 44. Sever joint lesions
  • Vitamin A & Vitamin E
    Normally supplied in fresh pasture
    Poor pasture may have low vitamin levels
    (Greiwe-Crandell et al., 1995)
  • 45. Vitamin E & C
    Vitamin C may spare vitamin E by reducing radicals and restoring vitamin E activity
    Polo ponies at high exercise intensities benefited from Vitamins E + C supplementation
  • 46. Vitamin E & Se
    Se is a cofactor for GPx, an antioxidant enzyme
    • Most commercial feeds have additional Se
    • 47. Soil content varies throughout the country
    • 48. Can be toxic!
    • 49. Blind staggers = weight loss, anorexia, excessive salivation, jaundice or necrosis of heart and liver
    Required = 0.3 mg/kg diet (about 3 mg/day)
    • Toxic = about 18 mg/day
    Se + E can potentate the antioxidant effects
  • 50. Water & Electrolytes
    Exercise:  heat production
    Dissipated in sweat and respiratory tract
     losses of electrolytes
    Dehydration results in  performance
    • Accompanied by coldness, fatigue, muscular tremors, colic, thumps, appetite
  • Electrolytes
    Carry an electrical charge
    Endurance horses can lose upto 6-8% of their BW as water
    Largest portion of horse sweat is Na, Cl, K
    • These increase 3-, 7-, 6-fold
    • 51. Small amounts of Ca and P
    Na, K, Mg, Ca, Cl
  • 52. Electrolytes
    Not all electrolytes are created equal
    Look for % sugar or ingredient listing
    1st ingredient should be salt (sodiumchloride)
    If it doesn’t taste like salt it will not do much for your horse
  • 54. Electrolytes for Competition
    Preloading
    Preloading
    • 1-2 oz. at every vet check
    Dose supplementation
  • Hoof Supplements
    Experiments with positive results on:
    • Biotin – therapeutic quantities
    • 59. Zinc
    May help poor feet
    • Dependant on problem
    Won’t help good feet
    Good balanced diet may be moreeffective than hoof supplement
  • 60. Major Nutrients for Hooves
    Biotin
    • B Vitamin activates production of keratin
    Iodine
    • Essential for thyroid hormones that develop all tissues
    Methionine
    • Responsible for keratin within the hoof
    Zinc
    • Contributes to the health of the hoof & reactions controlling metabolism
  • Recommended Dosages
    Biotin: 20 mg/day
    Iodine: 1 mg/day
    Methionine: Not known
    Zinc: 175-250 mg/day
    Cost comparison; checkdaily dose size!
  • 61. Coat Conditioner
    Nutrients that help hoofquality, help coat
    High fat diets
    • Essential fatty acids
    • 62. Omega 3 & 6
    • 63. Flax/linseed
    Elbow grease
  • 64. Calming Aids
    Supplements for the nervous horse
    Vitamin B’s – Thiamine is the one that is commonly used to calm a nervous horse
    • Water soluble they will not be toxic at these supplemented levels
    Tryptophan (amino acid)
    Magnesium
    • Make sure you are not overdoing the Mg
    • 65. If you are on another mineral supplement I would stop feeding it with the calming aid
  • Digestive Aids
    Probiotics
    • Naturally occurring live organisms
    • 66. Produce digestive enzymes, B-vitamins and growth inhibitors help break down nutrients
    • 67. Used after antibiotic treatment, illness or surgery, or other stresses
    Yeast  fiber digestion
    • Normalize problem feces, including diarrhea
    • 68. Stabilize gut pH
    • 69. Decrease disease-causing bacteria
  • Other Supplements
    Muscle builders
    • Amino acids
    • 70. Lysine and threonine are limiting
    • 71. Gamma oryzanol
    • 72. Extracted from rice bran
    Weight builders (fats)
    • Omega-3 fatty acids
    • 73. Found in fish oil and flax seed
  • Other Supplements
    Help with anhidrosis
    • Based on the theory of an imbalance of dopamine to the nor-adrenaline/adrenaline complex
    Stop a horse from chewing wood
    • High in fiber
    Immune stimulatory
    • Many herbal products
    • 74. Antioxidants
  • Summary
    Herbal supplements are NOT always safe
    Joint supplements are NOT the magic drug
    Electrolytes are NOT needed as a daily supplement
    Digestive aids will NOT help a normal horse
    Hoof supplements will NOT improve hooves overnight
    Read labels before purchasing supplements!
    Be an educated buyer!
  • 75. Give us your feedback!
    You will receive a survey by email in 1-2 days. Please take a few minutes to give us your feedback on this webcast. It will help us to better serve you!
  • 76. Upcoming Webcasts
    Horse Health Series
    Colic: Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention | Jan. 19
    Respiratory Disease: Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention | Feb. 16
    Lameness in the Performance Horse | March 16
    Rehabilitating the Lame Horse | March 23
    Equine Emergency First Aid | April 20
    All Webcasts will be at 7PM ET
  • 77. Thank you!
    Thank you for attending this live Web presentation!
    For more information about
    My Horse University, please visit us at:
    www.myhorseuniversity.com
    info@myhorseuniversity.com | www.myhorseuniversity.com | 517-353-3123