Manure Management Plans Lanes & Gates Hard Surface Composting Water Drainage Neighboring Property Land Capability PLAN??
Must also consider…
Zoning Regulations, Guidelines
Nutrient Management Regulations
New zoning guidelines and nutrient management regulations
Staying On Top Of the Pile
Actively compost all stall waste
Stockpile manure & stall waste for crop fields needs and spread when possible.
Haul manure & stall waste off property
Reduce the amount of bedding used
Manure Handling Site
Consider topography and flood patterns when developing manure facilities.
Not near streams
Not in Flood-prone areas
Not on steep hillsides
Flat, impermeable, deep water table
Dry - Manure Storage
Stock piled for future use
Composting on site
Both Require a Storage Site
Select a high dry spot
Keep away from bodies of water
Confine the pile
Treat any runoff
Constructing – A Hard Surface
Create a hard surface with layers of stone aggregate topped with finer stone.
Surround your storage pad with vegetation to filter out run off.
How Much ?? Waste Space
One 1,000 lbs. horse produces ~45 lbs. manure daily+ Bedding
= 730 cubic feet/year of waste to manage per 1,000s of animal.
Traditional Use of Manure
Manure contains organic matter
Organic matter is good for soil health & structure
Manure Commercial fertilizer vs.
Applying Manure/Bedding Fresh
Improve the health of grass
Apply according to soil test
Good idea to keep animals off pasture for a few days
When weather permits
Haul Off the Property
Haul manure & stall waste off property
PA Mushroom Growers contact with horse farms to remove manure and straw.
Compost all stall waste
Absorption of Bedding Types Material (lbs water absorbed/lbs bedding)
3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 Shredded newspaper 1.6
2.5 2.2 Hay (mature) 3.0
Composting Natural aerobic process for stabilizing organic matter Well composted manure has humus smell, 25-50% volume reduction, and destruction of pathogens and weed seeds due to heat of composting.
Natural biological process.
Low fly production .
Mechanical breakdown of large particles
Increase surface area for microbes
Feed on bacteria and fungi.
Microbial activity is related to availability of food source, surface area, moisture and oxygen availability.
Properly composting manure – Heats up to 145 degrees F
Can kill parasite eggs and weed seeds
Oxygen Content (Porosity)
Active composting occurs in the temperature range of 50 o F to 160 o F
Pile temperature may increase above 140 o F but this is too hot for most bacteria and decomposition will slow until temperature decreases again.
Remember, Compost pile heat is the direct result of microbial metabolism!!!
So…What is a C:N Ratio?
Supply of total carbon compared to total nitrogen in compost pile.
If C:N is too high the compost process will slow.
If C:N is too low, more likely to lose Nitrogen as ammonia gas or in leaching.
Ideal initial C:N mixture range is 20 – 30:1.
Weeks of Composting 2 4 6 100 140 8 Temperature (F) Curing Phase Mesophilic Thermophilic Active Phase
Need Oxygen for most efficient process.
21% oxygen in air.
5%-10% is optimal for compost process. <5% process slows.
As pile heats more oxygen will be consumed by microbes.
50-65% 100 % 0% Optimal conditions for microbes Too Dry Too Wet 40-65% moisture range
0 14 7 Bacteria (6.0 – 7.5) Fungi (5.5-8.0)
C:N Ratio - 20 to 30:1
% Moisture - 50-65%
Oxygen - 5-10%
pH - 5.5-8.2 (acceptable)
Particle size - 1/4 to 3 inches
Temperature -110 -160 o F
Mixed sizes are preferred. Wood shavings ideal.
Solid Manure Storage
Tarp may provide cover with less cost and more labor
Stack or stockpile in a well-drained area for later hauling
Regulations may require runoff control
Sample Manure Storage
Choosing a Manure Storage Facility
Land application methods
Type of bedding
Hauling, distances, volume
Space and size requirements
Design system to fit your goals
Consult sizing guide
Add another bin
Two Bin Composter Manure Compost Bin
Manure Management Building a Manure Composting System for a Small Horse Operation Two bins are adequate for 2-5 horses. One bin can be composting while the other is being filled.
Manure Stacking Facility
Allows for the accumulation of solids
Inexpensive method of separating liquids from solids (Not in Horses)
Leaching should be controlled
Works only with solid manure waste
Good to have a vegetative filter area
Other Uses of Composted Horse Manure
Landscaping - Gardening
Riding Arena Footing
Compost- Use on Sustainable Trails as Footing
Mortality Compost Management
Plenty of absorbent base
24” is ideal
Common to have 2 layers of mortality
For Large Animals
Turn Pile in 90 Days.
Continue compost for 4-6 mos.
Land apply after 90 more days
Six months total
Or use on new composting row
Bones from immature animals degrade quickly and can be land applied.
Big bones from mature animals may need to be picked out.
Vegetative Buffer Strips
Inexpensive to install ?
Removes some solids from liquids
Maintenance is not easy
Needs to be long and flat
Channel flow reduces effectiveness
Remember downwind neighbors
You might like the smell of manure but your neighbors will not
Factors Affecting Odor Release and Dispersion 3. Source concentration 2. Area
1. Temperature 2. Wind speed 3. Topography
Summary - Manure Management
Each farm should have a plan for managing manure spreading and disposal.
Store manure in a dry, level, impermeable location free from storm-water runoff.
Manage storm-water to prevent manure contamination of water and eliminate runoff.
Actively compost manure and bedding
Control animal access to manure pile sites.
Visual – out of sight-out of mind
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