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Horse Manure A Renewable Resource (Swinker)
 

Horse Manure A Renewable Resource (Swinker)

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  • PRESENTER NOTES Key Discussion Topics 1. Manure contains most elements required for plant growth including nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and micronutrients . 2. It is manure’s unique combination of these nutrients with organic carbon that provides its value to crop production and the environment. 3. Soil organic matter is considered nature’s signature of a productive soil. Manure’s organic carbon provides the energy source for an active, healthy soil microbial environment critical to both stabilizing nutrient sources and making those nutrients available to crops. Discussion Question : References LPES Lesson 1: pages 9-10
  • Pile of horse manure, straw, and feed. This pile is destined for mushroom farms.
  • Aerobic composting is the most rapid way to produce high quality compost. Aerobic composting simply means composting with plenty of air in the pile. Aerobic composting produces no foul odors and also produces a lot of heat. Macroscopic Invertebrates-do most of initial mechanical bread-down of organic materials into smaller particles Snails, slugs, mites, sow bugs, worms, ants, centipedes, millipedes, beetles Microorganisms-digest and “transform” organic matter into stable humus-like particles Bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and protozoa
  • It is essentially the same process as natural decomposition except that it is enhanced and accelerated by mixing organic waste with other ingredients in a manner that optimizes microbial growth.
  • Windrow composting of horse manure.
  • An aerobic compost pile will normally go through several heating cycles. To get the most active and rapid composting the pile should be turned when temperature begins to drop, or if temperature rises above 140 o F.
  • Explain what micro-organisms use Carbon and Nitrogen for in their metabolic process.
  • Mesophilic phase -Moderate temperatures (50-110oF) lasts for a few days Thermophilic phase -High temperatures (110-160o F) lasts for 4-6 weeks Curing and Maturation phase -Temperature moderate down to ambient lasts for 3-6 months
  • Free moisture is needed on particle surfaces as a medium for bacteria Free moisture is needed for nutrients to be in solution so they can be absorbed Low moisture inhibits microbial growth and activity High moisture content may result in anaerobic conditions due to saturation of pore spaces.
  • pH is based on a log scale (“small” changes have “big” effects!) Bacteria prefer 6.0-7.5 Fungi prefer 5.5-8.0 If pH exceeds 8.5, Nitrogen may be lost through ammonia gas production
  • have a greater surface area to volume than larger particles and are more accessible to microbes, but may collapse pore space Fines
  • PRESENTER NOTES Discussion Topic(s): Roofing a solid manure storage facility may eliminate the need to collect and manage runoff. Also, rainfall does not add moisture to the manure, which keeps the manure more solid and less “soupy.” Handling solids in inclement weather may be easier with a roofed facility. Tarp covers for manure stockpiles such as poultry litter can be effective and less expensive, but require more labor.
  • For smaller horse farms, the use of on-site composting bins reduces the volume of manure considerably and leads to a recyclable parasite free amendment for spreading on the soil. Note – I will try to insert both photos and videos on this slide that more clearly illustrate actual operation in the field as well as show larger composter types.
  • Odor Release and Dispersion Many factors affect the dispersion of odors. Those factors over which we have some degree of control include: -Temperature. As air warms, it rises. This encourages mixing of odors with additional fresh air. Is it better to spread manure at 10 am or 10 pm? At 10 am, air is warming, greater dispersion of odors occurs, and less chance of odors affecting neighbors would exist. -Surface Area. High speed winds encourage dispersion. Note that low wind speeds are desirable at the source of odor. However, high wind speeds are desirable downwind for odor. -Topography. Hills and trees can encourage mixing of odors near the ground with fresh air at higher altitudes.

Horse Manure A Renewable Resource (Swinker) Horse Manure A Renewable Resource (Swinker) Presentation Transcript

    • Horse Manure:
    • A Renewable Resource
    My Horse University and eXtension’s HorseQuest welcome you to this live Webcast. The presentation will begin promptly at 7:00 p.m. EST. Dr. Ann Swinker
  • My Horse University and eXtension’s HorseQuest welcome you to this live Webcast. Horse Manure: A Renewable Resource Dr. Ann Swinker Robb Meinen Penn State University
  • Meet our presenter:
    • Dr. Ann Swinker
    • Penn State University
    Mike Harper Penn State University Question facilitator:
  • Confined Animal Housing
    • An attractive safe area
    • Generates manure and bedding
    • Requires more management
  • More Work??
    • Cleaning stalls
    • Picking up manure in paddocks /pens
  • Manure Management Plans Lanes & Gates Hard Surface Composting Water Drainage Neighboring Property Land Capability PLAN??
  • Must also consider…
    • Zoning Regulations, Guidelines
    • Nutrient Management Regulations
    • Building Codes
    • New zoning guidelines and nutrient management regulations
  • Staying On Top Of the Pile
    • Actively compost all stall waste
    • Stockpile manure & stall waste for crop fields needs and spread when possible.
    • Haul manure & stall waste off property
      • Reduce the amount of bedding used
      • Give away
  • Manure Handling Site
    • Consider topography and flood patterns when developing manure facilities.
      • Not near streams
      • Not in Flood-prone areas
      • Not on steep hillsides
      • Flat, impermeable, deep water table
  • Storage Sitting
  • Dry - Manure Storage
    • Stock piled for future use
    • Composting on site
  • Both Require a Storage Site
    • Select a high dry spot
    • Keep away from bodies of water
    • Easily accessible
    • Confine the pile
    • Treat any runoff
  • Constructing – A Hard Surface
    • Concrete/macadam pad
    • Create a hard surface with layers of stone aggregate topped with finer stone.
    • Surround your storage pad with vegetation to filter out run off.
  • How Much ?? Waste Space
    • One 1,000 lbs. horse produces ~45 lbs. manure daily+ Bedding
    • = 730 cubic feet/year of waste to manage per 1,000s of animal.
  • Traditional Use of Manure
    • Manure contains organic matter
    • Organic matter is good for soil health & structure
    Manure Commercial fertilizer vs.
  • Applying Manure/Bedding Fresh
    • Improve the health of grass
    • Apply according to soil test
    • Good idea to keep animals off pasture for a few days
    • When weather permits
  • Haul Off the Property
    • Haul manure & stall waste off property
    • PA Mushroom Growers contact with horse farms to remove manure and straw.
    • Compost all stall waste
  •  
  • Absorption of Bedding Types Material (lbs water absorbed/lbs bedding)
    • Wood Products
    • Pine
      • Chips
      • Sawdust
      • Shavings
    • Hardwood Chips
    3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 Shredded newspaper 1.6
    • Straw
    • Oats
    • Wheat
    2.5 2.2 Hay (mature) 3.0
  • Composting Natural aerobic process for stabilizing organic matter Well composted manure has humus smell, 25-50% volume reduction, and destruction of pathogens and weed seeds due to heat of composting.
    • Simple, easy.
    • Natural biological process.
    • Recycling.
    • Bio-secure.
    • Environmentally sound.
    • Low odor.
    • Low fly production .
  •  
    • Mechanical breakdown of large particles
    • Increase surface area for microbes
    • Feed on bacteria and fungi.
  • Microbial activity is related to availability of food source, surface area, moisture and oxygen availability.
  • Composting Principles
  • Cone Shaped Windrow
  •  
  • “ Chimney effect”
  • Unimproved Surface
  • Active vs. Passive Composting
  • Actively Compost Requires turning, moisture, oxygen, C:N
    • Properly composting manure – Heats up to 145 degrees F
    • Can kill parasite eggs and weed seeds
    • C:N ratio
    • Oxygen Content (Porosity)
    • Moisture Content
    • Temperature
    • pH
    • Particle Size
    • Active composting occurs in the temperature range of 50 o F to 160 o F
    • Pile temperature may increase above 140 o F but this is too hot for most bacteria and decomposition will slow until temperature decreases again.
    Remember, Compost pile heat is the direct result of microbial metabolism!!!
  • So…What is a C:N Ratio?
    • Supply of total carbon compared to total nitrogen in compost pile.
    • If C:N is too high the compost process will slow.
    • If C:N is too low, more likely to lose Nitrogen as ammonia gas or in leaching.
    • Ideal initial C:N mixture range is 20 – 30:1.
    • Very important!
  • Weeks of Composting 2 4 6 100 140 8 Temperature (F) Curing Phase Mesophilic Thermophilic Active Phase
    • Need Oxygen for most efficient process.
    • 21% oxygen in air.
    • 5%-10% is optimal for compost process. <5% process slows.
    • As pile heats more oxygen will be consumed by microbes.
  • 50-65% 100 % 0% Optimal conditions for microbes Too Dry Too Wet 40-65% moisture range
  • 0 14 7 Bacteria (6.0 – 7.5) Fungi (5.5-8.0)
    • C:N Ratio - 20 to 30:1
    • % Moisture - 50-65%
    • Oxygen - 5-10%
    • pH - 5.5-8.2 (acceptable)
    • Particle size - 1/4 to 3 inches
    • Temperature -110 -160 o F
  •  
  •  
  • Mixed sizes are preferred. Wood shavings ideal.
  • Solid Manure Storage
    • Covered facilities
    • Tarp may provide cover with less cost and more labor
    • Stack or stockpile in a well-drained area for later hauling
    • Regulations may require runoff control
  • Sample Manure Storage
  • Choosing a Manure Storage Facility
    • Land application methods
    • Type of bedding
    • Hauling, distances, volume
    • Space and size requirements
    • Treatment
    • Common Sense!!
  •  
    • Design system to fit your goals
    • Storage area?
    • Consult sizing guide
    • Consult NRCS
    • Add another bin
  • Two Bin Composter Manure Compost Bin
  • Manure Management   Building a Manure Composting System for a Small Horse Operation Two bins are adequate for 2-5 horses. One bin can be composting while the other is being filled.
  • Economy Model
  • Size Matters
  • Manure Stacking Facility
    • Allows for the accumulation of solids
    • Inexpensive method of separating liquids from solids (Not in Horses)
    • Leaching should be controlled
    • Works only with solid manure waste
    • Good to have a vegetative filter area
  • Other Uses of Composted Horse Manure
  • Landscaping - Gardening
  • Riding Arena Footing
  • Compost- Use on Sustainable Trails as Footing
    • Mortality Compost Management
    • Animal bedding
    • Waste feed
    • Manure
    • Straw
    • Wood shavings,
    • sawdust, woodchips
    • Others?
  •  
    • Plenty of absorbent base
    • 24” is ideal
    • Common to have 2 layers of mortality
  • For Large Animals
  •  
    • Turn Pile in 90 Days.
    • Continue compost for 4-6 mos.
    • Land apply after 90 more days
    • Six months total
    • Or use on new composting row
    Land Application
    • Bones from immature animals degrade quickly and can be land applied.
    • Big bones from mature animals may need to be picked out.
    Bone Disposal
  • Vegetative Buffer Strips
    • Inexpensive to install ?
    • Removes some solids from liquids
    • Maintenance is not easy
    • Needs to be long and flat
    • Channel flow reduces effectiveness
  • Odors
    • Remember downwind neighbors
    • You might like the smell of manure but your neighbors will not
  • Factors Affecting Odor Release and Dispersion 3. Source concentration 2. Area
    • Wind speed
    1. Temperature 2. Wind speed 3. Topography
  • Summary - Manure Management
    • Each farm should have a plan for managing manure spreading and disposal.
    • Store manure in a dry, level, impermeable location free from storm-water runoff.
    • Manage storm-water to prevent manure contamination of water and eliminate runoff.
    • Actively compost manure and bedding
    • Control animal access to manure pile sites.
    • Visual – out of sight-out of mind
  • Questions????
  • Thank you for attending this live web presentation! For more information about My Horse University please visit us at: www.myhorseuniversity.com info@myhorseuniversity.com | www.myhorseuniversity.com | 517-353-3123