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Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)
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Countermeasures For Equine Laminitis (Mc Intosh)

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  • Dermal lamina
  • As you can see this can be very painful
  • In order to understand how to avoid laminitis, you have to understand digestive physiology
  • Transcript

    • 1. My Horse University and eXtension’s HorseQuest welcome you to this live Webcast. The presentation will begin promptly at 7:00 p.m. EST. COUNTERMEASURES FOR EQUINE LAMINITIS Dr. Bridgett McIntosh University of Tennessee
    • 2. Meet our presenter: <ul><li>Dr. Bridgett McIntosh </li></ul><ul><li>University of Tennessee </li></ul>Dr. Tania Cubitt Performance Horse Nutrition Question facilitator:
    • 3. Topics of Discussion <ul><li>Laminitis & hoof anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>Dietary causes of laminitis </li></ul><ul><li>Risk factors for laminitis in horses </li></ul><ul><li>Risk factors in forages and feeds </li></ul><ul><li>Current research on pasture associated laminitis </li></ul><ul><li>Countermeasures for avoidance of laminitis </li></ul>
    • 4. <ul><li>Systemic inflammatory disease </li></ul><ul><li>Manifests itself in the hoof </li></ul><ul><li>Inflammation and degeneration of the soft tissue which connects the hoof wall and the coffin bone (lamina) </li></ul>What is Laminitis?
    • 5. What is Founder? <ul><li>A change in the position of the coffin bone in the foot due to laminitis. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Chronic laminitis” with rotation of the coffin bone within the hoof. </li></ul><ul><li>Lameness due to malposition of the coffin bone within the foot. </li></ul>
    • 6. Hoof Anatomy http://www.uoguelph.ca (Gunn, 2009) Coffin bone also called “Pedal Bone” or “P3”
    • 7. <ul><li>Cross section of the equine hoof </li></ul><ul><li>Lamina (L) </li></ul><ul><li>Coronary Band (C) </li></ul>
    • 8. Anatomy of Lamina <ul><li>Epidermal & Dermal </li></ul><ul><li>Primary and Secondary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Form strong attachment to connect coffin bone to hoof wall </li></ul></ul>Pollitt, 1998 <ul><li>Basement Membrane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrient exchange between tissues </li></ul></ul>
    • 9. Coffin Bone Rotation <ul><li>Degeneration of lamina. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to the design of the coffin joint the coffin bone rotates towards the ground. </li></ul><ul><li>The separation between the hoof and bone is greatest at the toe </li></ul>White, 2005
    • 10. Causes of Laminitis USDA- NAHMS, 2000 OVER 50% DIETARY CAUSES
    • 11. Basics of Equine Nutrition <ul><li>Horses are non-ruminant herbivores </li></ul><ul><li>Forage is primary component of diet </li></ul><ul><li>Digestive system designed to utilize fiber from forage via microbial fermentation in hindgut </li></ul>
    • 12. <ul><li>Small, frequent meals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graze approximately 14 to 18 hours per day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cover distances of up to 20 km/d </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ability to digest large amounts of forage and feed at once is limited </li></ul>Feeding Behavior
    • 13. Glucose Insulin (Rodiek et al., 1991) Slide modified from Kibby Treiber
    • 14. Glucose Insulin (Clarke et al., 1990; Valentine et al., 2001) Slide modified from Kibby Treiber
    • 15. Hindgut pH Gram negative bacteria killed off Gram positive lactate producing bacteria
    • 16. Damage to cecum from high doses of starch Kreuger et al., 1986 LAMINITIS! NORMAL
    • 17. <ul><li>ANIMAL FACTORS </li></ul><ul><li>Obesity </li></ul><ul><li>Insulin resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolic syndrome ” </li></ul><ul><li>DIETARY FACTORS </li></ul><ul><li>Nonstructural Carbs </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Pasture Conditions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Harvest Conditions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feed Ingredients </li></ul></ul></ul>RISK FACTORS FOR LAMINITIS
    • 18. Obesity <ul><li>Body Condition Score 8 to 9 </li></ul><ul><li>Too many calories </li></ul><ul><li>Not enough exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Thrifty genotypes </li></ul><ul><li>Prolonged obesity </li></ul><ul><li>No seasonal shift in energy balance </li></ul><ul><li>Often encouraged in the show ring </li></ul>Risk Factors in Horses
    • 19. Obesity/Regional Adiposity Risk Factors in Horses
    • 20. Insulin <ul><li>INSULIN is a regulatory hormone for metabolism, vascular function, inflammation, tissue remodeling, and growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secreted by pancreas to move glucose into tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>INSULIN RESISTANCE is failure of tissues to respond appropriately to insulin (decreased insulin sensitivity) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulin Resistance decreases glucose uptake by tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laminitis- affects tissues of hoof (lamina) </li></ul></ul>Risk Factors in Horses
    • 21. Insulin Resistance (IR) <ul><li>Sugar & Starch in forage/feed = blood glucose </li></ul><ul><li>Insulin secreted in response to glucose </li></ul><ul><li>IR = high blood insulin levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulin = vasoconstrictor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vasocontriction decreases blood supply to hoof </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thus decreasing nutrients </li></ul></ul>Risk Factors in Horses
    • 22. Equine Metabolic Syndrome <ul><li>Characterized by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obesity/Regional Adiposity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulin Resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laminitis </li></ul></ul>Risk Factors in Horses
    • 23. Pasture, Hay, Feed Ingredients <ul><li>Nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Starch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fructan </li></ul></ul>Dietary Risk Factors
    • 24. Plant Carbohydrates Cell contents Cell wall Fructan Fructose Starch Sucrose Hemicellulose Cellulose Rapidly Fermented (Hindgut) Glucose Hydrolyzed (small Intestine) Slowly Fermentable (Hindgut)
    • 25. <ul><li>Starches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cereal Grains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legumes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sugars and Fructan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cool Season Grasses </li></ul></ul>Dietary Risk Factors
    • 26. NSC Analysis <ul><li>Starch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymatic >>>> glucose </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ESC (ethanol soluble carbs) >>>> glucose, fructose, sucrose </li></ul><ul><li>WSC (water soluble CHO) >>>> ESC + Fructan </li></ul><ul><li>NSC (nonstructural CHO) >>>> Starch + WSC </li></ul><ul><li>Fructan (not available commercially) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymatic >>>> fructose (glucose) </li></ul></ul>There are differences in nomenclature and techniques between laboratories
    • 27. A Research Study on Equine Laminitis <ul><li>Series of trials to examine diurnal and seasonal variation in pasture NSC and physiological and metabolic affects on the grazing horse </li></ul><ul><li>Virginia Tech, MARE Center </li></ul>Current Research
    • 28. Five 42 hour trials
    • 29. Nutrient content of forage a,b,c Feeds differ between months ( P < 0.05) Nutrient April May August October January Hay %CP 21.3 ± 1.4 a 14.0 ± 0.2 b 12.7 ± 0.2 c 12.9 ± 0.2 c 14.2 ± 0.3 b 11.3 ± 0.5 %ADF 25.4 ± 0.2 a 35.3 ± 0.2 b 36.9 ± 0.5 b 37.9 ± 0.2 b 39.1 ± 0.3 b 41.7 ± 0.4 %NDF 46.4 ± 0.3 a 64.2 ± 0.3 b 64.0 ± 0.7 b 66.2 ± 0.4 b 66.5 ± 0.5 b 62.1 ± 1.3 %NSC 20.3 ± 0.4 a 11.7 ± 0.4 b 9.2 ± 0.5 c 6.9 ± 0.2 c 7.1 ± 0.2 c 8.9 ± 0.1 % Sugar 18.9 ± 0.4 a 10.2 ± 0.4 b 7.6 ± 0.5 c 5.7 ± 0.2 c 6.1 ± 0.2 c 6.1 ± 0.1 %Starch 1.4 ± 0.04 1.5 ± 0.06 1.5 ± 0.06 1.1 ± 0.05 1.0 ± 0.03 2.8 ± 0.1 % Fat 4.0 ± 0.4 a 2.8 ± 0.04 b 4.3 ± 0.1 a 3.8 ± 0.06 a 2.2 ± 0.09 b 1.6 ± 0.3 DE, Mcal/kg 2.8 ± 0.01 a 2.2 ± 0.01 b 2.1 ± 0.01 b 2.1 ± 0.01 b 2.1 ± 0.01 b 1.9 ± 0.02
    • 30. Circadian variation: NSC April May
    • 31. August October January October and January: Cloudy & Raining August: Hot & Humid LAB 1 PROCEDURE
    • 32. LAB 2 PROCEDURE APRIL NSC Pasture Profiles
    • 33. MAY LAB 2 PROCEDURE NSC Pasture Profiles
    • 34. AUGUST LAB 2 PROCEDURE NSC Pasture Profiles
    • 35. JANUARY LAB 2 PROCEDURE NSC Pasture Profiles
    • 36. There was a relationship between temperature and pasture NSC
    • 37. Solar Radiation (Sunlight) also affected NSC concentration in pasture
    • 38. As humidity increased, NSC decreased in the pasture
    • 39. Environment influences pasture NSC concentration <ul><li>Most of NSC is sugars </li></ul><ul><li>Little variation in starch or fructan (which were low) </li></ul><ul><li>Diurnal variation in April, May, August in NSC </li></ul><ul><li>NSC levels related to environmental factors </li></ul>How does pasture NSC affect horses …
    • 40.  
    • 41. Insulin was higher in grazing horses in April In April, insulin was high in general APRIL MAY Insulin
    • 42. August October January
    • 43. Evident relationship in April NSC (r 2 = 0.507, P < 0.001) Insulin (r2 = 0.121, P < 0.001) Similar frequency ( P = 0.36) As pasture NSC fluctuated throughout the day, insulin followed the same pattern in grazing horses. When pasture NSC increased, insulin increased 15 minutes later.
    • 44. Higher fecal lactate suggests rapid fermentation of sugars in grazing horses Lactate- April
    • 45. <ul><li>Fecal pH was slightly lower in grazing horses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graze pH 6.9 (red) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control pH 7.4 (orange) </li></ul></ul>Fecal pH- April
    • 46. Research Conclusions <ul><li>Circadian and seasonal variation in insulin in grazing horses </li></ul><ul><li>Insulin associated with forage NSC content </li></ul><ul><li>Digestive factors suggested increased rapid fermentation </li></ul><ul><li>Define grazing management strategies for avoidance of risk factors in horses and forages </li></ul>
    • 47. Implications of this Research <ul><li>Increased risk of laminitis via exacerbation of insulin resistance and rapid fermentation in the hindgut </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid pasture laminitis through grazing management </li></ul><ul><li>More research needed in different regions, other forage species, different breeds, etc… </li></ul>
    • 48. Other Considerations <ul><li>Not all horses are at risk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetics (“Thrifty Genotype” or “Easy Keeper”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeding Management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hay and feed should be selected to reduce risks </li></ul>
    • 49. Hay & Pasture NSC www.equianalytical.com 2000-2006, 4,000+ samples Forage Type NSC (% DM) Low NCS (%DM) High NSC (%DM) Grass Hay 13.1 8.2 18.0 MMG Hay 12.5 8.4 16.7 Legume Hay 11.1 8.8 13.4 MML Hay 11.2 8.4 13.9 Grass Pasture 12.8 7.1 18.0 MMG Pasture 12.8 8.0 17.6
    • 50. Hay Production <ul><li>NSC content reflects amount when it was cut </li></ul><ul><li>Cut in AM = lower </li></ul><ul><li>Forages respire & lose sugars after cut until moisture is < 40% </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast dry, sunny = high NSC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow dry, humid = low NSC </li></ul></ul>
    • 51. Reducing NSC in Hay <ul><li>Soaking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sugars and fructans are water soluble </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soak = lower NSC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be aware of nutrient loss (???) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30 min hot water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>60 min cold water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor out water </li></ul></ul>
    • 52. What are low NSC Feeds? What is cut-off level??? How much is “ low ”??? Company Feed Name Protein Fat Fiber NSC TN Farmers Co-op Equilite 1300 13 3 20 16 Blue Seal Carb Gaurd 12 8 25 11 Triple Crown Low Starch 13 6 18 15 Nutrena Safe Choice 14 7 15 22 Purina Ultium 11.7 12.4 18.5 16 Pennfield EnduroEvent Ener-G 10 10 15 26 Buckeye Unbeetable 12.5 8 12 34 SS Legends 12 Equitech 10 10 10 34.5
    • 53. Common Horse Feed Ingredients www.equianalytical.com Feedstuff Sugar (% DM) Starch(% DM) NSC (% DM) Alfalfa Pellets 7.20 2.30 9.30 Alfalfa Cubes 8.30 2.00 10.20 Rice Bran 6.20 17.70 21.20 Oats 4.80 44.40 54.10 Corn 3.70 70.30 73.30 Barley 6.00 53.70 61.70 Beet Pulp 10.70 1.40 12.30 Wheat Bran 8.30 22.80 31.10 Soybean Hulls 4.30 1.90 6.30 Wheat Middlings 10.10 26.20 32.00 Soybean Meal 14.30 2.10 16.20
    • 54. Feeds & Molasses <ul><li>Pure cane molasses 25% water, 50% sugar </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial horse feeds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>filtered and processed, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inhibit mold growth, change color, improve flow rate and prevent freezing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>app. 40% sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example: Feed that is 10% molasses, 1 lb feed = 4% sugar. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeds vary in molasses content from 0 to 20% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Molasses in “molassed beet pulp” is negligible (less than 2%) </li></ul></ul>
    • 55. Countermeasures <ul><li>Grazing Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restricted grazing regimes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid cold nights followed by sunny days </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early AM vs. afternoon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overcast days best </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shaded pasture </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid stressed forages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consider dry-lot when risks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feed low NSC hay and feed to meet nutrient requirements </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 56. <ul><li>Grazing Muzzles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restricts grazing to small amounts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restricts grazing to tops of leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>concentrations of NSC tend to be lowest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exercise not restricted </li></ul></ul>Countermeasures
    • 57. Countermeasures <ul><li>Hay Selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine NSC content and select hay less than 10% NSC, mature hay usually best </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feed Selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Select nutrient dense low NSC feeds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Weight management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short term high doses of Levothyroxine have been shown to reduce weight and increase insulin sensitivity (Frank et al., 2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul>
    • 58. Misperceptions <ul><li>No data for association of equine IR, Laminitis and EMS with iron, magnesium, chromium or other minerals </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid “metabolic” supplements </li></ul><ul><li>“ NSC is bad for all horses” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some classes of horses (ie. racehorses) require high amounts of NSC for readily available energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low NSC feeds are for a small population of horses </li></ul></ul>
    • 59. Take Home Message <ul><li>Determine if your horse is at risk before implementing countermeasures </li></ul><ul><li>Most horses are not considered “at risk” </li></ul><ul><li>Only a few individuals within a herd may be susceptible to dietary laminitis…most often those that are thrifty </li></ul><ul><li>If your horse is truly at risk, dietary and weight management are the keys to laminitis avoidance </li></ul>
    • 60. Acknowledgments <ul><li>Dr. Tania Cubitt </li></ul><ul><li>Virginia Tech MARE Center </li></ul><ul><li>Michigan State University </li></ul><ul><li>eXtension </li></ul>
    • 61. Thank you for attending this live web presentation! For more information about My Horse University please visit us at: www.myhorseuniversity.com info@myhorseuniversity.com | www.myhorseuniversity.com | 517-353-3123

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