You know the Macarena by heart You remember playing on merry go rounds...at the play ground. You remember when Mortal Kombat Was &quot;Da Bomb”! You haven't always had a computer, and it was cool to have the internet. 2 words ... SPICE GIRLS... You never got injured on a Slip 'n' Slide You remember when the new Beanie Babies and talking Elmo were always sold out. You had a favorite New Kid on the block, and you knew all of there names You always wanted to send in a tape to America's Funniest Home Videos... but never taped anything funny. You had a Tamagotchi or a Furby. You watched the original Care Bears, My Little Pony, and Ninja Turtles Impulse body spray I've fallen and I can't get up You used to end sentences in &quot;NOT You've worn leggings and felt stylish. You knew Mark Wahlberg when he was still Marky Mark. There was a time when you really wished you lived in Beverly Hills 90210. I'LL BE BACK! You went into the Body shop to put on vanilla or white musk perfume
A console or PC running a contemporary digital game based on real-time graphics needs to calculate millions of polygons and then render SEE PAGE 91.
Sega Sonic the Hedgehog
Dreamcast Soul Calibur
Movie envy READ PG 94.
READ PAGE 96 GAMEPLAY
READ FIRST Game like Civilization also highlights the difference between game session and play session. READ PAGE 91. Then slide 3. Critical views focus on imperialist underpinnings in the game’s operation.
Week 10 Game Design
From Introduction to Game Studies Chapter 6 History of Videogames Part Three: The 1990s MontanaTech Thanks to Frans Mäyrä & SAGE Publications
1990s: Learning the Lexicon <ul><li>1990s … Soviet Union collapsed … Dotcom frenzy started with Netscape IPO in 1995 … EI stocks soar …(predating 2000 – 2001 market crash). </li></ul>
Game Violence Debate <ul><li>Digital games were linked to two highly public acts of violence: the Columbine High School shootings in 1999 and Erfurt, Germany school shootings in 2002. </li></ul><ul><li>Violent games (as well as cinema, comics or rock music) have been blamed for violence, but it has been hard to demonstrate a clear, cause-and-effect relationship between media violence and real violence. </li></ul><ul><li>Contemporary research is most often interested in particular contexts for media use, and looks for e.g. games’ positive ‘effects’ as well as possible detrimental consequences of digital play. </li></ul>
The 90s – The Era of 3D (Polygon-based) <ul><li>High attention to games’ visuals was related to advances in audiovisual technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Most contemporary digital games require real-time three-dimensional image synthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>The increase of available memory and computing power is reflected in how 8-bit gaming technology was replaced first by 16-bit and then by 32, 64 and 128-bit systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Home computing devices capable of real-time three-dimensional graphics became widely available in the 1990s. </li></ul><ul><li>Some notable gaming systems are introduced next. </li></ul>
8-Bit Era Atari 2600 (1977) Magnavox Odyssey 2 (1978) NES/ Famicom (1983) Nintendo Game Boy (1989) Commodore 64 (1982) Image credits: Wikipedia, www.wikipedia.org.
16-Bit Era PC Engine/ TurboGrafx-16 (1987) Sega Mega Drive (1988) Neo Geo (1990) SNES (1990) Image credits: Wikipedia, www.wikipedia.org.
32-Bit / 64-Bit Era 3DO Interactive Multiplayer (1993) Amiga CD-32 (1993) Atari Jaguar (1993) Sega Saturn (1994) Sony PlayStation (1994) Nintendo 64 (1996) Image credits: Wikipedia, www.wikipedia.org.
128-Bit Era Sega Dreamcast (1998) Sony PlayStation 2 (2000) Nintendo GameCube (2001) Microsoft Xbox (2001) Image credits: Wikipedia, www.wikipedia.org.
Current Era Nintendo DS (2004) Sony PlayStation Portable (2004) Microsoft Xbox 360 (2005) Sony PlayStation 3 (2006) Nintendo Wii (2006) Image credits: Wikipedia, www.wikipedia.org.
Consoles and the PC <ul><li>Games-dedicated video gaming consoles and multipurpose home computers (like the Commodore 64) competed in homes during the 1980s. </li></ul><ul><li>IBM PC was released in 1981. </li></ul><ul><li>The original PC was lacking in sound and graphics, but the open PC architecture provided opportunities for manufacturers of add-on cards. </li></ul><ul><li>The PC was became an important gaming platform during the 1990s. </li></ul>
Civilization : PC Strategy Game <ul><li>Civilization (Microprose, 1991) was designed by Sid Meier. </li></ul><ul><li>A turn-based strategy game, Civilization involves taking the role of controlling a civilization, building cities, developing new technologies and competing with other civilizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Historically-themed, extensive game (years 4000 BC - 2100 available for gameplay) . </li></ul><ul><li>Long game sessions usually break into several smaller play sessions, with breaks in between. </li></ul>
Civilization Game Art <ul><li>Colonization gameplay Youtube </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Eizi-Q38wVM </li></ul>Image credits: MicroProse/2K Games; source: www.mobygames.com.
Ideology in a Game -- Semiotics <ul><li>Civilization has been a highly popular and influential game. </li></ul><ul><li>It has also been criticised, e.g. for simplifying complex historical processes into a ‘toy version’ history, with organically-developing miniature civilizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Ideological critique has pointed out that to succeed in the game, the player has to adopt principles of Western industrialised society. </li></ul><ul><li>Civilization would thus implicitly teach Western, imperialistic values and lifestyles. </li></ul>
Start of Three-Dimensional Action: DOOM <ul><li>Doom (id Software, 1993) combined free movement in a three-dimensional environment and fast, shooter style action successfully. </li></ul><ul><li>With its multiple followers (‘ Doom clones’), it started the First Person Shooter (FPS) genre. </li></ul><ul><li>An important factor in the game’s success was its atmosphere, derived from horror and science fiction film conventions. </li></ul><ul><li>Also, the shareware distribution model contributed to Doom spreading quickly among the computer gamer communities. </li></ul>
DOOM Game Art <ul><li>Download and play a Windows version of the free Doom shareware episode: http://www.download.com/Doom-95-demo/3000-7453_4-855497.html </li></ul>Image credits: id Software.
Doom Aesthetics <ul><li>With its graphical violence, futuristic industrial environment and techno soundtrack, Doom represented a shift towards more adult-oriented popular culture in game design. </li></ul><ul><li>References to cinema (e.g. Alien , Terminator , Evil Dead ) as well as other shooter and maze games. </li></ul><ul><li>Demonic adversaries, fast-paced shooting action and labyrinthine spaces define much of the Doom aesthetics . </li></ul>
Doom Level Design <ul><li>Changes in the design of game level ‘Episode 1, Map 4’ from Doom (id Software, 1993). </li></ul>Image credits: id Software; source: www.wikipedia.org .
Gameplay Immersion: Point of View <ul><li>The first person view does not focus our attention as much on the game character as e.g. the view used in ‘third person shooters’ (see Tomb Raider style of games) . </li></ul><ul><li>Doom has very transparent interface: the player focus is strongly on the task and a feeling of immersion in virtual space is created. </li></ul>Image credits: Core Design, Crystal Dynamics; sources: www.tombraiderchronicles.com, www.wikipedia.org.
Components of Gameplay Immersion <ul><li>Three main components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sensory immersion in the sounds and interactive images of virtual space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>challenge-based immersion in the actions of play (sometimes close to an optimal, 'flow' experience) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imaginative immersion in the world of fiction in a game (this immersion can be created e.g. by text alone) . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Together, these different components contribute to games having considerable immersive potential. </li></ul>
John Carmack http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v =sWRctnQU2F4 <ul><li>With John Romero, Carmack was the lead programmer of the id computer games Wolfenstein 3D , Doom , Quake , their sequels and the Commander Keen series of games. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1999, Carmack appeared as number 10 in Time ' s list of the 50 most influential people in technology. </li></ul>Auteur
Gameplay Experience Model <ul><li>For more insights into this research, join the University of Tampere Game Lab Facebook Group. </li></ul>Image credits: Laura Ermi & Frans Mäyrä.
Influences on Game Cultures <ul><li>With Doom and followers such as Quake , Unreal and Halo , FPS games found their audience and also developed into new sub-genres (e.g. ‘tactical shooter’, ‘MMOFPS’) . </li></ul><ul><li>Practicing ‘speedruns’ means rushing through a game or level as fast as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Recording speedrun style game events gave birth to ‘machinima’, movies created using game engines. </li></ul><ul><li>Doom -influenced ‘modding’ (user-created game modifications) becoming popular. </li></ul>
Famous Mods <ul><li>‘ Castle Smurfenstein’ modified Castle Wolfenstein to show opponents as Smurfs instead of Nazi characters (1983) . </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Capture the Flag’ style of team play became popular as part of ‘Team Fortress’ (1996), a multiplayer mod for Quake. </li></ul><ul><li>Counter-Strike was originally developed as a ‘total conversion’ mod of Half-Life (Valve, 1998) by Minh ‘Gooseman’ Le and Jess ‘Cliffe’ Cliffe. </li></ul><ul><li>Counter-Strike is also an example of a game with its own dedicated ‘CS culture’, including professional CS teams and LAN tournaments. </li></ul><ul><li>Number of mods can also be used as to estimate the popularity of certain games. </li></ul>
Controversy Continued <ul><li>The violent, adult-oriented themes of FPS style games continue to evoke debate. </li></ul><ul><li>FPS action has become part of ‘family games’, like those in the Harry Potter franchise (produced by Electronic Arts) . </li></ul><ul><li>Popular contemporary games like Grand Theft Auto III and its follow-ups often feature FPS style of gameplay, but combine it with quests familiar from adventure games. </li></ul><ul><li>Also Grand Theft Auto III has created controversy with its violent and sexual content. </li></ul>
Assignments on Three-Dimensional and Turn-Taking <ul><li>Benefits and disadvantages of three-dimensional: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>find a game that has appeared in both two-dimensional and three-dimensional versions; compare, and give grounds for whether three-dimensional is beneficial or not in games. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Real-time and turn-based: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pick a game with either real-time or turn-based action; describe its core game mechanics and explain how the player experiences them temporally during play. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Concept design for a real-time board game: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>create a design for board game with real-time, rather than turn-based gameplay. Playable paper prototype optional. </li></ul></ul>