Newspapers, News, and Comics


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These slides accompany a lecture in Mass Media at Montana Tech of the University of Montana.

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Newspapers, News, and Comics

  1. 1. Newspapers and News: Reflections of a Democratic Society – Referencing Mass Communication: Living in a Media World Chapter 6 Ralph E. Hanson
  2. 2. Early Newspapers <ul><li>1618: Curanto , published in Amsterdam, is first English-language newspaper. </li></ul><ul><li>1622: Newspapers being published in Britain, distributed through coffeehouses. </li></ul><ul><li>Followers of church reformers John Calvin and Martin Luther among the earliest publishers. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Ben and James Franklin <ul><li>1721: New England Courant </li></ul><ul><li>Published by James Franklin, Ben Franklin ’s older brother. </li></ul><ul><li>First paper published without “By Authority” notice; James sent to prison for doing so, Ben takes over publishing paper. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Early American Newspapers <ul><li>Were for elites </li></ul><ul><li>Published by political parties </li></ul><ul><li>Focused on opinion, not news </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive, had small circulation </li></ul>
  5. 5. Penny Press Revolution <ul><li>Benjamin Day ’s idea: The New York Sun —“It shines for all.” </li></ul><ul><li>Sold on the street for one or two cents. </li></ul><ul><li>Supported primarily by advertising. </li></ul><ul><li>First papers to focus on “news.” </li></ul><ul><li>Journalistic objectivity developed as a way to appeal to larger audiences. </li></ul>
  6. 6. A Modern Democratic Society <ul><li>Rapidly growing number of papers. </li></ul><ul><li>Growing number of people working for wages. </li></ul><ul><li>The United States transforming from rural to urban society. </li></ul><ul><li>Newspapers promoted democratic market society. </li></ul><ul><li>People acquire the news “habit.” </li></ul>
  7. 7. Newspaper Wars Hearst vs. Pulitzer <ul><li>Joseph Pulitzer ’s New York World </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of the front page </li></ul><ul><li>Created headlines with news </li></ul><ul><li>Targeting immigrants and women </li></ul><ul><li>Nellie Bly and stunt journalism </li></ul>
  8. 8. Newspaper Wars Hearst vs. Pulitzer <ul><li>William Randolph Hearst ’s New York Journal </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of yellow journalism </li></ul><ul><li>Popularized comics, including Yellow Kid </li></ul><ul><li>Sensationalistic stories by both papers promoting Spanish-American War in Cuba </li></ul>
  9. 9. Broadcast News—Radio <ul><li>1920: KDKA covers Harding-Cox presidential election results before the newspapers . </li></ul><ul><li>1930s: Newspapers argue radio should not broadcast news. Threatened to cut off AP. </li></ul><ul><li>World War II: Edward R. Murrow broadcasting for CBS from Europe. Brought the war home for listeners. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Broadcast News—Television <ul><li>1940: Republican national convention covered by experimental NBC television network. </li></ul><ul><li>Murrow makes jump from radio to television. </li></ul><ul><li>1948: CBS starts nightly 15-minute newscast. </li></ul><ul><li>1963: CBS expands newscast to 30 minutes with Walter Cronkite. </li></ul><ul><li>1979: ABC starts Nightline during Iranian hostage crisis. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Broadcast News – Cable <ul><li>1980: CNN goes on the air, promises not to sign off until the “end of the world.” </li></ul><ul><li>1991: Gulf War makes CNN the place to go for current news. </li></ul><ul><li>2000s: Fox News comes to dominate the cable news ratings with programming that takes a strong point of view. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Newspapers Today <ul><li>Few cities have competing daily newspapers </li></ul><ul><li>Most newspapers owned by large chains. </li></ul><ul><li>Largest chain is Gannett, publisher of USA. Today ; owns approximately 85 daily papers. </li></ul><ul><li>Newspaper revenues falling; worst problems are at the metropolitan papers. </li></ul>
  13. 14. National Newspapers – USA Today <ul><li>Brought color and design to forefront </li></ul><ul><li>Originally described as having “News McNuggets” </li></ul><ul><li>Mid-2000s—Strengthens reporting; has daily circulation of 2.1 million </li></ul><ul><li>Has successful Web site to go with national distribution of paper </li></ul>
  14. 15. National Newspapers Wall Street Journal <ul><li>Traditional look with focus on financial news. </li></ul><ul><li>Now owned by Rupert Murdoch ’s News Corp. </li></ul><ul><li>Daily circulation of approximately 2.0 million. </li></ul><ul><li>Editorial page is one of nation ’s leading conservative voices. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Metro Papers: New York Times <ul><li>Started as penny paper. </li></ul><ul><li>Defines what is news in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Although tied to New York, it has national circulation. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Metro Papers: Washington Post <ul><li>Came to national prominence with Watergate reporting of Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein. </li></ul><ul><li>Low point for paper was Janet Cooke scandal. </li></ul><ul><li>Prominent source of government news. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Metro Papers: Los Angeles Times <ul><li>Leading West Coast paper. </li></ul><ul><li>Controversy surrounding cost-cutting at paper. </li></ul><ul><li>Experimented with “mainstreaming” Attempt to include quotes from women and minorities; trying to appeal to larger, more diverse audience. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Community and Suburban Papers <ul><li>Daily and weekly papers serving individual communities and suburbs. </li></ul><ul><li>Publish news that people can ’t get anywhere else. </li></ul><ul><li>“ A local paper won’t get scooped by CNN.” </li></ul>
  19. 20. What is News? <ul><li>Timeliness </li></ul><ul><li>Proximity </li></ul><ul><li>Prominence </li></ul><ul><li>Consequence </li></ul><ul><li>Rarity </li></ul><ul><li>Human Interest </li></ul>
  20. 21. Dangers Journalists Face <ul><li>As of October 2009, 139 journalists had died covering war in Iraq. More than half were deliberately murdered. </li></ul><ul><li>Trend of murdering journalists in war on terror started with death of Daniel Pearl. </li></ul><ul><li>“ They believe it is better for you to know that such things happen than not to know.” — Reporter Terry Anderson </li></ul>
  21. 22. Are Newspapers Dying? <ul><li>National newspapers profitable, holding onto circulation. </li></ul><ul><li>Afternoon dailies have been closing for decades; several high profile dailies have closed in recent years. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the job losses have been at major urban papers. </li></ul><ul><li>Christian Science Monitor went to an all-online format. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Newspapers and the Web <ul><li>Newspapers breaking news through Web sites. </li></ul><ul><li>Newspapers offering mobile sites, podcasts, social media feeds. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Globe and Mail </li></ul><ul><li> Montana Standard </li></ul><ul><li>New York Times </li></ul>
  23. 24. Comics as Social Commentary Melanie Cook
  24. 25. Doonesbury Anti-Gun Starbucks Example The “M” word example Garry Trudeau
  25. 26. For Better or for Worse The Mom, I ’ m gay story. Lynn Johnson
  26. 27. Dilbert Scott Adams
  27. 28. Web Comics Scott McCloud The Accidental Dentist