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Mass Communication Effects
 
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These slides accompany a lecture in Mass Media at MontanaTech. They are based on the Hanson text, Mass Communication.

These slides accompany a lecture in Mass Media at MontanaTech. They are based on the Hanson text, Mass Communication.

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  • Resonance – The candidate who does the best job of sending out messages that connect with target voters is the one most likely to win. Give example, pg.
  • Is there a predictable bias in American news? Critics on both the right and the left maintain there is either a liberal or conservative bias in the opposite direction.

Mass Communication Effects Mass Communication Effects Presentation Transcript

  • Mass Communication Effects: How Society & Media Interact
  • Vote Different & Yes We Can
    • New media tools like YouTube -- becoming a growing part of the political process.
    • “ Yes We Can” voted best marketing message of 2008 by Ad Age and Business Week . (See pgs 44 – 46)
  • History of Mass Media Research
    • How has our understanding of media effects evolved over the past 200 years?
  • Rise of Mass Society
    • Pre 1800s: People in the United States lived in rural communities with people of similar ethnic, racial, and religious backgrounds.
    • 1800s: Industrial revolution – People move into cities, work for wages, interact with people of diverse backgrounds.
    • Fears: Media would replace church, family, and community in shaping public opinion (grew out of Propaganda and Direct Effects Model.)
  • Propaganda & Direct Effects Model
    • Argument views audiences and passive targets (fear factor).
    • Direct effects—presume media messages are a stimulus that leads to consistent, predictable attitudinal or behavioral effects.
    • Indirect effects—recognize that people have different backgrounds, needs, values and so respond differently.
    vs
  • Critical Cultural Model
    • (Our preferred method media research since we are pursuing happiness in a media world.)
    • Focus is on how people use media to construct view of the world; not effect of media on people’s behavior.
    • Examines creation of meaning and how communication takes place; not survey or experimental results.
  • Types of Media Effects
    • Message Effects
    • Medium Effects
    • Ownership Effects
    • Active Audience Effects
  • Message Effects
    • How are people affected by the content of messages?
    • Cognitive Effects Short-term learning of information.
    • Attitudinal Effects Changing people’s attitudes about a person, product, institution, or idea.
  • Message Effects
    • Behavioral Effects Inducing people to adopt new behaviors or change existing ones. Much harder than changing attitudes.
    • Psychological Effects Inspiring strong feelings or arousal in audience members. People often seek feelings such as fear, joy, revulsion, happiness, or amusement.
  • Medium Effects
    • How does the medium used change the nature of the message and the receiver’s response to the message?
    • What are the social effects of each medium?
    • “The medium is the message”—Marshall McLuhan
  • Ownership Effects
    • How does ownership affect the media?
    • Do we get different messages from different owners?
    • How important are the six largest media companies?
  • Active Audience Effects
    • Audience members seek out and respond to media for a variety of reasons.
    • People can be segmented by geographics, demographics, or psychographics (study these definitions).
    • Looks at audience members as selective consumers rather than naïve victims of the media.
  • Media, Politics, and Society
  • How Do Campaigns Affect Voters?
    • Resonance Model A candidate’s success depends on how well his or her basic message resonates with and reinforces voters’ preexisting political feelings.
    • Competitive Model Views the political campaign as a competition for the hearts and minds of voters. A candidate’s response to an attack is as important as the attack itself.
  • Media and Political Bias
    • News with an explicit point of view (opinionated style) is popular on cable television eg Fox vs MSNBC.
    • Audience members tend to view news as biased if it does not actively match their own point of view.
  • Liberal vs. Conservative Bias
    • Conservatives point out reporters tend to be more liberal than public at large. “The duty of the press is to comfort the afflicted and afflict the comfortable.”
    • Liberals point out that media are owned by large corporations that tend to be more conservative than the public at large. “Freedom of the press belongs to those who own a press.”
  • Herbert Gans: Basic Journalistic Values
    • Gans evaluated the actual values exhibited within content on CBS and NBC news programming and Time magazine and Newsweek magazine.
  • Basic Journalistic Values
    • Ethnocentrism The belief that your own country and culture are better than all others.
    • Altruistic democracy The idea that politicians should serve the public good, not their own interests.
  • Basic Journalistic Values
    • Responsible capitalism The idea that open competition among businesses will create a better, more prosperous world. But must be responsible.
    • Small-town pastoralism Nostalgia for the old-fashioned rural community.
  • Basic Journalistic Values
    • Individualism The quest to identify the one person who makes a difference.
    • Moderatism The value of moderation in all things. Extremists on left and right are viewed with suspicion.
  • Basic Journalistic Values
    • Social order When journalists cover disorder they tend to focus on the restoration of order.
    • Leadership Media look at the actions of leaders, whereas the actions of lower-level bureaucrats are ignored.
  • NETWORK (Sidney Lumet: 1976) Logline: A TV network cynically exploits a deranged ex-TV anchor's ravings and revelations about the media for their own profit. Question: How does this film predict today’s rash of trashTV and shock-laden newsbroadcasts? Writer: Paddy Chayefsky Starring: Wiliam Holden, Robert Duvall, Dunaway. 121 Minutes.