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Mass Communication Effects


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These slides accompany a lecture in Mass Media at MontanaTech. They are based on the Hanson text, Mass Communication.

These slides accompany a lecture in Mass Media at MontanaTech. They are based on the Hanson text, Mass Communication.

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  • Resonance – The candidate who does the best job of sending out messages that connect with target voters is the one most likely to win. Give example, pg.
  • Is there a predictable bias in American news? Critics on both the right and the left maintain there is either a liberal or conservative bias in the opposite direction.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Mass Communication Effects: How Society & Media Interact
    • 2. Vote Different & Yes We Can
      • New media tools like YouTube -- becoming a growing part of the political process.
      • “ Yes We Can” voted best marketing message of 2008 by Ad Age and Business Week . (See pgs 44 – 46)
    • 3. History of Mass Media Research
      • How has our understanding of media effects evolved over the past 200 years?
    • 4. Rise of Mass Society
      • Pre 1800s: People in the United States lived in rural communities with people of similar ethnic, racial, and religious backgrounds.
      • 1800s: Industrial revolution – People move into cities, work for wages, interact with people of diverse backgrounds.
      • Fears: Media would replace church, family, and community in shaping public opinion (grew out of Propaganda and Direct Effects Model.)
    • 5. Propaganda & Direct Effects Model
      • Argument views audiences and passive targets (fear factor).
      • Direct effects—presume media messages are a stimulus that leads to consistent, predictable attitudinal or behavioral effects.
      • Indirect effects—recognize that people have different backgrounds, needs, values and so respond differently.
    • 6. Critical Cultural Model
      • (Our preferred method media research since we are pursuing happiness in a media world.)
      • Focus is on how people use media to construct view of the world; not effect of media on people’s behavior.
      • Examines creation of meaning and how communication takes place; not survey or experimental results.
    • 7. Types of Media Effects
      • Message Effects
      • Medium Effects
      • Ownership Effects
      • Active Audience Effects
    • 8. Message Effects
      • How are people affected by the content of messages?
      • Cognitive Effects Short-term learning of information.
      • Attitudinal Effects Changing people’s attitudes about a person, product, institution, or idea.
    • 9. Message Effects
      • Behavioral Effects Inducing people to adopt new behaviors or change existing ones. Much harder than changing attitudes.
      • Psychological Effects Inspiring strong feelings or arousal in audience members. People often seek feelings such as fear, joy, revulsion, happiness, or amusement.
    • 10. Medium Effects
      • How does the medium used change the nature of the message and the receiver’s response to the message?
      • What are the social effects of each medium?
      • “The medium is the message”—Marshall McLuhan
    • 11. Ownership Effects
      • How does ownership affect the media?
      • Do we get different messages from different owners?
      • How important are the six largest media companies?
    • 12. Active Audience Effects
      • Audience members seek out and respond to media for a variety of reasons.
      • People can be segmented by geographics, demographics, or psychographics (study these definitions).
      • Looks at audience members as selective consumers rather than naïve victims of the media.
    • 13. Media, Politics, and Society
    • 14. How Do Campaigns Affect Voters?
      • Resonance Model A candidate’s success depends on how well his or her basic message resonates with and reinforces voters’ preexisting political feelings.
      • Competitive Model Views the political campaign as a competition for the hearts and minds of voters. A candidate’s response to an attack is as important as the attack itself.
    • 15. Media and Political Bias
      • News with an explicit point of view (opinionated style) is popular on cable television eg Fox vs MSNBC.
      • Audience members tend to view news as biased if it does not actively match their own point of view.
    • 16. Liberal vs. Conservative Bias
      • Conservatives point out reporters tend to be more liberal than public at large. “The duty of the press is to comfort the afflicted and afflict the comfortable.”
      • Liberals point out that media are owned by large corporations that tend to be more conservative than the public at large. “Freedom of the press belongs to those who own a press.”
    • 17. Herbert Gans: Basic Journalistic Values
      • Gans evaluated the actual values exhibited within content on CBS and NBC news programming and Time magazine and Newsweek magazine.
    • 18. Basic Journalistic Values
      • Ethnocentrism The belief that your own country and culture are better than all others.
      • Altruistic democracy The idea that politicians should serve the public good, not their own interests.
    • 19. Basic Journalistic Values
      • Responsible capitalism The idea that open competition among businesses will create a better, more prosperous world. But must be responsible.
      • Small-town pastoralism Nostalgia for the old-fashioned rural community.
    • 20. Basic Journalistic Values
      • Individualism The quest to identify the one person who makes a difference.
      • Moderatism The value of moderation in all things. Extremists on left and right are viewed with suspicion.
    • 21. Basic Journalistic Values
      • Social order When journalists cover disorder they tend to focus on the restoration of order.
      • Leadership Media look at the actions of leaders, whereas the actions of lower-level bureaucrats are ignored.
    • 22. NETWORK (Sidney Lumet: 1976) Logline: A TV network cynically exploits a deranged ex-TV anchor's ravings and revelations about the media for their own profit. Question: How does this film predict today’s rash of trashTV and shock-laden newsbroadcasts? Writer: Paddy Chayefsky Starring: Wiliam Holden, Robert Duvall, Dunaway. 121 Minutes.