You know you're in the 21st century when... You just tried to enter your password on the microwave. You have a list of 15 phone numbers to reach your family of three. You SMS your roomate to let him know it's time to eat. He emails you back from his bedroom, &quot;What's for dinner? You chat several times a day with a stranger from South Africa, but you haven't spoken with your next door neighbor yet this year. You pull up in your own driveway and use your cell phone to see if anyone is home. Every commercial on television has a web-site address at the bottom of the screen. You buy a computer and a week later it is out of date and now sells for half the price you paid. The concept of using real money, instead of credit or debit, to make a purchase is foreign to you. Your reason for not staying in touch with family is that they do not have e-mail addresses.
Read highlights on page 120.
Read highlighted and 1, 2, 3 in pages 122 125 (Highlighted). Play the youtube.
GameStop. Next class. Everquest and World of Warcraft.
Longstanding critique of digital games is that they are bad for your health. In critiques: Connected to repetitve stress syndrome, why? Epileptic seizures, why? Obesity, why? Worse of better than TV, why? Multimodal – Visual, Aural, Verbal(Literary), Physcial now using voice, movement and touch. Play Mogul Maniac. Read pg 142 143 Play DDR.
Play eye toy camera.
Alternate game design -- Indy gsaming – alternate gaming supplied as freeware or shareware or open source distribution. Historically related to experimental branches of computerscience called pervasive or ubiquitous computing, pervasive games involve game designs tat break away from the bounds of traditional gameing and deliverately mix game reality with the real world. Eye Toy is an example, however, it is more tyical to situate Eye Toy games in the family of augmented reality games. Read 146
One of the most important developments in recent years which has already proceeded quite far in realizing its own distinctive game aesthetics is called alternate reality games. Advergames promote a company product or political view.
The Beast, which ran for twelve weeks in the spring and early summer of 2001, is one of the most influential early ARG games. Read wiki paper.
No tin the book
Final Weeks Mtech Game Design
From Introduction to Game Studies Chapter 7 The Real and the Game The Third Millennium MontanaTech Thanks to Frans Mäyrä & SAGE Publications
21 Century: Learning the Lexicon <ul><li>Big Boom is Internet and Smartphones. </li></ul>
Games at the Turn of the Century <ul><li>Interest in digital games has continued quite steadily, even during the ‘IT bubble crash’ years (2000-2002) . </li></ul><ul><li>Yet, the average time spent with games remains small when compared to television viewing (69 hours vs. 1,745 hours of tv in the US during 2003) . </li></ul><ul><li>Rather than being revolutionary, the development of digital culture has taken place quietly, as mobile phones and home Internet connections have gradually become more common. </li></ul>
Social Play <ul><li>All play takes place within social contexts, whether overtly social or as apparently more solitary activity. </li></ul><ul><li>As children’s access to public space is being limited, ‘digital playgrounds’ appear as an escape from adult regulation (Henry Jenkins, 1998) . </li></ul><ul><li>As social networks used to be constructed in physical play, now social forms of digital play have also become important. </li></ul>
Online Play <ul><li>Historically, online gaming became possible as the early Internet was developed. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple players could join the same game in mainframe computers, or play turn-based games by email. </li></ul><ul><li>As home computers got modems, dial-up multiplayer services appeared (e.g. DWANGO, see next slide) . </li></ul><ul><li>Internet Service Providers (ISPs) replaced such dedicated services during the late-1990s. </li></ul>
“ DWANGO” <ul><li>Stands for Dial-up Wide-Area Network Game Operation. </li></ul><ul><li>DWANGO was early online gaming service developed for the support of Doom. </li></ul><ul><li>Ever wonder what 16 players in Doom 2 deathmatch would be like on a small map? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1mhUOor_p1U&feature=related </li></ul>
The Birth of Online Game Worlds <ul><li>Early ‘multi-user dungeons’ (MUDs) were text-based games where characters, game worlds and actions were handled by text and typing. </li></ul><ul><li>The first MUD was developed by Roy Trubshaw and Richard Bartle at Essex University in 1978. </li></ul><ul><li>Graphically more advanced AVATAR and other similar games were available for the users of PLATO computer system at the University of Illinois during the late-1970s. </li></ul>AVATAR screen . Image credits: Wikipedia, www.wikipedia.org .
Richard Bartle http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NVu4PdZs69M <ul><li>Bartle received a Ph.D. in artificial intelligence from the University of Essex , where he created MUD with Roy Trubshaw , in 1978. </li></ul><ul><li>Bartle did research on player personality types in massively-multiplayer online games. In Bartle's analysis, players of mmorgs can be divided into four types: achievers, explorers, socializers and killers. </li></ul>Auteur
Conflicts in Online Lives pgs 122 - 125 <ul><li>An early example of online controversy took place in Habitat (LucasFilm, 1985) . (Morningstar and Randall) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VVpulhO3jyc </li></ul><ul><li>The role of guns and ‘player-killing’ was the focus of debate: would Habitat be an exiting action game, or an online society? </li></ul><ul><li>Julian Dibbell made famous the ‘rape in cyberspace’ event that took place in LambdaMOO in 1993. </li></ul><ul><li>Player-character Mr. Bungle used a ‘Voodoo Doll’ object to play out sadistic sexual fantasies on other characters, creating controversy. </li></ul>
Online Psychology <ul><li>Researchers of CMC (computer-mediated communication) have noticed how the anonymity and distance can lead to uninhibited behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Online communication can also be used to develop trust and close relationships. (Nancy Baym, pg 125.) </li></ul><ul><li>Online “Social presence” is related to various contextual, game system, group and participant-related factors. </li></ul>
Online Player Types and Motives <ul><li>Richard Bartle (1996) divided MUD players into four basic types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>achievers (motivated by achieving in the game) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>explorers (motivated by exploration in the game) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>socialisers (enjoying social interaction) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>killers (enjoy using their power over others) . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bartle acknowledged types crossing over each other – alternative models of player motivations have also been developed. </li></ul><ul><li>Sherry Turkle (1993) interpreted online play as identity experimentation and escapism. </li></ul>
Graphical Virtual Worlds <ul><li>As MUD-style games gained more realistic graphical interfaces, it became easier to see the game as an alternative ‘virtual world’ </li></ul><ul><li>Known as MMORPGs (Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games), these games typically focus on the progress of player characters, collecting virtual items, and various social interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Often time spent and achievements gained in game translate to more experience points and levels. </li></ul>
Evolution of Interfaces <ul><li>The evolution of game interfaces in online role-playing games: clockwise, Meridian 59 (3DO, 1996), EverQuest (Verant Interactive, 1999) and a beginner and advanced player’s screen from World of Warcraft (Blizzard, 2004). </li></ul>Image credits: 3DO/NearDeathStudios, Verant/Sony, Blizzard, Frans Mäyrä, Markus Montola; sources: www.drewslinks.com , Arstechnica.com .
MMORPG Features <ul><li>The sense of place in MMORPGs is heightened by the persistence of the game world ( the game world continues to develop even while logged out). </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous world and online social relations make these games suitable for cultivation of online persona and community. </li></ul><ul><li>MMORPGs are mostly subscription-based, the flat-fee further encouraging long play sessions. </li></ul><ul><li>Player-run organisations such as guilds are a common feature in them. </li></ul>
Product, Service or Public Space? <ul><li>The traditionally commercial digital game was perceived as a product, available off the shelf. </li></ul><ul><li>MMORPGs are principally conceptualised as services, constantly maintained and updated for the customers. </li></ul><ul><li>As players continue to invest their time and energy into these worlds, they also become public spaces. </li></ul><ul><li>Debates and conflicts have risen over the ownership of virtual space and property. </li></ul>
Example: EverQuest (1999>) <ul><li>EverQuest (by Verant/Sony), at its peak of 450,000 players, was second most popular MMORPG around 2000-2003 (after Lineage from South Korea) . </li></ul><ul><li>The game is located in the fantasy world of Norrath, its moon and alternate planes of existence. </li></ul><ul><li>The EverQuest universe is extensive, combining geographical variety with multiple races and character classes to choose from. </li></ul><ul><li>Not particularly tailored for casual play, EverQuest gained the nickname ‘EverCrack’ for its supposedly addictive qualities. </li></ul>
Example: World of Warcraft <ul><li>World of Warcraft was developed by Blizzard Entertainment and became the most popular MMORPG soon after its release in 2004 (reaching 9 million players in 2007) . </li></ul><ul><li>Rooted in previous Warcraft mythology, the game features several races, divided into two warring factions, Horde and Alliance. </li></ul><ul><li>WoW is known as the ‘more casual multiplayer game’, as its gameplay has been designed to be easily accessible and immediately rewarding. </li></ul>
Virtual Property Sales <ul><li>Even if considered ‘cheating’, real money trading on virtual game items has expanded. </li></ul><ul><li>Calculating the value of such transactions, economist Edward Castronova (2001) estimated that the per capita ‘Gross National Product’ taking place within a virtual world like Norrath easily exceeds that of real countries like India or China. </li></ul><ul><li>Real money trading challenges the ‘magic circle’ and threatens to ruin the game for some – but there are virtual worlds like Second Life that endorse it. http://secondlife.com/destinations/arts </li></ul>
Further to Bartle … <ul><li>In Bartle's analysis, players of mmorgs can be divided into four types: achievers, explorers, socializers and killers. </li></ul><ul><li>Further to Bartle, psychologist Richard Lee (2002) studied players of Everquest and other MMORGS and compacted their holding power into five desires … 1) to form and sustain supportive and meaningful relationships, 2) to accumulate power in different forms 3) to be immersed in a fantasy world 4) to taunt, annoy, irritate other people 4) to be part of a group strategy and collaboration. </li></ul>
Games Getting Physical <ul><li>Multimodal digital play is getting more common. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple senses or modes or interaction are being used in games, including dancing, singing, drumming and playing the guitar. </li></ul><ul><li>Early physical gaming devices met with only moderate success in the1970s and 1980s, eg Mogul Maniac,1983. </li></ul><ul><li>In the early 21 st century, physical and rhythm-based play has got more into the mainstream. </li></ul><ul><li>Dance Dance Revolution. Konami, 1998. pg 142, 143. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6JzcqALklRs </li></ul>
The Physical Interface <ul><ul><li>Clockwise: Foot Craz pad for Atari 2600 (Exus, 1987), Eye Toy camera (Sony, 2002) , Guitar Hero package by Harmonix Music Systems (2005), dance game players . </li></ul></ul>Image credits: Atari Age, Sony, Harmonix, Honolulu Star-Bulletin; sources: www.atariage.com , mag.awn.com , www.codinghorror.com , starbulletin.com
<ul><li>If ‘virtual reality’ involves replacing real sensations with those from a simulation, augmented and pervasive games try the opposite. </li></ul><ul><li>Augmented reality games aim to impose virtual elements seamlessly in physical reality (e.g. ARQuake ) . </li></ul><ul><li>Pervasive games aim to blur the boundary between the ‘real’ and the ‘game’ by expanding the place, time and participation in games in different ways. </li></ul>From Virtual to Pervasive Games
Pervasive and Alternate Reality Games <ul><li>Alternate reality games are often designed as parts of advertisement campaigns, aka. Advergames. </li></ul><ul><li>Typically massively scaled puzzle challenges that require players to organise themselves into teams and hunt for clues in multiple media and places. </li></ul><ul><li>Pervasive and alternate reality games have been described to be superimposed to public, shared reality and to have personally, socially and culturally transformative power. </li></ul>
A.I Movie ARG Challenge <ul><li>Game accompanying A.I. movie, The Beast was created by Microsoft in 2001. Hypotheses were: </li></ul><ul><li>Narrative is broken into segments that players would reassemble. </li></ul><ul><li>Game world is fundamentally cooperative and collective because of the nature of the internet. </li></ul><ul><li>Game is cooler if nobody knows who is doing it or why. </li></ul><ul><li>Game is cooler if it comes at you through as many different conduits as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>More info about The Beast http:// www.seanstewart.org /beast/intro/ </li></ul>
Momentum <ul><li>Momentum was a pervasive game produced by the Swedish IPerG research project in 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>Combining larp and embedded electronics, Momentum experimented with game design, technology, politics and alternate reality experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>Thirty participants took on characters as dead revolutionaries re-entering our world, this time to save their own from oblivion. The larp used a host of technology installations, mobile equipment, and an advanced system for game mastering to enable the game to be ongoing around the clock for 34 days. </li></ul>
Momentum Photos Image credits: Jaakko Stenros & the IPerG project: http://iperg.sics.se . http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3B8XFRrhack