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  • 1. Culture and Identity Social Identities Similarities and Differences
  • 2. Identity and Cultural Identity
    • Identity -- A reflective self-conception or self-image that we each derive from our family, gender, cultural, ethnic, and individual socialization process. (Ting-Toomey)
    • Cultural Identity -- Shared system of symbolic verbal and non-verbal behaviour meaningful to a group. A social construction. (Fong)
  • 3. Selected Social Identities
    • Racial Identity | Ethnic Identity
    • Gender Identity | National Identity
    • Regional Identity | Organizational Identity
    • Personal Identity | Cyber/Fantasy Identity
    • (Others include age, religion, physical ability, socio-economic class.)
  • 4. Racial Identity
    • Race is a social construct arising from efforts to categorize people into different groups.
    • Science has determined there is very little genetic variation among humans.
    • Human population will become more alike as the races merge. (Jones)
  • 5. Ethnic Identity
    • Ethnicity is derived from a sense of shared heritage, history, traditions, values, similar behaviours, area of origin, language.
    • Ethnicity of many Americans/Canadians is tied to ancestors’ place of origin prior to coming to North America.
  • 6. Gender Identity
    • Gender refers to how a particular culture differentiates masculine and feminine social roles.
    • Culture influences on what constitutes gender beauty and how it is displayed. Examples are: Fashion in Denmark. Language in Japan. Tanning in Europe/America.
  • 7. National Identity
    • Refers to your nationality.
    • Usually becomes more pronounced when persons are away from home country.
    • Interesting phenomena currently happening where young adults from EU think of Europe as their native land. Texans … Quebecers.
  • 8. Regional Identity
    • Smaller divisions of geographic area. Cultural contrast among these regions may be manifested through ethnicity, language, accent, dialect, customs, food, dress, historical and political legacies,
  • 9. Organizational Identity
    • In collectivistic cultures organizational affiliation is often more important.
    • Eg is in Japan where people are often introduced firstly by where they work.
  • 10. Personal identity
    • In collectivistic cultures organizational affiliation is often more important.
    • Eg is in Japan where people are often introduced firstly by where they work.
  • 11. Cyber/Fantasy Identity
    • The Internet provides an opportunity to escape constraints of everyday identities.
    • Infatuation with “imaginary personas” can become so strong they take on a life of their own.
    • Second Life is an example of a virtual world where participants construct avatars. Becoming popular for virtual business meetings.
  • 12. Dark Side of Identity
    • Stereotyping
    • Prejudice
    • Ethnocentricity
  • 13. Dark Side of Identity
    • Psychologists conducting research in area of interpersonal attraced have established that the more similar two people are to each other the more liely they are to like each other.
    • This preference for things we understand are familiar with can adversely influence our perception and attitudes.
  • 14. Stereotyping • learned in a variety of ways - from parents - from peers - from religious, social groups - from mass media - from fear of difference
  • 15. Stereotyping
    • Defined: form of categorization containing perceiver ’s knowledge, beliefs, expectancies about particular collections of people.
    • Difficulty lies with overgeneralization and negative evaluations (attitudes and prejudices).
    • Even positive evaluations can narrow perceptions, jeopardize intercultural communication.
  • 16. Stereotyping – Negative Effects
    • Filtering quality only allows in information consistent with held beliefs.
    • Rigid preconceptions prevent correct assessment that all in any group do not have same traits.
    • False assumptions (untrue premises, half-truths, exaggerations, oversimplifications) alter/distort communication.
    • Early and/or increased interaction diminishes effects
  • 17. Prejudice • Defined: deep negative feelings associated with a particular group; irrational (inflexible) generalizations with little/no direct evidence • Characteristics - directed at specific groups (social class, sex, sexual orientation, age, political affiliation, race, ethnicity) - involves evaluative dimension, ie judgmental
  • 18. Expressions of Prejudice
    • A ntilocution : talking about target group in negative, stereotypic terms
    • A voiding, withdrawing from contact with target group
    • D iscrimination : excluding target group from employment, housing, political rights, educational/recreational opportunities, churches, hospitals.
    • Physical attacks
    • Extermination : lynching, massacres, genocide
  • 19. Expressions of Prejudice
    • A ntilocution : talking about target group in negative, stereotypic terms
    • A voiding, withdrawing from contact with target group
    • D iscrimination : excluding target group from employment, housing, political rights, educational/recreational opportunities, churches, hospitals.
    • Physical attacks
    • Extermination : lynching, massacres, genocide
  • 20. Culture and Identity Social Identities Similarities and Differences
  • 21. Identity and Cultural Identity
    • Identity -- A reflective self-conception or self-image that we each derive from our family, gender, cultural, ethnic, and individual socialization process. (Ting-Toomey)
    • Cultural Identity -- Shared system of symbolic verbal and non-verbal behaviour meaningful to a group. A social construction. (Fong)
  • 22. Selected Social Identities
    • Racial Identity | Ethnic Identity
    • Gender Identity | National Identity
    • Regional Identity | Organizational Identity
    • Personal Identity | Cyber/Fantasy Identity
    • (Others include age, religion, physical ability, socio-economic class.)
  • 23. Ethnic Identity
    • Ethnicity is derived from a sense of shared heritage, history, traditions, values, similar behaviours, area of origin, language.
    • Ethnicity of many Americans/Canadians is tied to ancestors’ place of origin prior to coming to North America.
  • 24. Gender Identity
    • Gender refers to how a particular culture differentiates masculine and feminine social roles.
    • Culture influences on what constitutes gender beauty and how it is displayed. Examples are: Fashion in Denmark. Language in Japan. Tanning in Europe/America.
  • 25. National Identity
    • Refers to your nationality.
    • Usually becomes more pronounced when persons are away from home country.
    • Interesting phenomenon currently happening where young adults from EU think of Europe as their native land.
  • 26. National Identity
    • Refers to your nationality.
    • Usually becomes more pronounced when persons are away from home country.
    • Interesting phenomena currently happening where young adults from EU think of Europe as their native land. Texans … Quebecers.
  • 27. Regional Identity
    • Smaller divisions of geographic area. Cultural contrast among these regions may be manifested through ethnicity, language, accent, dialect, customs, food, dress, historical and political legacies,
  • 28. Regional Identity
    • Smaller divisions of geographic area. Cultural contrast among these regions may be manifested through ethnicity, language, accent, dialect, customs, food, dress, historical and political legacies,
  • 29. Organizational Identity
    • In collectivistic cultures organizational affiliation is often more important.
    • Eg is in Japan where people are often introduced firstly by where they work.
  • 30. Personal identity
    • In collectivistic cultures organizational affiliation is often more important.
    • Eg is in Japan where people are often introduced firstly by where they work.
  • 31. Cyber/Fantasy Identity
    • The Internet provides an opportunity to escape constraints of everyday identities.
    • Infatuation with “imaginary personas” can become so strong they take on a life of their own.
    • Second Life is an example of a virtual world where participants construct avatars. Becoming popular for virtual business meetings.
  • 32. Dark Side of Identity
    • Stereotyping
    • Prejudice
    • Ethnocentricity
  • 33. Dark Side of Identity
    • Psychologists conducting research in area of interpersonal attraced have established that the more similar two people are to each other the more liely they are to like each other.
    • This preference for things we understand are familiar with can adversely influence our perception and attitudes.
  • 34. Stereotyping • learned in a variety of ways - from parents - from peers - from religious, social groups - from mass media - from fear of difference
  • 35. Stereotyping
    • Defined: form of categorization containing perceiver ’s knowledge, beliefs, expectancies about particular collections of people.
    • Difficulty lies with overgeneralization and negative evaluations (attitudes and prejudices).
    • Even positive evaluations can narrow perceptions, jeopardize intercultural communication.
  • 36. Stereotyping – Negative Effects
    • Filtering quality only allows in information consistent with held beliefs.
    • Rigid preconceptions prevent correct assessment that all in any group do not have same traits.
    • False assumptions (untrue premises, half-truths, exaggerations, oversimplifications) alter/distort communication.
    • Early and/or increased interaction diminishes effects
  • 37. Prejudice • Defined: deep negative feelings associated with a particular group; irrational (inflexible) generalizations with little/no direct evidence • Characteristics - directed at specific groups (social class, sex, sexual orientation, age, political affiliation, race, ethnicity) - involves evaluative dimension, ie judgmental
  • 38. Expressions of Prejudice
    • A ntilocution : talking about target group in negative, stereotypic terms
    • A voiding, withdrawing from contact with target group
    • D iscrimination : excluding target group from employment, housing, political rights, educational/recreational opportunities, churches, hospitals.
    • Physical attacks
    • Extermination : lynching, massacres, genocide
  • 39. Causes of Prejudice
    • S ocietal sources : built into major organizations and institutions; help maintain power of dominant groups over subordinate ones
    • M aintaining social identity : strengthening bond with person ’s culture
    • S capegoating : singling out group to bear blame for circumstance, events. Placing blame.
    • Avoiding prejudice: • personal contact • education
  • 40. Ethnocentrism
    • The notion that one’s own culture is superior to any other. We are ethnocentric when we view other cultures through the narrow lens of our own culture.
    • This narrow lens links ethnocentrism to the concepts of stereotyping, prejudice, and racism.

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