Ch02 3rd ed


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Ch02 3rd ed

  1. 1. Chapter 2 Mass Communication Effects: How Society & Media Interact
  2. 2. Rise of Mass Society <ul><li>Pre 1800s: People in the United States lived in rural communities with people of similar ethnic, racial, and religious backgrounds. </li></ul><ul><li>1800s: Industrial revolution – People move into cities, work for wages, interact with people of diverse backgrounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Fears: Media would replace church, family, and community in shaping public opinion. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Direct Effects Model <ul><li>People feared strong, direct effects of World War I and World War II propaganda. </li></ul><ul><li>Direct effects—presume media messages are a stimulus that leads to consistent, predictable attitudinal or behavioral effects. </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect effects—recognize that people have different backgrounds, needs, values and so respond differently. </li></ul>
  4. 4. People’s Choice Study and the Limited Effects Model <ul><li>Lazarsfeld study of voter decision making in 1940 presidential election. </li></ul><ul><li>Found importance of opinion leaders (friends and neighbors) over mass media and campaigns. </li></ul><ul><li>Media content and campaigns had indirect effects; interpersonal influence was stronger. </li></ul>
  5. 5. People’s Choice Findings <ul><li>Voters with strong opinions are unlikely to change them. </li></ul><ul><li>Voters who pay most attention to campaigns are those who start with strongest views. </li></ul><ul><li>The most persuadable voters are least likely to pay attention to campaigns. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Critical Cultural Model <ul><li>Focus is on how people use media to construct view of the world; not effect of media on people’s behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Examines creation of meaning and how communication takes place; not survey or experimental results. </li></ul><ul><li>Who controls the creation and flow of information? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Types of Media Effects <ul><li>Message Effects </li></ul><ul><li>Medium Effects </li></ul><ul><li>Ownership Effects </li></ul><ul><li>Active Audience Effects </li></ul>
  8. 8. Message Effects <ul><li>How are people affected by the content of messages? </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Effects Short-term learning of information. </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudinal Effects Changing people’s attitudes about a person, product, institution, or idea. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Message Effects <ul><li>Behavioral Effects Inducing people to adopt new behaviors or change existing ones. Much harder than changing attitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological Effects Inspiring strong feelings or arousal in audience members. People often seek feelings such as fear, joy, revulsion, happiness, or amusement. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Medium Effects <ul><li>How does the medium used change the nature of the message and the receiver’s response to the message? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the social effects of each medium? </li></ul><ul><li>“ The medium is the message”—Marshall McLuhan </li></ul>
  11. 11. Ownership Effects <ul><li>How does ownership affect the media? </li></ul><ul><li>Do we get different messages from different owners? </li></ul><ul><li>How important are the six largest media companies? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Active Audience Effects <ul><li>Audience members seek out and respond to media for a variety of reasons. </li></ul><ul><li>People can be segmented by geographics, demographics, or psychographics. </li></ul><ul><li>Looks at audience members as selective consumers rather than naïve victims of the media. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Theories of Media and Society <ul><li>Functional Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Agenda Setting </li></ul><ul><li>Uses and Gratifications </li></ul><ul><li>Social Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Spiral of Silence </li></ul><ul><li>Media Logic </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivation Analysis </li></ul>
  14. 14. Functional Analysis <ul><li>Surveillance of the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation of different elements of society </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission of culture from one generation to the next </li></ul><ul><li>Entertainment </li></ul>
  15. 15. Agenda Setting <ul><li>The media don’t tell the public what to think, but rather what to think about. </li></ul><ul><li>Media sets the terms of public discourse. </li></ul><ul><li>But can media determine what people will care about? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Uses and Gratifications <ul><li>What do audience members attempt to get out of their media use? </li></ul><ul><li>And do they receive it? </li></ul>
  17. 17. Uses and Gratifications <ul><li>Possible gratifications </li></ul><ul><li>To be amused </li></ul><ul><li>To experience the beautiful </li></ul><ul><li>To have shared experiences with others </li></ul><ul><li>To find models to imitate </li></ul><ul><li>To believe in romantic love </li></ul>
  18. 18. Social Learning <ul><li>Albert Bandura—We are able to learn by observing others and the consequences they face. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Social Learning <ul><li>Steps of Social Learning </li></ul><ul><li>We extract key information from situations we observe. </li></ul><ul><li>We integrate these observations to create rules about how the world operates. </li></ul><ul><li>We put these rules into practice to regulate our own behavior and predict the behavior of others. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Symbolic Interactionism <ul><li>The process by which individuals produce meaning through interaction based on socially agreed-upon symbols. </li></ul><ul><li>“ If men define situations as real, they are real in their consequences.”— W.I. Thomas </li></ul>
  21. 21. Spiral of Silence <ul><li>People want to see themselves as part of a majority. </li></ul><ul><li>They will remain silent if they perceive themselves as being in a minority. </li></ul><ul><li>This tends to make minority opinions appear less prevalent than they are. </li></ul><ul><li>But some people like having contrary opinions; others speak out because they care. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Media Logic <ul><li>The forms the media use to present the world become the forms we use to perceive the world. </li></ul><ul><li>People use media formats to describe the world. </li></ul><ul><li>People use media formats to prepare for events so that they will be portrayed better through the media. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Cultivation Analysis <ul><li>Watching significant amounts of television alters the way an individual views the nature of the surrounding world. </li></ul><ul><li>Can cultivate a response known as the “Mean World Syndrome.” </li></ul>
  24. 24. Mean World Syndrome <ul><li>Heavy television viewers are more likely to: </li></ul><ul><li>Overestimate chance of experiencing violence </li></ul><ul><li>Believe their neighborhood is unsafe </li></ul><ul><li>Say fear of crime is a serious personal problem </li></ul><ul><li>Assume the crime rate is rising. </li></ul>
  25. 25. How Do Campaigns Affect Voters? <ul><li>Resonance Model A candidate’s success depends on how well his or her basic message resonates with and reinforces voters’ preexisting political feelings. </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive Model Views the political campaign as a competition for the hearts and minds of voters. A candidate’s response to an attack is as important as the attack itself. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Media and Political Bias <ul><li>News with an explicit point of view is popular on cable television. </li></ul><ul><li>Audience members tend to view news as biased if it does not actively match their own point of view. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Liberal vs. Conservative Bias <ul><li>Conservatives point out reporters tend to be more liberal than public at large. “The duty of the press is to comfort the afflicted and afflict the comfortable.” </li></ul><ul><li>Liberals point out that media are owned by large corporations that tend to be more conservative than the public at large. “Freedom of the press belongs to those who own a press.” </li></ul>
  28. 28. Herbert Gans: Basic Journalistic Values <ul><li>Ethnocentrism The belief that your own country and culture are better than all others. </li></ul><ul><li>Altruistic democracy The idea that politicians should serve the public good, not their own interests. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Herbert Gans: Basic Journalistic Values <ul><li>Responsible capitalism The idea that open competition among businesses will create a better, more prosperous world. But must be responsible. </li></ul><ul><li>Small-town pastoralism Nostalgia for the old-fashioned rural community. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Herbert Gans: Basic Journalistic Values <ul><li>Individualism The quest to identify the one person who makes a difference. </li></ul><ul><li>Moderatism The value of moderation in all things. Extremists on left and right are viewed with suspicion. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Herbert Gans: Basic Journalistic Values <ul><li>Social order When journalists cover disorder they tend to focus on the restoration of order. </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership Media look at the actions of leaders, whereas the actions of lower-level bureaucrats are ignored. </li></ul>