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Computers, Culture, and Philosophy




“isms”of
Philosophy
Justification

We’ve had an interesting array of readings
and articles about the history of computing
and I can see by your...
Philosophy
Being...
The study of general
problems concerning matters
such as existence, knowledge,
truth, beauty, justice,...
Philosophy
Philosophy is distinguished
from other ways of addressing
these questions (such as
mysticism or mythology) by i...
Philosophy
The word philosophy is of
Ancient Greek origin:
φιλοσοφία (philosophía),
meaning quot;love of wisdom.
Absolutism
The position that in a particular domain of
thought, all statements in that domain are
either absolutely true o...
Accidentalism
Any system of thought which denies the causal
nexus and maintains that events succeed one
another haphazardl...
Aestheticism
Proponents of aestheticism hold that art
does not have any didactic purpose, it need
only be beautiful. Life ...
Altruism
The belief that people have a moral
obligation to serve others or the quot;greater
goodquot;; term coined by Augu...
Anarchism
In politics, any of a number of views
and movements that advocate the
elimination of rulership or
government. Ot...
Animism
quot;Animismquot; is most commonly applied to
vitalism, which makes life, or life and mind, the
directive principl...
Animism
quot;Animismquot; is most commonly applied to
vitalism, which makes life, or life and mind, the
directive principl...
Anthropomorphism
A form of personification (applying human or
animal qualities to inanimate objects) and the
attribution of...
Asceticism
 Denotes a life which is characterised by
refraining from worldly pleasures (austerity).
Those who practice asc...
Atomism
The theory that all the objects in the universe are
composed of very small, indestructible elements.
Buddhists hav...
Atomatism
Automatism or Surrealist automatism,
to be more specific, is an artistic
technique of spontaneous writing,
drawin...
Behaviourism
Behaviorism – (not to be confused with
behavioralism of political science) is an
approach to psychology based...
Capitalism
Capitalism is an economic system in which all or
most of the means of production are privately
owned and operat...
Cognitivism
In ethics, cognitivism is the philosophical view
that ethical sentences express propositions, and
hence are ca...
Collectivism
A theoretical or practical emphasis on the group,
as opposed to (and seen by many of its opponents
to be at t...
Collectivism
A theoretical or practical emphasis on the group,
as opposed to (and seen by many of its opponents
to be at t...
Communalism
Communalism describes a broad range of social
movements and theories which are centered upon
the community. Co...
Communism
A theoretical system of social organization and a
political movement based on common ownership
of the means of p...
Consequentialism
The belief that what ultimately matters
in evaluating actions or policies of
action are the consequences ...
Contextualism
Contextualism is a collection of views which
emphasize the context in which an action,
utterance or expressi...
Conventionalism
A philosophical attitude that fundamental
principles of a certain kind are grounded on
(explicit or implic...
Cynicism
Cynicism was originally the philosophy of a group
of ancient Greeks called the Cynics. Now the word
describes the...
Deconstructionism
Deconstructionism is a school and a set of methods
of textual criticism which aim at understanding the
a...
Defeatism
Defeatism is acceptance and content with defeat
without struggle. In everyday use, defeatism has
negative connot...
Determinism
Determinism is the philosophical proposition
that every event, including human cognition
and behavior, decisio...
Technological
Determinism
Technological determinism is the belief in
technology as a key governing force in
society or the...
Dogmatism
An approach to ideas that emphasizes rigid
adherence to doctrine over rational and
enlightened inquiry. The oppo...
Dualism
Dualism is a set of beliefs which begins with
the claim that the mental and the physical
have a fundamentally dier...
Egalitarianism
Egalitarianism is a political doctrine that
holds that all people should be treated as
equals and have the ...
Empiricism
In the philosophy of science, empiricism
emphasizes those aspects of scientific
knowledge that are closely relat...
Environmentalism
Environmental philosophy articulates a
concern and privileges beliefs in the intrinsic
value of the natur...
Existentialism
Existentialism is the philosophical movement
that views human existence as having a set of
underlying theme...
Expressionism
Expressionism is an aesthetic and artistic
movement that distorted reality for enhanced
or overexaggerated e...
Extropianism
Extropianism is an evolving framework of
values and standards for continuously
improving the human condition....
Fallibilism
A doctrine that absolute certainty about knowledge
is impossible; or at least that all claims to
knowledge cou...
Fatalism
Fatalism is the view that human deliberation and
actions are pointless and ineectual in determining
events, becau...
Feminism
Feminism is the belief in the right of women
to have political, social, and economic
equality with men. It is a d...
Formalism
In the study of the arts and literature, formalism
refers to the style of criticism that focuses on artistic
or ...
Freudianism
Freudianism is the beliefs and practice of
psychoanalysis as devised by Sigmund
Freud; particularly, the mecha...
Functionalism
Functionalism is the dominant theory of
mental states in modern philosophy.
Functionalism was developed as a...
Hedonism
Hedonism an ethical or aesthetic view which
holds pleasure as the highest good or most
valuable thing. Hedonism i...
Hegelianism
Hegelianism is a philosophy developed by
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel which can be
summed up by a favorite mo...
Humanism
Humanism is a range of ethical views which
consider common human nature to be the
source of values.
Posthumanism ...
Idealism
Idealism is an approach to philosophical
enquiry. The ideal, in these systems, relates
to direct knowledge of sub...
Intellectualism
Intellectualism is a doctrine about the
possibility of deriving knowledge from
reason alone, intellectuali...
Liberalism
Liberalism, in politics, is a position which
favors liberty as a political value. Liberalism
has taken many mea...
Liberarianism
Libertarianism is a term used by a spectrum
of political philosophies which seek to
promote individual liber...
Materialism
Materialism is the philosophical view that
the only thing that can truly be said to 'exist'
is matter; that fu...
Naturalism
Any of several philosophical stances, typically
those descended from materialism and
pragmatism, that do not di...
Humanisitic Naturalism
Humanistic naturalism is the belief that human
beings, as well as plants and animals, are
divine an...
Nihilism
Nihilism is a philosophical view that the world,
and especially human existence, is without
meaning, purpose, com...
Pacifism
Pacifism, in ethics or politics, is an
opposition to war or violence. Can range
from advocacy of peaceful solutions...
Pessimism
It describes a general belief that things are bad,
and tend to become worse; or that looks to the
eventual trium...
Phenomenalism
Phenomenalism, in epistemology and the
philosophy of perception, phenomenalism
is the view that physical obj...
Positivism
Positivism is the philosophical position
that the only authentic knowledge is
scientific knowledge. It is an app...
Postmodernism
Philosophical movement characterized by the
postmodern criticism and analysis of Western
philosophy. Beginni...
Relativism
Relativism – the view that the meaning and value of
human beliefs and behaviors have no absolute
reference. Rel...
Reductionism
Reductionism is a number of related,
contentious theories that hold, very roughly,
that the nature of complex...
Sensualism
Sensualism is a philosophical theory in which
sensations and perception are the basic and
most important form o...
Singularitarianism
Singularitarianism is a a moral philosophy based
upon the belief that a technological singularity -
the...
Socialism
Socialism is an ideology with the core belief that a
society should exist in which popular collectives
control t...
Symbolism
Symbolism is applied use of any iconic
representations which carry particular
conventional meanings. quot;Symbol...
Syncretism
Syncretism is the attempt to reconcile
disparate, even opposing, beliefs and to meld
practices of various schoo...
Teleology
The supposition that there is design, purpose,
directive principle, or finality in the works and
processes of nat...
Totalitarianism
A typology employed by political scientists to
describe modern regimes in which the state
regulates nearly...
Transcendentalism
Transcendentalism is a group of new ideas
in literature, religion, culture, and
philosophy that advocate...
Utilitarianism
Utilitarianism is theory of ethics based on
quantitative maximization of total welfare for
a population. It...
Utopianism
Utopianism is the many various social and
political movements, and a significant
body of religious and secular l...
Value Pluralism
Value pluralism is the idea that two or more
moral values may be equally ultimate (true),
yet in conflict. ...
Vitalist
Vitalism is the doctrine that quot;vital forcesquot; are
active in living organisms, so that life cannot
be expla...
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Transcript of ""Isms" of Philosophy"

  1. 1. Computers, Culture, and Philosophy “isms”of Philosophy
  2. 2. Justification We’ve had an interesting array of readings and articles about the history of computing and I can see by your research proposals that you might benefit by getting to know some of the philosophic lenses through which you can observe your topics. Here are some possible contributions from the discipline of Philosophy that you might be able to use in your work.
  3. 3. Philosophy Being... The study of general problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, truth, beauty, justice, validity, mind, and language.
  4. 4. Philosophy Philosophy is distinguished from other ways of addressing these questions (such as mysticism or mythology) by its critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on reasoned argument.
  5. 5. Philosophy The word philosophy is of Ancient Greek origin: φιλοσοφία (philosophía), meaning quot;love of wisdom.
  6. 6. Absolutism The position that in a particular domain of thought, all statements in that domain are either absolutely true or absolutely false: none is true for some cultures or eras while false for other cultures or eras. These statements are called absolute truths. A common reaction by those who newly criticize absolutism is the absolute truth statement: Absolute truths do not exist.
  7. 7. Accidentalism Any system of thought which denies the causal nexus and maintains that events succeed one another haphazardly or by chance (not in the mathematical but in the popular sense). In metaphysics, accidentalism denies the doctrine that everything occurs or results from a definite cause. In this connection it is synonymous with Tychism (ruxi, chance), a term used by Charles Sanders Peirce for the theories which make chance an objective factor in the process of the Universe.
  8. 8. Aestheticism Proponents of aestheticism hold that art does not have any didactic purpose, it need only be beautiful. Life should copy Art. The main characteristics of the movement are: suggestion rather than statement, sensuality, massive use of symbols, and synaesthetic eects - that is, correspondence between words, colors and music.
  9. 9. Altruism The belief that people have a moral obligation to serve others or the quot;greater goodquot;; term coined by Auguste Comte. Generally opposed to self-interest or egoism.
  10. 10. Anarchism In politics, any of a number of views and movements that advocate the elimination of rulership or government. Other than being opposed to the state, there is no single defining position that all anarchists hold.
  11. 11. Animism quot;Animismquot; is most commonly applied to vitalism, which makes life, or life and mind, the directive principle in evolution and growth, holding that life is not merely mechanical but that there is a directive force which guides energy without altering its amount. In discussions of religion, quot;animismquot; refers to the belief in in dwelling souls or spirits, particularly so-called quot;primitivequot; religions which consider everything to be inhabited by spirits.
  12. 12. Animism quot;Animismquot; is most commonly applied to vitalism, which makes life, or life and mind, the directive principle in evolution and growth, holding that life is not merely mechanical but that there is a directive force which guides energy without altering its amount. In discussions of religion, quot;animismquot; refers to the belief in in dwelling souls or spirits, particularly so-called quot;primitivequot; religions which consider everything to be inhabited by spirits.
  13. 13. Anthropomorphism A form of personification (applying human or animal qualities to inanimate objects) and the attribution of human characteristics and qualities to non-human beings, objects, or natural phenomena. Animals, forces of nature, and unseen or unknown authors of chance are frequent subjects of anthropomorphosis. An example is the attribution of a human body or of human qualities generally to God (or the gods).
  14. 14. Asceticism Denotes a life which is characterised by refraining from worldly pleasures (austerity). Those who practice ascetic lifestyles often perceive their practices as virtuous and pursue them to achieve greater spirituality. In a more cynical context, ascetic may connote some form of self-mortification, ritual punishment of the body or harsh renunciation of pleasure. However the word certainly does not necessarily imply a negative connotation.
  15. 15. Atomism The theory that all the objects in the universe are composed of very small, indestructible elements. Buddhists have well-developed theories of atomism which involve momentary, or non- eternal, atoms, that flash in and out of existence. Social Atomism – the point-of-view that individuals rather than social institutions and values are the proper subject of analysis since all properties of institutions and values merely accumulate from the strivings of individuals.
  16. 16. Atomatism Automatism or Surrealist automatism, to be more specific, is an artistic technique of spontaneous writing, drawing, or the like practiced without conscious aesthetic or moral self- censorship.
  17. 17. Behaviourism Behaviorism – (not to be confused with behavioralism of political science) is an approach to psychology based on the proposition that behavior can be researched scientifically without recourse to inner mental states. It is a form of materialism, denying any independent significance for the mind. Its significance for psychological treatment has been profound, making it one of the pillars of pharmacological therapy.
  18. 18. Capitalism Capitalism is an economic system in which all or most of the means of production are privately owned and operated (usually through employing wage labour, and for profit), and in which the investment of capital and the production, distribution and prices of commodities and services are determined mainly in a free market. Capitalism has also been called laissez-faire economy, free market economy, free enterprise system, economic liberalism, and economic individualism.
  19. 19. Cognitivism In ethics, cognitivism is the philosophical view that ethical sentences express propositions, and hence are capable of being true or false. More generally, cognitivism with respect to any area of discourse is the position that sentences used in that discourse are cognitive, that is, are meaningful and capable of being true or false. In psychology, cognitivism is the approach to understanding the mind which argues that mental function can be understood as the 'internal' rule bound manipulation of symbols.
  20. 20. Collectivism A theoretical or practical emphasis on the group, as opposed to (and seen by many of its opponents to be at the expense of) the individual. Collectivists typically hold that that the quot;greater goodquot; of the group, is more important than the good of any particular individual who is one part of that larger organization. Some collectivists argue that the individual incidentally serves his own interests by working for the benefit of the group.
  21. 21. Collectivism A theoretical or practical emphasis on the group, as opposed to (and seen by many of its opponents to be at the expense of) the individual. Collectivists typically hold that that the quot;greater goodquot; of the group, is more important than the good of any particular individual who is one part of that larger organization. Some collectivists argue that the individual incidentally serves his own interests by working for the benefit of the group.
  22. 22. Communalism Communalism describes a broad range of social movements and theories which are centered upon the community. Communalism can take the form of communal living or communal property, among others. Communalism is sometimes said to put the interests of the community above the interests of the individual, but this is usually only done on the principle that the community exists for the benefit of the individuals who participate in it, so the best way to serve the interests of the individual is through the interests of the community.
  23. 23. Communism A theoretical system of social organization and a political movement based on common ownership of the means of production. As a political movement, communism seeks to establish a classless society. A major force in world politics since the early 20th century, modern communism is generally associated with The Communist Manifesto of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, according to which the capitalist profit-based system of private ownership is replaced by a communist society in which the means of production are communally owned.
  24. 24. Consequentialism The belief that what ultimately matters in evaluating actions or policies of action are the consequences that result from choosing one action or policy rather than the alternative.
  25. 25. Contextualism Contextualism is a collection of views which emphasize the context in which an action, utterance or expression occurs, and argues that, in some important respect, the action, utterance or expression can only be understood within that context. Some philosophers hold that context-dependence may lead to relativism; nevertheless, contextualist views are increasingly popular within philosophy.
  26. 26. Conventionalism A philosophical attitude that fundamental principles of a certain kind are grounded on (explicit or implicit) agreements in society, rather than on external reality. Although this attitude is commonly held with respect to the rules of grammar and the principles of etiquette, its application to the propositions of law, ethics, science, mathematics, and logic is more controversial.
  27. 27. Cynicism Cynicism was originally the philosophy of a group of ancient Greeks called the Cynics. Now the word describes the opinions of those inclined to disbelieve in human sincerity, in virtue, or in altruism: individuals who maintain that only self- interest motivates human behavior. A modern cynic typically has a highly contemptuous attitude towards social norms, especially those which serve more of a ritualistic purpose than a practical one, and will tend to dismiss a substantial proportion of popular beliefs, conventional morality and accepted wisdom as irrelevant or obsolete nonsense.
  28. 28. Deconstructionism Deconstructionism is a school and a set of methods of textual criticism which aim at understanding the assumptions and ideas that form the basis for thought and belief. Also called quot;deconstructionquot;, its central concern is a radical critique of the metaphysics of the Western philosophical tradition, in which it identifies a logicentrism or quot;metaphysics of presencequot; which holds that speech-thought (the logos) is a privileged, ideal, and self-present entity, through which all discourse and meaning are derived. This logocentrism is the primary target of deconstruction.
  29. 29. Defeatism Defeatism is acceptance and content with defeat without struggle. In everyday use, defeatism has negative connotation, and is often linked to treason and pessimism. The term is commonly used in the context of war: a soldier can be a defeatist if he or she refuses to fight because he or she thinks that the fight will be lost for sure or that it is not worth fighting for some other reason. The term can also be used in other fields, like politics, sports, psychology and philosophy.
  30. 30. Determinism Determinism is the philosophical proposition that every event, including human cognition and behavior, decision and action, is causally determined by an unbroken chain of prior occurrences.
  31. 31. Technological Determinism Technological determinism is the belief in technology as a key governing force in society or the idea that technological development determines social change. A determinist view holds that the uses made of technology are largely determined by the structure of the technology itself, that is, that its functions follow from its form.
  32. 32. Dogmatism An approach to ideas that emphasizes rigid adherence to doctrine over rational and enlightened inquiry. The opposite approach is probably best characterized as rationalism (in the sense of devotion to clear reasoning and independent thinking) or, perhaps, eclecticism.
  33. 33. Dualism Dualism is a set of beliefs which begins with the claim that the mental and the physical have a fundamentally dierent nature. It is contrasted with varying kinds of monism, including materialism and phenomenalism. Dualism is one answer to the mind-body problem. Pluralism holds that there are even more kinds of events or things in the world.
  34. 34. Egalitarianism Egalitarianism is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals and have the same political, economic, social, and civil rights. Generally it applies to being held equal under the law and society at large. In actual practice, one may be considered an egalitarian in most areas listed below, even if not subscribing to equality in every possible area of individual dierence.
  35. 35. Empiricism In the philosophy of science, empiricism emphasizes those aspects of scientific knowledge that are closely related to evidence, especially as discovered in experiments. It is a fundamental part of the scientific method that all hypotheses and theories must be tested against observations of the natural world, rather than resting solely on intuition, or revelation. Hence, science is considered to be methodologically empirical in nature.
  36. 36. Environmentalism Environmental philosophy articulates a concern and privileges beliefs in the intrinsic value of the natural world. Proponents of this philosophy include Rachel Carson, Al Gore, and David Suzuki. Earlier, these values were espoused by Aldo Leopard, who pictured humans as belonging to, rather than owning the biotic community and Arne Naess, who advocated forms of identification with the non-human world and ecofeminism.
  37. 37. Existentialism Existentialism is the philosophical movement that views human existence as having a set of underlying themes and characteristics, such as anxiety, dread, freedom, awareness of death, and consciousness of existing, that are primary. That is, they cannot be reduced to or explained by a natural-scientific approach or any approach that attempts to detach itself from or rise above these themes.
  38. 38. Expressionism Expressionism is an aesthetic and artistic movement that distorted reality for enhanced or overexaggerated emotional eect. It can also apply to some literature; the works of Franz Kafka and Georg Kaiser are often said to be expressionistic, for example.
  39. 39. Extropianism Extropianism is an evolving framework of values and standards for continuously improving the human condition. Extropianism describes a pragmatic consilience of transhuman thought guided by a conscious, pro-active, self-directed approach to human evolution and progress. Extropians were once concisely described as libertarian transhumanists, and some still hold to this standard.
  40. 40. Fallibilism A doctrine that absolute certainty about knowledge is impossible; or at least that all claims to knowledge could, in principle, be mistaken. Unlike scepticism, fallibilism does not imply the need to abandon our knowledge- we needn't have logically conclusive justifications for what we know. Rather, it is an admission that because empirical knowledge can be revised by further observation, all knowledge, excepting that which is axiomatically true (such as mathematical and logical knowledge) exists in a constant state of flux.
  41. 41. Fatalism Fatalism is the view that human deliberation and actions are pointless and ineectual in determining events, because whatever will be will be. One ancient argument, called the idle argument, went like this: quot;If it is fated for you to recover from your illness, then you will recover whether you call a doctor or not. Likewise, if you are fated not to recover, you will not do so even if you call a doctor. So, calling a doctor makes no dierence.quot; Arguments like this are usually rejected even by causal determinists, who may say that it may be determined that only a doctor can cure you.
  42. 42. Feminism Feminism is the belief in the right of women to have political, social, and economic equality with men. It is a discourse that involves various movements, theories, and philosophies which are concerned with the issue of gender dierence, advocate equality for women, and campaign for women's rights and interests.
  43. 43. Formalism In the study of the arts and literature, formalism refers to the style of criticism that focuses on artistic or literary techniques in themselves, in separation from the work's social and historical context. In the study of film and film theory, formalism is used to refer to a style of criticism that focuses on the technical aspects of filmmaking (e.g., lighting, sets, costumes, etc.). It was also used to describe an avant-garde experimental film movement, often seen as odd or extremist, which was concerned with the beauty of the actual physical form of film (i.e., the celluloid itself).
  44. 44. Freudianism Freudianism is the beliefs and practice of psychoanalysis as devised by Sigmund Freud; particularly, the mechanism of psychological repression; the situation of sexual desire as central to the development of the persona; and the eficacy of the quot;talking curequot; or psychoanalytic technique.
  45. 45. Functionalism Functionalism is the dominant theory of mental states in modern philosophy. Functionalism was developed as an answer to the mind-body problem because of objections to both identity theory and logical behaviourism. Its core idea is that the mental states can be accounted for without taking into account the underlying physical medium (the neurons), instead attending to higher-level functions such as beliefs, desires, and emotions.
  46. 46. Hedonism Hedonism an ethical or aesthetic view which holds pleasure as the highest good or most valuable thing. Hedonism is usually associated with a more physical, egoistic, unrefined, or sexual definition of quot;pleasurequot; than than that found in the related utilitarianism.
  47. 47. Hegelianism Hegelianism is a philosophy developed by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel which can be summed up by a favorite motto by Hegel quot;The rational alone is realquot;. Which means that all reality is capable of being expressed in rational categories. His goal was to reduce to a more synthetic unity the system of transcendental idealism.
  48. 48. Humanism Humanism is a range of ethical views which consider common human nature to be the source of values. Posthumanism is a development of humanism which rejects a special position in nature for humanity. Transhumanism is an emergent philosophy analysing or favouring the use of science and technology, especially neurotechnology, biotechnology, and nanotechnology, to overcome human limitations and improve the human condition.
  49. 49. Idealism Idealism is an approach to philosophical enquiry. The ideal, in these systems, relates to direct knowledge of subjective mental ideas, or images. It is usually juxtaposed with realism in which the real is said to have absolute existence prior to and independent of our knowledge.
  50. 50. Intellectualism Intellectualism is a doctrine about the possibility of deriving knowledge from reason alone, intellectualism can stand for a general approach emphasising the importance of learning and logical thinking. Criticism of this attitude, sometimes summed up as Left Bank, caricatures intellectualism's faith in the mind and puts it in opposition to emotion, instinct, and primitivist values in general.
  51. 51. Liberalism Liberalism, in politics, is a position which favors liberty as a political value. Liberalism has taken many meanings throughout history, but commonalities include a focus on individual liberty, democratic republicanism (liberal democracy), and equality under the law.
  52. 52. Liberarianism Libertarianism is a term used by a spectrum of political philosophies which seek to promote individual liberty and seek to minimize or even abolish the state. Since the late 19th century the term often has been used as a synonym for anarchism.The word libertarian is an antonym of authoritarian.
  53. 53. Materialism Materialism is the philosophical view that the only thing that can truly be said to 'exist' is matter; that fundamentally, all things are composed of 'material' and all phenomena are the result of material interactions.
  54. 54. Naturalism Any of several philosophical stances, typically those descended from materialism and pragmatism, that do not distinguish the supernatural from nature. Naturalism does not necessarily claim that phenomena or hypotheses commonly labeled as supernatural do not exist or are wrong, but insists that all phenomena and hypotheses can be studied by the same methods and therefore anything considered supernatural is either nonexistent, unknowable, or not inherently dierent from natural phenomena or hypotheses.
  55. 55. Humanisitic Naturalism Humanistic naturalism is the belief that human beings, as well as plants and animals, are divine and intricate extensions of nature. Followers share a mutual respect for things created directly by nature, even though life must feed upon life for continuance. While most believers are able to adapt to modern change, naturalists prefer the a fair exchange of resources, as was in the case of former agricultural and hunter-gatherer societies. Industry and technology are in exact opposition to naturalism.
  56. 56. Nihilism Nihilism is a philosophical view that the world, and especially human existence, is without meaning, purpose, comprehensible truth, or essential value. It is more often a charge leveled against a particular idea than a position to which someone is overtly subscribed. Movements such as Dada, Deconstructionism, and punk have been described by various observers as quot;nihilistquot;.
  57. 57. Pacifism Pacifism, in ethics or politics, is an opposition to war or violence. Can range from advocacy of peaceful solutions to problems, to a stance where all violence or force is considered morally wrong.
  58. 58. Pessimism It describes a general belief that things are bad, and tend to become worse; or that looks to the eventual triumph of evil over good; it contrasts with optimism, the contrary belief in the goodness and betterment of things generally. A common conundrum illustrates optimism versus pessimism with the question - does one regard a given glass of water as: quot;Is the glass half empty or half full?quot;
  59. 59. Phenomenalism Phenomenalism, in epistemology and the philosophy of perception, phenomenalism is the view that physical objects do not exist as things in themselves but only as perceptual phenomena or sensory stimuli (e.g. redness, hardness, softness, sweetness, etc.) situated in time and in space.
  60. 60. Positivism Positivism is the philosophical position that the only authentic knowledge is scientific knowledge. It is an approach to the philosophy of science, deriving from Enlightenment thinkers.
  61. 61. Postmodernism Philosophical movement characterized by the postmodern criticism and analysis of Western philosophy. Beginning as a critique of Continental philosophy, it was heavily influenced by phenomenology, structuralism and existentialism.Within postmodern philosophy, there are numerous interrelated fields, including deconstruction and several fields beginning with the prefix quot;post-quot;, such as post-structuralism, post-Marxism, and post-feminism. In particular postmodern philosophy has spawned a huge literature of critical theory.
  62. 62. Relativism Relativism – the view that the meaning and value of human beliefs and behaviors have no absolute reference. Relativists claim that humans understand and evaluate beliefs and behaviors only in terms of, for example, their historical and cultural context. Philosophers identify many dierent kinds of relativism depending upon what allegedly depends on something and what something depends on ie moral, linguistic, and methodological relativism
  63. 63. Reductionism Reductionism is a number of related, contentious theories that hold, very roughly, that the nature of complex things can always be reduced to (be explained by) simpler or more fundamental things. This is said of objects, phenomena, explanations, theories, and meanings. In short, it is philosophical materialism taken to its logical consequences.
  64. 64. Sensualism Sensualism is a philosophical theory in which sensations and perception are the basic and most important form of true cognition. This opposes realism. The base principle of sensualism is quot;there is not anything in mind, which hasn't been in feelingsquot;. Philosophers of sensualism include John Locke.
  65. 65. Singularitarianism Singularitarianism is a a moral philosophy based upon the belief that a technological singularity - the technological creation of smarter-than- human intelligence - is possible, advocating deliberate action to eect and ensure its safety. While some futurologists and transhumanists speculate on the possibility and nature of this supposed singularity a Singularitarian believes it is not only possible, but that it can also be guided, and acts in ways that he/she believes will contribute to its safety and early arrival.
  66. 66. Socialism Socialism is an ideology with the core belief that a society should exist in which popular collectives control the means of power, and therefore the means of production. Though the de facto meaning of socialism has changed over time, it remains strongly related to the establishment of an organized working class; created through either revolution or by social evolution, with the purpose of building a classless society.
  67. 67. Symbolism Symbolism is applied use of any iconic representations which carry particular conventional meanings. quot;Symbolismquot; may refer to a way of choosing representative symbols abstractly rather than literally, allowing broader interpretation of their meaning than more literal concept- representations allow.
  68. 68. Syncretism Syncretism is the attempt to reconcile disparate, even opposing, beliefs and to meld practices of various schools of thought. It is especially associated with the attempt to merge and analogize several originally discrete traditions, especially in the theology and mythology of religion, and thus assert an underlying unity.
  69. 69. Teleology The supposition that there is design, purpose, directive principle, or finality in the works and processes of nature, and the philosophical study of that purpose. Teleology stands in contrast to philosophical naturalism, and both ask questions separate from the questions of science. While science investigates natural laws and phenomena, Philosophical naturalism and teleology investigate the existence or non- existence of an organizing principle behind those natural laws and phenonema. Philosophical naturalism asserts that there are no such principles. Teleology asserts that there are.
  70. 70. Totalitarianism A typology employed by political scientists to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. Totalitarian regimes mobilize entire populations in support of the state and a political ideology, and do not tolerate activities by individuals or groups such as labor unions, churches and political parties that are not directed toward the state's goals. They maintain themselves in power by means of secret police, propaganda and and widespread use of terror tactics.
  71. 71. Transcendentalism Transcendentalism is a group of new ideas in literature, religion, culture, and philosophy that advocates that there is an ideal spiritual state that 'transcends' the physical and empirical and is only realized through a knowledgeable intuitive awareness that is conditional upon the individual.
  72. 72. Utilitarianism Utilitarianism is theory of ethics based on quantitative maximization of total welfare for a population. It is a form of consequentialism. Utilitarianism is sometimes incorrectly summarized as quot;The greatest happiness for the greatest number.quot; As the distribution of happiness is irrelevant to utilitarian calculations, the greatest number component of this common phrase is misleading. An accurate summary would be, quot;One ought act so that the consequences of one's act will produce the greatest possible total welfare across all members of the population.quot;
  73. 73. Utopianism Utopianism is the many various social and political movements, and a significant body of religious and secular literature, based upon the idea of paradise on earth.
  74. 74. Value Pluralism Value pluralism is the idea that two or more moral values may be equally ultimate (true), yet in conflict. In addition, it postulates that in many cases, such incompatible values, may be rationally incommensurable. As such, value-pluralism is a theory in metaethics, rather than an ethical theory or a set of values in itself.
  75. 75. Vitalist Vitalism is the doctrine that quot;vital forcesquot; are active in living organisms, so that life cannot be explained solely by mechanism. That element is often referred to as the quot;vital sparkquot; or quot;energyquot; which some equate with the quot;soulquot;.
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