09 berners lee


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09 berners lee

  1. 1. “ The World Wide Web .” Sir Tim Berners-Lee TED Talk – Referencing The New Media Reader, Wardrip-Fruin & Montfort
  2. 2. Original Publication of this Work: Communications of the ACM August 1994. Table of Contents of this issue Early Adopters of the Web. The Well/Howard Rheingold Investigation of the Starr Report Pixel Pushers Exhibition, July – September 1994
  3. 3. Tim Berners-Lee Quotes <ul><li>Anyone who has lost track of time when using a computer knows the propensity to dream, the urge to make dreams come true and the tendency to miss lunch. </li></ul><ul><li>The Semantic Web is not a separate Web but an extension of the current one, in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation. The Web as I envisaged it, we have not seen it yet. The future is still so much bigger than the past. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Berners-Lee, Context and Backstory <ul><li>Technologies such as Berners-Lee’s do not have to be the best ones – just good enough ie inferior to Ted Nelson’s Xanadu. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1991 the ACM (Association for Computing Machinery) Hypertext conference rejected Berners-Lee’s paper announcing the birth of the web, reducing it to a poster session. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1994, Berners-Lee founded the W3C at MIT, mading his idea available freely, with no patent and no royalties due. The World Wide Web Consortium decided that its standards should be based on royalty-free technology, so that they could easily be adopted by anyone </li></ul><ul><li>In 1994 when www was adopted, competition was Gopher and WAIS. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Berners-Lee, Context and Backstory <ul><li>Berners-Lee is the director of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), which oversees the Web's continued development. </li></ul><ul><li>He is also the founder of the World Wide Web Foundation , and is a senior researcher and holder of the 3Com Founders Chair at the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL). </li></ul><ul><li>He is a director of The Web Science Research Initiative (WSRI), and a member of the advisory board of the MIT Center for Collective Intelligence . </li></ul><ul><li>(From Wikipedia) </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Article, “The World Wide Web” (1994) <ul><li>Article coincided with NCSA Mosaic browser. </li></ul><ul><li>The Web-Wide Web (W3) developed to be a pool of human knowledge, allowing collaborators in remote sites to share their ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Worked at CERN (The European Particle Physics Laboratory in Switzerland) where he built a “home-brew” personal hypertext system for keeping track of personal information on a distributed project. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Article, “The World Wide Web” (1994) <ul><li>Clicking the mouse on a blue highlighted area (anchor) causes the client program to retrieve another object from another computer, a “server.” </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieved object is in hypertext format. </li></ul><ul><li>Whatever type of server the interface is the same. </li></ul><ul><li>Links can point to anything that can be displayed, including search result lists </li></ul><ul><li>Extendable system all new formats for multimedia data. </li></ul>
  8. 8. W3 Defines <ul><li>Idea of boundless information world where all items have a reference for retrieval. </li></ul><ul><li>Address system “URI” Uniform Resource Identifier </li></ul><ul><li>HTTP network protocol </li></ul><ul><li>HTML markup language </li></ul><ul><li>The body of data available on the Internet. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Article, “The World Wide Web” (1994) <ul><li>Had to rewrite article – between 1993 and 1994, number of http servers grew from 62 to 829. (In 2010, servers were responsible for 2.5% of energy consumption in the USA. </li></ul><ul><li>1994, see chart, Internet traffic total/month 10 terabytes </li></ul><ul><li>In 2004, the global monthly Internet traffic passed 1 exabyte. </li></ul><ul><li>1 EB = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 B = 10 18 bytes = 1 billion gigabytes = 1 million terabytes </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Future as he saw it <ul><li>Hypertext editors allowing nonexpert users to make link and organize published material. </li></ul><ul><li>Integration with concurrent editors and other real-time features such as teleconferencing and virtual reality. </li></ul><ul><li>Easy-to-use servers for low-end machines </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution from human-readable documents to machine-oriented semantic information. </li></ul>
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