Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Special education in an era of inclusion and
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Special education in an era of inclusion and


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. Special Education in an Era of Inclusion and Standards
    Amanda Hewitt
  • 2. Critical Legislation and Federal Initiative
    Legislation passes to better Special Education
    No Child Left Behind
    Individuals with Disabilities Education Act {IDEA}
    Education for All Handicapped Children Act {PL-94-142}
    Section 504
    Americans with Disabilities Act
  • 3. No Child Left Behind
    The reauthorization of Elementary and Secondary Education Act {ESEA}
    NCLB brought these provisions
    State standardized tests in reading and math
    Annual testing in grades 3-8
    Annual statewide progress objectives that all students must meet by 2013
    Annual Yearly Progress {AYP} evaluation of school district and individual schools
    All students with disabilities must now meet a challenging set of standards and participate in the testing process.
  • 4. NCLB cont.
    Parents and Student Choices under NCLB
    There are funds available to allow parents to:
    Move their children attending “failing” schools to attend “better” schools within the district and/or
    Obtain supplemental educational services from a public/private sector
    Greater Flexibility to state, school districts, and schools
    Unprecedented flexibility in the use of federal education funds
    Puts Reading First
    Goal and funding to ensure that all students can read by the end of 3rd grade
    Highly Qualifies Teachers
    Stresses the need to have “highly qualified” teachers in schools.
  • 5. For or Against NCLB
    Those who favor say:
    Those who oppose say:
    By including Special Education students, we are getting a true picture of the schools accountability
    Also, parents, students, and teachers will have higher expectations knowing they have to do well then resulting in higher achievement.
    The same standard approach can conflict with the individualized needs of students as set by their IEP’s
    Students will encounter significant amounts of failure in trying to meet the state identified standards and participate in the high stake testing, resulting in a host of negative outcomes.
    Students who weren’t performing well before, are now expected to perform at an even higher level.
    How do you feel about this topic?
  • 6. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act {IDEA}
    This is the latest revision on PL-940142. With this revision, a difference between IDEA and NCLB can be seen.
    IDEA put major emphasis on access to the general education curriculum for everyone.
    There are 6 major components of IDEA to follow:
  • 7. Components of IDEA
    Free, Appropriate Public Education {FAPE}
    School districts must provide Special Education and related services to meet the needs of individual students.
    If a school programs is unable to meet the needs of any students, other agencies must provide the necessary service at public expense.
    Schools must allow furnished transportation and related services when deemed necessary to ensure an appropriate education.
  • 8. Components of IDEA cont.
    Appropriate Evaluation
    In order to receive Special Education and related services for the 1st time, a full and individualized initial evaluation must be conducted.
    There must be parental consent, an evaluation team, the use of more than one procedure, testing in the students native language, and reevaluations conducted when necessary when determining eligibility.
    This law states a parent must be part of the team determining eligibility.
    It also states students with disabilities be included in general and district wide assessments.
  • 9. Components of IDEA cont.
    Individualized Education Program {IEP}
    A written document summarizing a student’s learning program and is required for every student who qualifies for services.
    Major purposes:
    Establish learning goals
    To determine the services the school dostroct must provide to meet those learning goes
    And to enhance communication among parents and other professionals about the student’s program.
  • 10. Components of IDEA cont.
    Least Restrictive Environment
    Schools must educate children with disabilities, in a general education classroom with peers who are not disabled.
    Provides children with disabilities the chance of attending a classroom with the most inclusion.
  • 11. Components of IDEA cont.
    Parent and Student Participation in Decision Making
    Parental consent must be documented for every decision involving a child with a disability.
    Parents have the right to challenge or appeal any decision related to the Special Education process.
  • 12. Components of IDEA cont.
    Procedural Safeguards
    These safeauards protect the rights of both parents and their children.
    Parents have the right to educational records, to obtain an IEE, the right to request a due process hearing, the right to appeal decisions, and the right to initiate civil action when appealing a final hearing decision.
  • 13. Education for All Handicapped Children Act {EHA} PL-84-142
    This is the initial IDEA law. It was reauthorized three times before becoming IDEA in 2004.
    Originally, it was funding to the states to assist in the development, expansion, and improvement to Special Education programs.
    It was meant to provide an appropriate education to students who had not in the past. It also ensured the rights of all
    children with disabilities.
  • 14. Section 504
    Helps kids who are not qualified for IDEA, but still need some accommodations.
    Any student who has a
    mental or physical
    impairment that
    substantially limits one or
    more major life activities
    can be qualified.
  • 15. Americans with Disabilities Act {ADA}
    1990 legislation that’s critical because it represents civil rights for individuals who are disabled.
    This law establishes guidelines for employment, public accommodations, transportation, state and local governmental operations, and telecommunication systems.
  • 16. Key Elements in Schools
    In today’s schools
  • 17. Standard Based Education
    Standard based means that what is taught must be tied to the state-derived content and performance standards that now exist in almost all states in the core subject areas of language arts, math, social studies, and science.
    The objective of standards is to have a common sets of goals and milestones.
  • 18. Standard based Education
    Key features of Standards
    Content Standard: knowledge, skills, and undetermined standing that students should attain in academic subjects.
    Performance Standard: levels of achievement that students must meet to demonstrate their proficiency in subjects.
    Standard: a general statement of what a student should know and be able to do in academic subjects.
    Benchmark: a specific statement of what a student should be able to do
    Indicator: a statement of knowledge or skills that a student has demonstrated in order to meet a benchmark.
  • 19. Inclusion
    Inclusion is giving children with disabilities the opportunity to have a place in the world and belong.
    It does not refer to a physical space, but a condition or state of being.
    Inclusion gives a sense of belonging and acceptance.
  • 20. What is Inclusion?From online video
    What it is..
    What it’s not..
    An attitude, a right, a sense of belonging.
    Accepting of individual differences, and responding to their needs.
    Permission to be yourself, with positive interactions with peers.
    Opprotunities and rewards for students with and without disabilities.
    More than being physically placed with others.
    A program
    A favor
    A trial period
    A placed amount of time with others.
  • 21. Universal Design for Learning {UDL}
    UDL is the development of educational curricula and materials that include potent supports for access and learning from the start, rendering them effective for a far wider range of students than traditional materials.
    Main attractions:
    It doesn’t draw attention to any one individual.
    It’s proactive instead of reactive.
    Increases usability for everyone.
    Capitalizes on new technologies and resources.
  • 22. UDL cont.
    A curriculum that has UDL features
    Goals provide an appropriate challenge for all students
    Materials have a flexible format, supporting transformation between media and multiple representation of content to support all students learning.
    Methods are flexible and diverse enough to provide appropriate learning experiences, challenges, and support for all students.
    Assessment is sufficiently flexible to provide accurate, ongoing information that helps teachers adjust instruction and maximize learning.
  • 23. UDL from Video
    UDL is meant to help everyone learn. The way in which everyone learns is as unique as their fingerprints.
    UDL is meant to be understood by everyone, flexible for all involved, and hit the three networks of learning: recognition, skill and strategy, and caring and prioritizing.
    To get rid of barriers in a classroom UDL recommends:
    Use many different ways to represent your material
    Let students use models and tell you their understandings up to their proficiency
    And get them interested any way you can and keep them interested!
  • 24. Response to Intervention {RTI}
    RTI is a tiered approach at teaching children.
    Tier One: All students participate in differential instruction delivered by a general education teacher. It is an evidence based core curriculum that meets the needs of about 85% of students.
    Tier Two: About 15% of students will go onto this level that builds upon the first. It uses strategic evidence and intervention in small groups and is still instructed by a general education teacher or part of his/her team.
    Tier Three: This is the most intense and only about 5% of students participate. It supplements the two other tiers and uses intense evidence based interventions. It is provided in very small groups and can be offered by a specialist or a Special Education teacher. Only a very small portion of these 5% in tier three will go on to Special Education.
  • 25. Differentiated Instruction
    Differentiated Instruction is closely related to UDL. It is the basic idea of individualizing instruction.
    It is defined as a process to approach teaching and learning for students with different abilities together in the same classroom.
  • 26. Evidence Based Practice
    Evidence Based Practices requires teachers to use interventions that have that they are working with the students they are using them for.
  • 27. Best Practices
    Deciding between what is best for the child and what is consistent with local policy.
    Informing parents of their legal rights
    Knowing that such information will give parents a basis for demanding more extensive services for their child
    Testifying at a due process hearing when the employer is believed to be at fault
    And instructing controversial classes.
  • 28. What I am the most excited about when thinking about becoming a future teacher is to see children with disabilities feel accepted and make friendships with their peers. What I am the most afraid about teaching Special Education is the lack of some parents concerns and love for their children when it comes to their education.